Festuca L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 73. Comments: (1) In Fl. Arct. Urss 2, F. polesica Zapal.

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37.20  Festuca L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 73.


(1) In Fl. Arct. URSS 2, F. polesica Zapal. (1904, Bull. Int. Acad. Sci. Cracovie 1904: 303) is given for Malozemelskaya Tundra. This report seems very improbable but Russians must tell whether it should be believed. Not included yet. (Elven)
Subgen. Schenodorus (Beauv.) Peterm. (1849), Deutschl. Fl. 643.

B Schenodorus Beauv. (1812), Ess. Agrost. 99.

37.20.1  Festuca pratensis Huds. (1762), Fl. Angl. 37.


2n= (1) 14+0-2B (2x). (2) 28 (4x). (3) 42 (6x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list very numerous counts, one Icelandic; Conert (1998). (2) Conert (1998). (3) Májovský et al. (1974 C Eur).


Comments: Subsp. pratensis in the Arctic.

(1) The Kola Peninsula occurrences mapped in Fl. Murm. Obl. are outside the Arctic, and this region is the only one indicated with stable occurrences in Tzvelev's draft. However, probably stable in arctic parts of N Norway (Båtsfjord). (Elven)

37.20.2  Festuca elatior L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 75.

S F. arundinacea Schreb. (1771), Spic. Fl. Lips. 57.

2n= (1) 28 (4x). (2) 42 (6x). (3) 56 (8x). (4) 70 (10x).

2nD (1) Tischler (1934 C Eur). (2) Uhríkova & Májovský (1977 C Eur). (3) ? (4) Tischler (1934 C Eur).



(1) Festuca elatior L. (1753) is now considered as the valid name for this species, with priority before F. arundinacea Schreb. (1771), see e.g. the Kent list. However, we probably don't need to consider this further as this species most probably isn't stable anywhere in the Arctic. The reports of it could also just as well refer to F. pratensis. Most probably to be omitted. (Elven)

WARNING! Will most probably be omitted as not stable in the Arctic.
Subgen. Hesperochloa Piper (1906), Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb. 10: 10.

S Subgen. Leucopoa (Griseb.) Tzvelev (1971, Bot. Zhurn. 56: 1253 [or (Griseb.) Hackel ***].

37.20.3  Festuca altaica Trin. in Ledeb. (1829), Fl. Alt. 1: 109.


T C Asia: Altai, in summa alpe Acjulacensi, 07.1826, leg. Ledebour & Meyer (LE) holotype?

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, five as arctic.



(1) Not present in arctic Baffin-Labrador. It does occur south of the arctic line in eastern North America. (Aiken)

(2) As to F. hallii. This is a prairie taxon that does not occur in Baffin-Labrador or east of the Ontario border. (Aiken)

(3) The report in Tzvelev's draft from W Alaska must be an error. The species is therefore omitted. Its data are: F. hallii (Vasey) Piper (1906), Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 10: 31; basionym: Melica hallii Vasey (1881), Could. Bot. Gaz. 6: 296. (Elven)
Subgen. Festuca
37.20.4  Festuca rubra L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 74.


2n= For the collective species. (1) 14 (2x). (2) 28 (4x). (3) 42 (6x). (4) 56 (8x). (5) 70 (10x).

2nD (1) Rodrigues (1953 SW Eur). (2) Löve & Löve (1942 Icel, not included by Löve & Löve 1975). (3) Numerous sources, see below. (4) Pólya (1948 C Eur). (5) Löve & Löve (1942 Icel, not included by Löve & Löve 1975). Se comment (5).


(1) A very complicated species or species group, as indicated for Europe by Markgraf-Dannenberg (1980, Fl. Eur. 5) who splits it into about 14 species and F. rubra s. str. into seven subspecies. All ploidy levels from di  to decaploid are reported. The main entity in the Arctic seems to be the same and hexaploid everywhere, even if it goes by different names (arctica, cryophila, mutica, richardsonii). The characters given by Markgrad-Dannenberg also mostly hold true, even if hairiness of the lemmas may vary. The main problem is the other 'races' which reach the Arctic both as natives in some areas (e.g. N Fennoscandia, Svalbard, S Greenland, S Baffin Land, perhaps Alaska) and sometimes as introductions. I propose that we mainly follow Tzvelev's draft and lump these into a collective subsp. rubra but see comments (2-4). (Elven)

(2) Tzvelev includes F. rubra subsp. arenaria (Osbeck) Aresch. (1866), Skånes Fl. 197 - basionym: F. arenaria Osbeck (1788), Utkast Fl. Hall. 8   from arctic European Russia. Described from Sweden: Halland. Documented as octoploid (2n=56) by, e.g., Kjellqvist (1964 Denmark, SW Norway) and Conert (1998). The author of the subspecies is usually given as (Osbeck) Syme, but Areschough's combination predates Syme's (1872) by six years.

