Fasciola hepatica




Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
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Lec-9- Trematoda practical parasitology

Fasciola.hepatica commone name( liver flukes).

Final hosts:most mammals(sheep and cattle).

Intermediate hosts:snails of the genus( lymnaea.truncatula).

site :the adults are found in the bile ducts and the immature flukes in the liver parenchyma.occasionally aberrant flukes become encapsulated in the other organs such as the lungs.

Infective stage:metacercaria.

Diagnostic stage :unembryonated eggs.



Diagnosis :

1- Based on clinical signs 2-examination of faeces for fluke eggs(yellow to brown,operculate,large and oval) 3-necropsy finding (we are you seen hemorrhagic lesions in liver(enlarged ,pale) and bile duct) .

Fasciola.gigantica

Final hosts:ruminants.

Intermediate hosts :snails of the genus(lymnaea .auricularia)

site:the adults are found in the bile ducts and the immature flukes in the liver parenchyma.

life cycle :indirect .

Infective stage:metacercaria.

Diagnostic stage :unembryonated eggs

Diagnosis:as for F.hepatica except the eggs of F.gigantica larger than of F.hepatica .


Dicrocoelium.dendriticum .

Hosts :sheep , cattle,deer and rabbits .

intermediate hosts:1-land snails of many genera 2-Brown ants of the genus formica.

site:bile ducts and gall bladder.

Infective stage :metacercaria.

Diagnostic stage :embryonated eggs

life cycle:indirect .


Diagnosis:

1-faecal examination for eggs(dark brown,small, operculate usually flattened side contain miracidium when passed in the faeces) 2- necropsy findings(liver are relatively normal but we see fibrosis of the smaller bile duct and extensive cirrhosis can occur,sometimes the bile duct become markedly distended).

Paramphistomum.cervi.

Final hosts:ruminants .

intermediate hosts:water snails Bulinus.

site:adults in the rumen and reticulum and immature stages in the duodenum .

life cycle :indirect .

Infective stage :metacercariae.

Diagnostic stage :unembryonated eggs.




Paramphistomum cervi i

Diagnosis:1-based on clinical signs(diarrhea,rectal haemorrhage).2- faecal examination(eggs in faeces resembles that of F.hapatica being large aoperculate but is clear rather than yellow). 3- post –mortem examination(clusters of brownish pink parasites attached to duodenal mucosa).




Paramphistomum.microbothrium.

Final hosts:sheep and cattle .

Intermediate hosts:water snails

site:rumen and reticulum.

Diagnosis :such as p.cervi.
Giagetocotyl.explanatum.

Final hosts :cattles and bufflows.

site:bile duct and gall bladder.

Infective stage :metacercariae.

Diagnostic stage :unembryonated eggs.

life cycle :indirect .

Diagnosis:such as P.cervi.

Schistosoma.bovis

Final hosts: sheep, cattle and goat.

Intermediate hosts:water snails(Bulinus) is particularly important in the transmission of bovine and ovine schistosomosis .

site:mesenteric veins .

Infective stage :cercariae.

Diagnostic stage :unembryonated eggs.

Diagnosis :1-Based on clinical signs (diarrhea ,faeces contain blood and mucos).2-faecal examination(precens eggs in faeces,long,spindle shaped and have lateral or terminal spine,there is no operculum) 3- post –mortem examination(there are marked haemorrhagic lesions in the mucosa of the intestine but as the disease progresses the wall of the intestine appears grayish,thickened and oedematous and liver become fibrosis).
Ornithobilharzia.turkestanicum.

Final hosts:sheep ,camels,cattle and horses .

Intermediate host:snails(Lymnaea.euphratica).

site :mesenteric veins.

Infective host:cercariae.

Diagnostic stage :egg in faeces which contain terminal spine and small appendage in other side .



Diagnosis:such as S.bovis


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