Examples of application of the systems approach in nappo countries For presentation at the 22nd Technical Consultation of Regional Plant Protection, August 2010 Contents




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Systems approaches in NAPPO Document: TC-RPPO10/08

Agenda item:11.6


Examples of application of the systems approach in NAPPO countries

For presentation at the 22nd Technical Consultation of Regional Plant Protection, August 2010

Contents


Introduction 4

1.ISPM 14, Use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management (2002) 5

2.NAPPO standard, “Integrated Pest Risk Management Measures for the Importation of Plants for Planting into NAPPO Member Countries” (RSPM 24) (2005) 5

3.Examples from Canada 6

3.1 Canadian Nursery Certification Program (CNCP) (2009, 2d ed.) 6

3.2 Canadian Fruit Tree Export Program (CFTEP) for Malus, Pyrus, Chaenomeles, Cydonia and Prunus spp. (2009) 7

3.3 Pre-Shipment Approval Program for the Export of Grain from Canada (D-08-02) 7



4.Examples from USA 7

4.1 Papayas from Central America and South America 7

4.2 Guidelines for Fruit Fly Systems Approach to Support the Movement of Regulated Articles between Mexico and the United States 8

4.3 Basics of a Proposed Regulatory Systems Approach Protocol – Plants for Planting (USDA 2006) 8



5.Examples from Mexico 8

5.2 Work plan for exporting apples and pears from Argentina to Mexico using a systems approach 9



6.References 9



Introduction

Once a quarantine pest is identified for a product or pathway, usually through a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA), in order to be able to import the product, risk management measures need to be established. Using a number of measures that are not related to each other will increase the probability of the pest being eliminated. The use of two or more independent measures for risk management qualifies as using the systems approach.


The systems approach is used for processes:

  • Based on a pest (eg. Fruit fly)

  • A specific commodity (eg. Papaya)

  • A commodity group (eg. Grains)

  • A sector (eg. Nursery)

Developing a systems approach could be for:

  • Bilateral agreements (Eg. Between USA and Mexico)

  • Between an exporting region made of numerous countries (eg. Latin America) and one importing country (Eg. USA)

  • To prepare exporters from one country (eg. Canada) to be able to export to the world (eg. grains)

ISPM 14, Use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management, explains the procedure to be used to establish such agreements. The design of a systems approach to pest risk management should keep in mind that the measures included should be less restrictive, more effective, technically justified and less ecologically damaging (eg. To replace Methyl bromide) than current measures, or to lift a current prohibition on the import of a product. It purports to take a holistic (integral) view of the entire production – distribution chain to determine critical points that would provide a synergistic effect on the control effort. NAPPO has applied these principles in its standard on Integrated Pest Risk Management Measures for the Importation of Plants for Planting into NAPPO Member Countries (RSPM 24). Examples are also provided here of the application of the systems approach by the three NAPPO countries.

  1. ISPM 14, Use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management (2002)


“A systems approach requires the integration of different measures, at least two of which act independently, with a cumulative effect.”

Systems approaches, which integrate measures for pest risk management in a defined manner, could provide an alternative to single measures to meet the appropriate level of phytosanitary protection of an importing country. They can also be developed to provide phytosanitary protection in situations where no single measure is available.



  1. NAPPO standard, “Integrated Pest Risk Management Measures for the Importation of Plants for Planting into NAPPO Member Countries” (RSPM 24) (2005)

“Integrated pest risk management measures are composed of different measures, at least two of which act independently, with a cumulative effect.”


The broad objectives of this standard are to:

  • Prevent the introduction and spread of quarantine pests associated with plants for planting imported into NAPPO countries;

  • Significantly reduce the risk from other pests that may be associated with plants for planting imported into NAPPO countries;

  • Facilitate equitable and orderly trade into and within the NAPPO region, utilizing to the extent possible, best production/management practices.

Integrated measures for pest risk management may provide an alternative to single measures such as disinfestation treatments, or replace more restrictive measures such as prohibition. This approach can also be developed to manage pest risk where no single measure is available.