All or nearly all old records of F. arenaria or F. rubra subsp. arenaria in the Arctic are referrable to F. rubra subsp. arctica. The name was uniformly applied for the arctic plants until quite recently. Subsp. arctica and subsp. arenaria have the hairy lemmas in common, but little else. As currently understood, subsp. arenaria is confined to W European sand dunes north to SW Norway and the southern Baltic, but very far from the Arctic. The taxon is most probably absent from the Arctic as defined. The material from Bolshezemelskaya Tundra, very far from the proven range, should be checked by someone familiar with the W Europan plants before acceptance. I have therefore omitted this subspecies. (Elven)

(3) Another entity, reported from Iceland (Löve & Löve 1956 etc.), is subsp. fraterculae (Rasm.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 498   basionym: F. rubra var. fraterculae Rasm. (1927), Nytt Mag. Naturv. 66: 110. I tend to see this rather as a manured bird cliff ecotype, i.e., a variety rather than a subspecies. I am not sure it occurs within the Arctic. The abundant bird cliff populations of F. rubra in arctic N Norway do not fall morphologically within this entity as described. Not included. (Elven)

(4) Should subsp. aucta (Krecz. & Bobr.) Hultén (1937), Fl. Aleut. Isl. 97   basionym: F. aucta Krecz. & Bobr. in Kom. (1934), Fl. SSSR 2: 518, 767   appear somewhere, at least in synonymy? The plants named as this subspecies in S Alaska are rather different from the European (and Linnaean) concept of F. rubra s. str. Subsp. aucta is an accepted name in Hultén (1968) and indicated by him with a question mark for East Chukotka. (Elven)

(5) The reports of other ploidy levels than 6x and 8x most probably refer to other subspecies or species than the arctic ones. The Löve counts of 4x and 10x are especially enigmatic as no Icelandic non-viviparous species confirm with these. They are also omitted from later surveys by the Löves. (Elven)

(6) About Festuca prolifera (Piper) Fernald (1933), Rhodora 35: 133   basionym: F. rubra L. subsp. prolifera Piper (1906), Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 10: 21   synonym: F. prolifera (Piper) Fernald var. lasiolepis Fernald ***. In a detailed study Aiken et al. (19**) established that this name [in Canada] has been assigned to specimens of Festuca rubra that are vegetatively proliferating. All (?) the specimens from Canada have been collected below the line being used to define Arctic. This taxon should not be recognized. (Aiken)

(7) The 'prolifera' 'entity', only recognized in Tzvelev's draft from Canada, also occurs in the European part and Greenland. The reason for Tzvelev's omission here is probably that he considers 'prolifera' as different from F. 'villoso-vivipara', interpreted as the hybrid between F. rubra s. lat. and F. vivipara s. lat. Hybridisation with the viviparous F. vivipara s. lat. is improbable whereas hybridisation with F. ovina and subsequent vivipary is not.

In Canada and NW Europe, 'prolifera' is now not accepted as a taxon any more but rather as occasional sprouting F. rubra (in Canada), as hybrids between two ploidy levels of F. rubra, or as single cases of hybridization between F. ovina and F. rubra (in NW Europe). I have seen it a few times in the field in Norway, but only as small populations more or less accidentally appearing here and there and without any consistency in its 'range'. As its origin probably is highly polyphyletic, sometimes involving one ploidy level in F. rubra, sometimes two, and at least sometimes F. ovina, it is very difficult to see it as a taxon. It could be treated as a forma and reduced to a comment.

