EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN PLANT PROTECTION ORGANIZATION
ЕВРОПЕЙСКАЯ И СРЕДИЗЕМНОМОРСКАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО КАРАНТИНУ И ЗАЩИТЕ РАСТЕНИЙ
ORGANIZATION EUROPEENNE ET MEDITERRANEENNE POUR LA PROTECTION DES PLANTES
WP PR Point 14.1
Data Sheets on Forest Pests
Name: Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata)
Synonym: Lithocolletis issikii Kumata
Taxonomic position: Insecta: Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae
Common name: Lime leaf miner (English); Липовая минирующая моль-пестрянка (Russian).
Bayer computer code: PRYCIS
Larvae of P. issikii make folded mines in the lower side of leaves of Tilia spp (preferred host). The native hosts in the Far East are, T cordata, T. amurensis, T. mandshurica, T. maximowicziana and other Tilia, but also Betula platyphylla (Ermolaev, 1977; Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).b In the West of Russia, Tilia cordata is the preferred host (and also where it is introduced in the East). P.issikii has not specifically been recorded on Tilia platyphyllas or the hybrid T europea, most widely oplanted in western Europe.
EPPO region: Lithuania (recently introduced), Russia (South of the Far East; South and centre of the European part – introduced: cities of Voronezh, Samara, Ufa, Moscow and their vicinities), Ukraine (introduced).
Asia: Korea, Russia (South of the Far East), Japan (Kumata et al., 1983; Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
The caterpillars of the first generation of P. issikii pupate in the second half of June; moths fly from the end of June till the middle of July. The second generation develops from the end of July till the end of August; moths fly from the middle of August till the beginning of September. Folded mines are located on the lower side of leaves. Mines of the first generation mainly occur on leaves at the base of annual shoots and do not occur on leaves following the 6th leaf from the base of the shoot. Mines of the second generation occur mainly on leaves situated in the middle of annual shoots: the maximum is observed on the 3rd leaf for shoots with 3 – 5 leaves and on the 4th leaf for shoots with 6 – 9 leaves. Most mines made by European (introduced) populations on T cordata occur in the central part of the leaf around the central nerve. In the Far Eastern populations, most mines occur at the borders of the leaf near its base. Overwintering stages are pupae and adults (Ermolaev, 1977; Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
Fig. 1 Phyllonorycter larva in blotch mine on underside of a leaf (Furniss & Carolin, 1977)
Fig. 2 Lime leaf damaged by Phyllonorycter issikii (Kozlov, 1991)
Occurrence of P. issikii mines in leaves is easily detected (Fig. 1 & 2). Leaves with numerous mines are deformed. The average number of mines usually reaches 4 to 6 per leaf, but a maximum of 27 mines per leaf has been observed. The ornamental value of city Tilia plantations is much decreased (Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
No information available.
Larva of P. issikii is 4 – 5 mm long like all Phyllonorycter larvae (Furniss & Carolin, 1977).
No information available.
Adults of P. issikii are characterized by seasonal dimorphism. Summer and autumn (overwintering) generations moths are of different colour. Moths of the first generation (summer form) have goldish-ochre crest, thorax and fore wings, which have a whitish-grey pattern (Fig. 3). Moths of the second generation (autumn form) have black (or in some cases white) crest, dark brown thorax and dark grey fore wings formed by a mixture of white and dark brown scales regularly distributed on all wing surface. Wingspan is 7 – 7,5 mm. Male genitals (Fig. 4) are asymmetric. The right valve is wide and the filament based on the top of the lower lobe does not reach the top of the valve. The left valve is 4 – 5 times narrower than the right valve and the filament reaches 2/5 of its length. The tegmen is narrow, membranous (Kusnetsov et al., 1988; Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
Fig. 3 Moth of Phyllonorycter issikii of the first generation (Kozlov, 1991)
Fig. 4 Male genitals of Phyllonorycter issikii (Kozlov, 1991)
MEANS OF MOVEMENT AND DISPERSAL
Means of movement of P. issikii have not been studied, but it presumably behaves like other gracillariid leaf miners. The introduction of eggs, larvae and pupae of the pest to new areas is possible with plants for planting with leaves originating from areas where it occurs. Pupae can be introduced with fallen leaves (with soil).
P. issikii stresses its host plants by larval damages to leaves. In 1987 in Voronezh region of European Russia, 70% of lime leaves were damaged, from 1988 to 1998 around 98% of leaves were damaged i.e. almost all leaves. The presence of up to 27 mines per leaf was recorded. The damage leads to considerable reduction of ornamental value of trees, which are widely used for city plantations and losses in vigour of trees both in cities and forests (Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
By damaging a large proportion of leaves (up to 98%) on widely used ornamental plants, P. issikii disturbs city ecology and environment. Leaves with numerous mines (up to 27 per leaf) are deformed and rolled, which considerably decreases ornamental value of trees (Kozlov, 1991; Orlinskii et al., 1991).
In cases of outbreaks of P. issikii, treatments with organophosphorus insecticides, or with hormones is recommended. Inhibitors of chitin synthesis (e.g. dimilin and alzistin) in dosage of 0,1 to 1 kg/ha are especially efficient. Treatments should strictly be performed strictly at the beginning of the oviposition period (Kozlov, 1991).
P. issikii is not listed as a quarantine pest by any NPPO nor recommended to be listed by any regional plant protection organization. The pest causes serious damage to Tilia spp species and some other trees in countries and areas where it occurs. The moth has recently entered and established in several new regions and is able to establish in many EPPO countries. It is very likely that it could cause serious damage on Tilia cordata in western Europe and possibly also to T platyphyllas, T europea and other species ad hybrids planted in western europe (although this point requires further study).
To prevent introduction of P. issikii to many EPPO countries, the effective measure would be to prohibit import of soil with leaves and plants for planting of Tilia with leaves from countries and areas (or places of production) where the pest occurs. Cleaning and disinfection of vehicles coming from infested areas could also be proposed. Phytosanitary inspection can detect pest mines on the imported regulated articles.
This data sheet was originally drafted in Russian by:
Dr. Tatiana Bassova, entomologist.
Ermolaev V. P. (1977) Review of the fauna and ecology of miner-moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) of the Primorie territory. In: Fauna of insects of the Far East. Leningrad, p. 98 – 117 (in Russian).
Furniss R. L., Carolin V. M. (1977) Western Forest Insects. USDA Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication N° 1339. – Washington, D. C., US Government Printing Office, 654 p.
Kozlov M. V. Leaf miner moth – a pest of lime. Zashchita Rastenii, N° 11, p. 46 (in Russian).
Kumata T., Kuroko H.,Park K.T. Some Korean species of the subfamily Lithocolletinae (Gracillariidae, Lepidoptera). Korean Journal of Plant Protection. 1983, v. 22, № 3, 213 – 227.
Kuznetsov V. I. (1981) Family Gracillariidae (Lithocolletidae) – miner-moths. In: Taxonomic keys for insects of the European part of the USSR. Leningrad, Nauka, v. 4., part 2, p. 149 – 311 (in Russian).
Kuznetsov V. I., Kozlov M. V., Seksyaeva S. P. (1988) on the taxonomy and phylogeny of miner moths of Gracillariidae, Bucculatricidae and Lyonetiidae families (Lepidoptera) with consideration of functional and comparative morphology of male genitalia. In: Proceedings of Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, v. 176, p. 52 – 71 (in Russian).
Orlinskii A. D., Shahramanov I. K., Muhanov S. J., Masliakov V. Y. (1991) Potential quarantine forest pests in the USSR. Zashchita Rastenii, N° 11, p. 37–42 (in Russian).