Pest risk management measures should also take into account industry practices which include mechanisms to:

  • identify and define appropriate practices;

  • estimate the efficacy of specific practices or procedures;

  • monitor and manage operations; and

  • make measures official

They should take into account aspects related to:



  • Responsibilities of the place of production

  • Training in the place of production

  • Pest management program, using monitoring, the appropriate control and containment methods, and the use of clean propagative material

  • Internal audits

  • Traceability

  • Documentation of procedures and availability of records

  • Responsibilities of both exporting and importing NPPO

  • Actions in case of non-compliance



  1. Examples from Canada




3.1 Canadian Nursery Certification Program (CNCP) (2009, 2d ed.)

The CNCP is a phytosanitary certification program for Canadian nurseries and greenhouses that ship nursery stock to the United States (U.S.) or within Canada. The CNCP offers an alternative to traditional phytosanitary certification, which is based on final product inspection immediately prior to shipping. The CNCP uses a systems approach to mitigate pest risk. It has several components, including documenting the production and pest management practices, auditing and reviewing the system, and determining pest prevalence during production.


Under the CNCP, certified facilities implement procedures to ensure that the plants they ship meet the requirements of the CNCP and are free of pests of concern. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) establishes the requirements of the CNCP and conducts audits to verify that plant material certified under the program meets the phytosanitary requirements of the importing country and is free of quarantine and regulated non-quarantine pests. In fact, if populations of non-regulated plant pests are not controlled at a certified facility, the facility may be suspended from the CNCP due to non-conformance with the standard. Consequently, nurseries certified under the CNCP will produce plant material that consistently meets the phytosanitary requirements of the importing country.
The program is based on a Phytosanitary Management System (PSMS), which uses a systems approach to direct and control an organization with regard to consistently meeting all the requirements of the CNCP.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001/4 is based on the principle that applying a management system to an entire production process will result in products that consistently meet, or exceed, the parameters established by the organization. In contrast, products produced under conditions where only the end products are systematically reviewed, are less likely to consistently meet the established parameters. The CNCP uses a systems approach and is based on the IPPC Standard, “The Use of Integrated Measures in a Systems Approach for Pest Risk Management” (ISPM 14) and also meets the guidelines of the NAPPO standard, “Integrated Pest Risk Management Measures for the Importation of Plants for Planting into NAPPO Member Countries” (RSPM 24).
The systems-based CNCP is designed so that any specific phytosanitary requirements associated with particular pests, products and geographic locations can be implemented and administered within the program. The facility’s CNCP Manual must describe how any additional specific phytosanitary requirements are incorporated into and met by the facility’s Phytosanitary Management System (PSMS).

3.2 Canadian Fruit Tree Export Program (CFTEP) for Malus, Pyrus, Chaenomeles, Cydonia and Prunus spp. (2009)

This directive contains the requirements for the production of fruit tree nursery stock of Malus, Pyrus, Chaenomeles, Cydonia and Prunus spp. for export, including ornamental species. This program uses a systems approach in order to produce virus tested fruit tree nursery stock.


3.3 Pre-Shipment Approval Program for the Export of Grain from Canada (D-08-02)

This is a voluntary program that leads to pre-shipment approval of consignments to be sent by sea, based on sampling and testing for pests according to the requirements of the importing country.

The interested exporter must prepare and follow a quality management system which is documented in a quality management system manual approved by the CFIA in advance of initiation of sampling and testing of lots for pre-shipment approval.

The manual must outline how the exporter will:



  • Ensure that there is no mixing or contamination between lots of sampled grain

  • Define sampling procedures and ensure cleanliness of the facilities

  • Document all processes related to the exported consignment and maintain those files for 6 months



  1. Examples from USA




4.1 Papayas from Central America and South America

Under certain conditions, the importation of commercial shipments of fresh papayas from specific countries into the continental United States is allowed. The conditions include:




  • They are imported from certain regions of Brazil, Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador or from registered growers in Colombia or Ecuador

  • Cultural sanitation measures in the field 30 days prior to export

  • Hot water treatment

  • Adequate harvest point

  • Fruit fly trapping set up at least one year prior to export in papaya production areas, for which threshold levels are defined according to the country

  • All activities under NPPO supervision

  • NPPO phytosanitary certificate emitted for all consignments.



4.2 Guidelines for Fruit Fly Systems Approach to Support the Movement of Regulated Articles between Mexico and the United States

The guidelines describe a systems approach to mitigate the risk for the introduction of fruit flies of quarantine significance posed by the exportation of fruit fly host material between Mexico and the United States. The target species include fruit flies of economic importance in the family Tephritidae. The two primary components to the systems approach as applied to tephritids are the sterile insect technique (SIT) and areas of low pest prevalence. Areas of low pest prevalence can occur naturally, or be established through a coordinated control and suppression program.