It is reported with all ploidy levels from 6x to 10x: 6x   Knaben & Engelskjøn (1967 N Norw, but see also F. villoso-vivipara); 7x   Flovik (1938 Sb?), Löve & Löve (1956b Icel), Hedberg (1967 where?), Zhukova et al. (1973 Russ), Frederiksen (1974 where?); Salvesen in Engelskjøn (1979 Norw); 8x   ?; 9x   Holmen (1964 Ala!), Kjellqvist in Löve & Löve (1966b), Zhukova & Petrovsky (1972 Russ); Salvesen in Engelskjøn (1979 Norw); 10x   ? (Elven)  Festuca rubra L. subsp. rubra

S F. diffusa auct., non Dum. (1824).

2n= (1) 42 (6x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, a few as arctic; Conert (1998) also gives this number as the only one for this taxon. See, however, Markgraf-Dannenberg (1980).



(1) We need to look into each separate region and see whether we have plants not fitting subsp. arctica and if they are natives or introductions. I have done so for N Norway, Svalbard, Iceland and Greenland and we have native subsp. rubra in all these areas. (Elven)

(2) The F. diffusa synonym must be included because F. diffusa Dum. (1824), Obs. Gram. Belg. 106, is accepted as species by Markgraf-Dannenberg (1980, Fl. Eur. 5: 142) and there given for, e.g., Svalbard, without any documentation in Norwegian collections. (Elven)  Festuca rubra L. subsp. arctica (Hack.) Govor. (1937), Fl. Urala 127.

B F. rubra L. subsp. eu-rubra var. arenaria (Osbeck) Fr. f. arctica Hack. (1882), Monogr. Festuc. Europ. 140.

S F. richardsonii Hook. (1849 [or 1840?]), Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 250; F. rubra L. subsp. richardsonii (Hook.) Hultén (1943), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 38, 1: 246; F. eriantha Honda (1928), Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 42: 145; F. cryophila V. Krecz. & Bobrov in Kom. (1934), Fl. SSSR 2: 519; F. rubra L. var. arenaria auct., non (Osbeck) Fr. (1818).

T [Type from "Arctic Coast, 1826, new".]

2n= (1) 42 (6x). (2) 56 (8x). (3) 63 (9x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, all as arctic, from Iceland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, Siberia, Russian Far East, and Alaska; Engelskjøn (1979 Sb). (2) Zhukova (1965b); Zhukova & Petrovsky (1972); both listed as F. eriantha by Löve & Löve (1975). (3) ? See comment (3).



(1) The identity of the Russian F. cryophila V. Krecz. & Bobrov and the North American F. richardsonii Hook. with this subspecies is assumed but not finally proved. I am a little reluctant to accept the 'arctica' name as long as it is not unambiguously typified. Is there a collection annotated as such by Hackel previous to its description? We could play safe by rather accepting the much more unambiguous Hooker name.

The inclusion of F. eriantha as a synonym must be evaluated by the Russians. The octoploid counts are arguments against inclusion. This is an accepted name by Löve & Löve (1975) and must appear somewhere, at least in synonymy. (Elven)

(2) This taxon differs from F. rubra s. str. in several characters, partly assumed independent (awn length, lemma hairiness, leaf width and structure), but there is an even transition between subsp. arctica and subsp. rubra at least in the Fennoscandian area and Greenland. I am therefore very strongly in favour of treatment as subspecies rather than species. (Elven)

(3) The well documented counts are hexaploid (and possibly octoploid). The plants behind the octoploid counts should be checked again morphologically. The source of the aberrant 9-ploid is unknown to me. (Elven)

37.20.5  Festuca villoso-vivipara (Rosenvinge) E. Alexeev (1985), Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22: 23.

B F. ovina L. f. villoso-vivipara Rosenvinge (1892), Medd. Grønl. 3: 735.

S F. rubra L. s. lat. x F. vivipara (L.) Sm. s. lat. [Tzvelev]

2n= (1) 28 (4x). (2) 35 (5x). (3) 42 (6x). (4) 49 (7x). (5) 63 (9x).

2nD (1) Tzvelev's draft. (2) Frederiksen (1981 Icel). (3) Knaben & Engelskjøn (1967 Norw); Engelskjøn (1979 Norw). (4) Frederiksen (1981 Icel); Engelskjøn (1979 Norw). (5) Knaben & Engelskjøn (1967 Norw); Engelskjøn (1979 Norw)



(1) Is the name 'villoso-vivipara' or 'villosa-vivipara'? (Elven)

(2) A very dubious entity, see also Frederiksen (1981). In NW Europe, this is identical with what is named F. rubra f. prolifera and interpreted as single cases of hybridisation between F. rubra and F. ovina (not the viviparous F. vivipara). The reported chromosome numbers mostly refer to such plants. If they are considered the same, F. prolifera Fernald 1933 has priority well before F. villoso-vivipara Alexeev 1985. In any case, if this is occasional hybrids (and proliferating hybrid clones), we should be reluctant to accept it as a taxon if it does not have a consistent range. (Elven)

WARNING! Will be excluded if not convincingly argued for.
37.20.6  Festuca baffinensis Polunin (1940), Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 92, Biol. Ser. 24: 91.


T Canada: Baffin Island, Pond Inlet, 12.09.1934, leg. N. Polunin 706 (BM), lectotype selected by L.E. Pavlick (1984). Holotype (GH) missing.

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, nearly all as arctic; Aiken et al. (1995); Engelskjøn (1979 Sb); Guldahl (1999 Sb).



(1) The plants from E Chukotka (LE) deviate towards F. brachyphylla in general habit but confirms with F. baffinensis in formal characters. This seems to be the only place within its range where there is any problem with this species. (Elven)
The Festuca brachyphylla aggregate (F. brevissima, F. brachyphylla, F. edlundiae, F. hyperborea)

(1) Appears to be a 'real' aggregate where F. brevissima may represent an ancestral diploid genome. (Elven)

37.20.7  Festuca brevissima Jurtz. (1972), Bot. Zhurn. 57: 645.

S F. ovina L. ssp. alaskana Holmen (1964), Bot. Not. 117: 114.

T Russian Far East: western Chukotka, origin of Anadyr, near southern bank of Elgugytgyn Lake, southwestern slope, 20.07.1968, leg. Jurtzev et al. K-61 (LE), holotype.

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Jurtzev & Tzvelev (1972); Jurtzev & Zhukova (1972).



(1) Some of the chromosome counts reported by Löve & Löve (1975) for F. auriculata might also belong here as they give F. ovina subsp. alaskensis as a synonym of F. auriculata. (Elven)

37.20.8  Festuca hyperborea Holmen ex Frederiksen (1977), Bot. Not. 130: 273.


T Greenland: Heilprin Land, Brønlund Fjord, at Kegelkrogselv, 8210'N, 31W, 28.07.1950, leg. K.A. Holmen 8078 (C), holotype.

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Holmen (1952 Grl); Aiken et al. (1995 Can); Guldahl (1999 Sb).



(1) Only tetraploids (2n=28) are known from verified F. hyperborea. The Russian counts of Sokolovskaya & Probatova in Tzvelev (1976) are made on material identified from the insufficient first description of Holmen (1952). The investigated chromosome vouchers in LE represent F. edlundiae (2n=28) and small-grown F. brachyphylla (2n=42). (Aiken & Elven)

(2) Most of the counts referred to this species by Löve & Löve (1975) must be critically checked against vouchers as they may refer to the later described F. edlundiae. (Elven)

(3) A revision of large parts of the materials in LE proved this species to be very rare in Russia. Alexeev had applied Holmen's very insufficient criteria and determined nearly all small-grown F. brachyphylla as F. hyperborea. We found evidence for F. hyperborea in the restricted sense of Frederiksen (1977), Aiken et al. (1995), Guldahl (1999) and Fjellheim et al. (2000) only from a very few areas: northernmost Taimyr, Severnaya Zemlya, and perhaps Novosiberian Islands. All plants named as such from Chukotka and Wrangel Island were reidentified. The regions in Russian Far East are therefore omitted from this draft. (Aiken & Elven)

(4) The same may be the case in America. Last summer's (1999) experiences were that F. hyperborea only was found in the northernmost, coldest parts of the Canadian Arctic. The tetraploid counts of Aiken et al. (1995) also came from these areas. It is very easy to mistake small-grown F. brachyphylla for F. hyperborea. Alaska is therefore omitted from the draft. (Elven)

37.20.9  Festuca edlundiae S. Aiken, Consaul & Lefkovich (1995), Syst. Bot. 20: 381.


T Canada: Bathurst Island, Polar Bear Pass, 7543'N, 9812'W, 11.08.1985, leg. S.G. Aiken 3949 (CAN 502531), holotype.

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD Flovik (1938 Sb, as F. brachyphylla); Sokolovskaya & Probatova in Tzvelev (1976 NE As, as F. hyperborea); Engelskjøn (1979 Sb, as F. hyperborea); Aiken et al. (1995 Can); Guldahl (1999 Sb).