4.3 Basics of a Proposed Regulatory Systems Approach Protocol – Plants for Planting (USDA 2006)

Regulatory Systems Approach Protocol – The integration of phytosanitary measures with best pest management practices to mitigate the risk associated with regulated pests.


Combines production practices with requirements on quality control.

  1. Examples from Mexico

Mexico has adopted the systems approach a form of risk mitigation for pests the country does not have. Examples here are taken from the work plans adopted in 2009 with Argentina and Chile, and proposed for the US, for the mitigation of pests associated with fruit. The work plan is agreed upon by the NPPO of both countries as well as participating producers, packinghouses and exporters of the exporting country. The components of these work plans are listed in the following sections.


5.1 Work plan for exporting pome and stone fruit from Chile to Mexico using a systems approach

Especially for the mitigation of Cydia molesta, but also for Pseudococcus viburni, Brevipalpus chilensis and other fruit pests.



  • Joint approval of methyl bromide, cold and phosphine treatment plants, as well as the laboratories that will participate in the program

  • Registration of participants (producers, packing houses and exporters) in Chile. The exporters’ association covers the costs of the Mexican inspections in Chile.

  • Application of monitoring processes as described in the plan (trapping with pheromone of Cydia molesta, mapping of flight curves, sampling, categorization of producers according to plant health status)

  • Chemical control (with supporting documentation): for Cydia molesta, pesticide applications based on flight curves, trapping with the use of sex hormones; specific pesticides determined for the other pests

  • Joint inspection by SENASICA and SAG plant health inspectors in Chile of lots to be exported. Percentage of inspection dependent on producer category.

  • Notification to SAG of applications of methyl bromide, cold and phosphine treatments; details on approved treatment procedures provided

  • Certification of absence of pests during the phases of production (through samples sent to approved laboratory), harvest, transportation, storage, official inspection of ships, post-certification storage, shipping and product inspection at the entry point in México

  • Detailed instructions for packaging and labeling, documentation

  • NPPO phytosanitary certificate emitted for all consignments, with additional information on treatments.

  • Detailed procedures according to pest detected, including possible sanctions

  • Entry point inspection by Mexico of 20% of the consignment, with sampling of fruit for Brevipalpus chilensis and documental verification of the rest of the consignment



5.2 Work plan for exporting apples and pears from Argentina to Mexico using a systems approach





  • From approved regions of Argentina only

  • For control of Grapholita molesta, Ceratitis capitata, Anastrepha fraterculus and Pseudococcus viburni.

  • Registration of participants (producers, packing houses and exporters)in Argentina

  • Joint approval of cold treatment plants which must follow detailed instructions for treatment

  • Detailed instructions for packaging and labeling, documentation

  • Entry point inspection by Mexico, including sampling of consignments

  • Detailed procedures according to pest detected, including possible sanctions



  1. References

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2008. Pre-Shipment Approval Program for the Export of Grain from Canada. D-08-02.


Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2009. Canadian Nursery Certification Program (CNCP). D-04-01.
SENASICA and SAG. 2009. Plan de Trabajo para la Exportación de Pomaceas (Manzanas y Peras) y Frutas de Carozo (durazno, Nectarina, Ciruela, Plumcot, Cereza y Damasco) desde Chile a México con Verificación en Origen bajo un Enfoque de Sistemas.
SENASICA and SENASA. 2009. Plan de Trabajo para la Exportación de Manzana y Pera de Argentina a México bajo un Enfoque de Sistemas.
Plan de Trabajo para la Exportación de Duraznos, Nectarinas, Ciruelas, Ciruelas Interespecíficas, Chabacanos y Chabacanos Interespecíficos de los Estados Unidos a México Bajo un Enfoque de Sistemas.
USDA. 2003. Guidelines for Fruit Fly Systems Approach to Support the Movement of Regulated Articles between Mexico and the United States. Draft Document: 05 June 03.
USDA. 2006. Basics of a Proposed Regulatory Systems Approach Protocol – Plants for Planting.
USDA – APHIS. 2010. 7 CFR Part 319.[Docket No. APHIS-2008-0050] RIN 0579-AC95.

Importation of Papayas from Colombia and Ecuador.





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