(1) Occurrence in Siberia (except for Far East) remains to be proved. (Aiken & Elven)
37.20.10  Festuca brachyphylla Schult. in Schult. & Schult. fil. (1827), Mant. 2: 646.

B Based on F. brevifolia R. Br. (1823), Chloris Melvill. 30, non Muhl. (1817).

S F. jensenii Gjærev. & Ryvarden (1978), K. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 1977, 4: 18.

T Canada: Melville Island, 1819-1820, Mr. (J.) Edwards (BM) lectotype of F. brevifolia selected by Frederiksen (1982).

2n= 42 (6x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts from most arctic areas; Sokolovskaya & Probatova in Tzvelev (1976 NE As); Aiken et al. (1995 Can); Guldahl (1999 Sb).



(1) The tetraploid chromosome counts from Russia (Sokolovskaya & Probatova in Tzvelev 1976) refer to F. edlundiae (vouchers in LE investigated). Only hexaploid counts are known from verified vouchers of this species. (Aiken & Elven)

(2) Festuca jensenii, described from Jensens Nunatakker in SW Greenland, is just a pallid F. brachyphylla. Similar pallid forms occur in many places and are entirely without taxonomic significance. (Elven)

The Festuca vivipara aggregate (F. frederikseniae, F. vivipara, F. viviparoidea)

(1) The discussions until now concerning this aggregate have been non-conclusive. We might end up with a widely defined F. vivipara with three subspecies. (Elven)

37.20.11  Festuca vivipara (L.) Sm. (1800), Fl. Brit. 1: 114.

B F. ovina L. taxon vivipara L. (1755), Fl. Suec., ed. 2, 31.

S F. vivipara (L.) Sm. subsp. vivipara.

T Linnaean herbarium, Sweden: Lapland (LINN 92.5), two specimens. Lectotype not selected.

2n= (1) 21 (3x). (2) 28 (4x). (3) 42 (6x).

2nD (1) Frederiksen (1981 Norw, Sweden, Faer, as F. ovina x vivipara), Salvesen (1986 Norw). (2) Frederiksen (1981 Grl, Icel, Faer, Norw, Br Isl), Salvesen (1986 Norw). (3) Frederiksen (1981 Icel).



(1) The triploid chromosome number is interpreted by Frederiksen (1981) as a result of hybridization between F. ovina and F. vivipara (subsp. vivipara). She states, however, that the triploid plants are morphologically indistinguishable from the tetraploids. They occur independently outside the range of F. ovina and form large populations (Salvesen 1986). Salvesen (1986) also states that: "Triploids may have evolved several times as the hybrid F. vivipara x ovina, but the major part of the South-Norwegian triploids seem to constitute a distinct alpine taxon." And: "Tetraploid F. vivipara cannot easily be derived from any ancestral form occurring in Scandinavia today." From morphological and geographical evidence it therefore seems reasonable to include both triploids and tetraploids (and possibly even higher polyploids) in F. vivipara s. str. (subsp. vivipara). (Elven)
37.20.12  Festuca frederikseniae E. Alexeev (1985), Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 22: 28.

S F. vivipara (L.) Sm. subsp. hirsuta (Schol.) Frederiksen (1981), Nord. J. Bot. 1: 287; F. vivipara (L.) Sm. var. hirsuta (Lange) Schol. (1933), Skr. Svalb. Ishavet 56: 140 [basionym: F. ovina L. var. (epsilon) hirsuta Lange (1880), Consp. Fl. Groenl. 1: 179].

T Greenland: Frederiksdal, 07.1828, leg. Vahl (C) lectotype (of F. vivipara subsp. hirsuta), selected by Frederiksen (1981, Nord. J. Bot. 1: 288).

2n= 28 (4x).

2nD See Frederiksen (1981 Grl).



(1) See under F. viviparoidea. Also here I propose to follow Frederiksen (1981), i.e. to treat it as subspecies within F. vivipara. (Elven)

(2) What about the E Canadian area, does it reach the Arctic there? (Elven)

(3) Alexeev (1985) elevated F. vivipara subsp. hirsuta to species level as F. frederikseniae. This taxon does not exist in eastern Canada. (Aiken)

WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of F. vivipara in the next version of the draft.

37.20.13  Festuca viviparoidea Krajina ex Pavlick (1984), Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2454.

B Based on F. vivipara (L.) Sm. subsp. glabra Frederiksen (1981), Nord. J. Bot. 1: 288.


T Greenland: Jameson Land, Gurreholm, 14.08.1958, leg. Holmen 807 (C) holotype (of F. vivipara subsp. glabra).

2n= (1) 28 (4x). (2) 49 (7x). (3) 56 (8x). (4) 63 (9x).

2nD (1) ? (2) ?Flovik (1938 Sb); Frederiksen (1981 Grl). (3) Frederiksen (1981 N Ala). (4) ?



(1) Alexeev interpreted this entity as a viviparous offspring of F. brachyphylla. Frederiksen (1981) explisitly stated that she found her F. vivipara subsp. glabra to belong to the 'ovina' group, not the 'brachyphylla' group, and Pavlick (1984) reported the anthers, when present, to be of 'ovina'-group length. It is therefore very improbable that Frederiksen's subsp. glabra is anything else than a viviparous offspring from the F. ovina group (sensu lato), and by implication, that Pavlick's name also refer to such.

Morphologically, the material from N Siberia (e.g. Taimyr), N Alaska and NW Canada differs from the Atlantic F. vivipara and might have an origin in the F. brachyphylla group. It is, however, unlikely that the name F. viviparoidea can be applied for them. In any case, species rank of these viviparous offspring is in my opinion premature as long as their origin is not better known. I propose to follow Frederiksen's (1981) subspecies concept. That means that some of the regions probably disappear (NOR, RUS) as do some of the chromosome number reports. (Elven)

(2) Possibly one vegetatively proliferating species to be recognized from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and that with affinities to the F. brachyphylla complex.

Two or three vegetatively proliferating Festuca specimens have been collected from northeast Ellesmere Island. It is strongly suspected that they represent no more than environmentally induced vegetative proliferation that can occur under extreme conditions but this has not been investigated. Porsild (1964) mentioned F. vivipara (L.) Sm., noting that the Canadian specimens are similar to F. baffinensis and F. brachyphylla but the panicle is always proliferous. A specimen at CAN that was annotated by Signe Frederiksen in 1987 as F. vivipara subsp. glabra was collected on Ellesmere Island, Lower Dumbell Lake (water supply lake for Alert) growing in moist herbmat, leg. C.R. Harrington 201, August 18, 1959. An extensive search in 1992 to find the voucher for the mapped record from Ellesmere Island, Judge Daily Promontory (Frederiksen 1981) was unsuccessful. The CAN specimen from the Canadian Arctic may be a F. baffinensis x F. brachyphylla hybrid. The plants have very young inflorescences with few definitive characteristics. The type specimen of F. viviparoidea subsp. krajinae Pavlick was collected by George Argus and Eric Haber in the Rocky Mountains and is considered to be vegetatively proliferating F. brachyphylla plants. I have examined the specimen and agree.

Frederiksen (1981) referring to what is believed to be the same taxon stated that: "This species has very often been connected with F. brachyphylla, and morphologically it looks very much like this species. In the few cases where anthers were observed, they were about 2 mm. As F. brachyphylla is very distinct on account of its very short anthers, rarely if ever exceeding 1.2 mm (Frederiksen 1977), and as F. brachyphylla has the leaf sheats partly split while they are always open in F. vivipara, no close connection seems to exist between these two taxa. On the other hand F. vivipara subsp. glabra in nearly all examined characters seems isolated from the two other subspecies; thus it possibly has another origin." (Aiken)

(3) Viviparous plants occur fairly regularly in 'continental' northwestern North America, in British Mts and northern Alaska. Here they form populations, have their own ecology and behave like a taxon. There may be a gap in the distribution between this area and Greenland, making the identification of the northwestern American plants with F. vivipara subsp. glabra (and thereby with F. viviparoidea) problematic. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of F. vivipara in the next version of the draft, see comments.
The Festuca saximontana aggregate (F. auriculata, F. lenensis, F. kolymensis, saximontana)

(1) The relevance of four North American -Siberian species is much disputed and at least one of them should disappear into synonymy. (Elven)

37.20.14  Festuca saximontana Rydb. (1909), Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 36: 536.

S F. saximontana Rydb. subsp. purpusiana (St.-Yves) Tzvelev (1971), Bot. Zhurn. 56: 1254; F. purpusiana (St.-Yves) Tzvelev (1976), Zlaki SSSR 406.

2n= 42 (6x).

2nD Bowden (1960a); Knaben (1968 Ala).



(1) The purpusiana synonyms should be added as they are given as accepted names by Löve & Löve (1976) and Tzvelev (1976: 406). (Elven)
37.20.15  Festuca kolymensis Drobov (1915), Predst. Sekts. Ovinae Yakut. 155.


T Siberia: Middle Kolyma region, Kolyma River, steppy meadow near Nizhnie Kresty, 1959, leg. Vaskovskii (LE) neotype selected by ***. Holotype lost.

2n= 42 (6x).

2nD ?



(1) The relations between F. kolymensis, F. lenensis and F. auriculata should be clarified. North American authors (see Aiken below) strongly argues for only one taxon in North America (in Tzvelev's draft both F. auriculata and F. lenesis are given). Russian botanists, including Tzvelev (1964, Fl. Arct. URSS), earlier fully synonymized F. kolymensis and F. lenensis. If F. kolymensis is consistently hexaploid, this is an argument for separation from F. lenensis/-auriculata. (Elven)

(2) Tzvelev also refers to some American samples of (the hexaploid) F. saximontana as comparing well with (the hexaploid) Siberian F. kolymensis. Shoudl they be united, e.g., as subspecies? (Elven)

(3) Löve & Löve (1975) refer only diploid counts (2n=14) for this species, based on Zhukova & Petrovsky (1971, 1972) and Zhukova & Tikhonova (1971). Wrong citations or identifications? (Elven)

WARNING! Might be merged with F. saximontana.
37.20.16  Festuca lenensis Drobov (1915), Predst. Sekts. Ovinae Yakut. 158.


T Siberia: slope of Lena bank near village Katchinskoe, 06.06.1914, leg. Dolenko 103 (LE), lectotype selected by ***.

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD ?


Comments: See F. auriculata.

37.20.17  Festuca auriculata Drobov (1915), Predst. Sekts. Ovinae Yakut. 159.


T Siberia: Yakutian ASSR, Bulunskii region, northern Verkhoyanye, middle course of Kharaulakh River, stony tundra near the foot of coniform hill, 07.07.1960, leg. Jurtzev (LE) neotype selected by ***. Holotype lost: Kolyma region, Panteleevskaya coniform hill, peak and stony screes, 1905, leg. Shulga 155 (LE).

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Numerous counts referred by Löve & Löve (1975), from Russia and Alaska but some of the earlier counts may refer to the later described F. brevissima (as Löve & Löve cite F. ovina subsp. alaskensis as synonym).



(1) There is only one taxon of this aggregate in North America. I am happy to let Tzvelev suggest which name he considers more correct. The North American plants vary in expression between the type specimens of both F. auriculata and F. lenensis. They vary: (1) in height from 10 to 30 cm; (2) in the degree of development of leaf blade sclerenchyma from very heavy to only small amounts at the midvein and leaf margins; and (3) whether the spikelets are appressed or spreading which appears to be related to anthesis. The isozyme evidence is that the plants in Canada are diploid. See Aiken et al. (1993, Amer. J. Bot. 80: 76-82). (Aiken)

WARNING! Will probably be reduced to synonymy (under F. lenensis).
37.20.18  Festuca ovina L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 73.


2n= 14 (2x), see comment.

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, two as arctic; Engelskjøn (1979 S & C Norw, 16 counts); Frederiksen (1981 S Norw); Borgen & Elven (1983 N Norw); Guldahl (1999 N Norw).


Comments: Subsp. ovina in th Arctic.

(1) Tetraploids are reported in F. ovina (see Frederiksen 1981, from e.g. Wales), but not from arctic areas. (Elven)

37.21  Lolium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 83.


(1) In addition to one species stable in the Arctic, two others are included by Tzvelev as casuals (L. multiflorum Lam. and L. temulentum L.). They are excluded here. The status of the third (L. perenne) in W Alaska, as stable or casual, should also be evaluated. (Elven)
37.21.1  Lolium perenne L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 83.


2n= 14 (2x).

2nD ?



(1) Reported in Kristinsson's map and text as a stable introduction in arctic Iceland. The Greenland and Alaska occurrences were probably ephemeral. (Elven)

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