European community draft database on available methyl bromide alternatives postharvest sector




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EUROPEAN COMMUNITY DRAFT DATABASE ON AVAILABLE METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES – POSTHARVEST SECTOR

SUBMITTED TO THE OZONE SECRETARIAT BY THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY IN 2005
Submitted under Protocol Decision Ex.I/4 paragraphs 1-2.
Version: March 2005 (draft)
This table is not yet complete. Further information is being compiled and will be submitted to the Ozone Secretariat when available.

The final database will provide information relating to 25 Member States of the European Community.



Contents list

Table 1 Aircraft

Table 2 Artefacts – movable items only

Table 3 Cheddar cheese and cheese stores

Table 4 Chestnuts

Table 5 Cocoa beans and coffee beans

Table 6 Dried fruit

Table 7 Dried mushrooms

Table 8 Herbs, spices

Table 9 Historical buildings, churches, non-food structures and fixed artefacts

Table 10 Historical buildings and artefacts affected by dry-rot fungus

Table 11 Machinery, electronic equipment

Table 12 Mills and food processing facilities

Table 13 Nuts - excluding chestnuts

Table 14 Rice, other cereals

Table 15 Seeds

Table 16 Silos containing commodities

Table 17 Silos - empty

Table 18 Strawberry runners - postharvest disinfestation

Table 19 Woven baskets



Table 1 Aircraft

  • CUN for aircraft in Belgium. Common target pests: rodents, insects

Available alternatives for

Aircraft


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative [information and references will be added later in this column]

Sulphuryl fluoride for non-food uses*

Sweden R (Kristensen 1997).




Wide range of pests including rodents, cockroaches, insects; egg stages of insects require higher dosages (MBTOC 2002:143-4).

Controlled atmospheres*

Netherlands U.





Rodents, insects

Heat

Netherlands U.








Insecticides (residual or aerosol)

Europe: U.





Insects only.

Hydrogen cyanide*

Used in several countries, unidentified (MBTOC 2002:127)





Rodents, insects, other pests (MBTOC 2002:126-7)

Rodenticides

e.g. Sodium mono-fluoracetate (1080); zinc phosphide; anticoagulants



Europe: U.




Rodents (Kristensen 1997).

Rodent-proofing and trapping

Europe: U.





Rodents (Kristensen 1997).

Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

























* combined with appropriate heating when necessary

Table 2 Artefacts - movable items only

  • CUN for artefacts, antiques and books in Italy – only items that can be moved. Common target pests: termites, beetles (Dermestidae, Anobiidae, Lyctidae, Cerambycidae), Psocoptera, Dictyoptera (Blattoidea).

  • CUN for museum artefacts, furniture and antiques in Belgium – only items that can be moved. Common target pests: Anobium punctatum, Xestobium rufovillosum.

Available alternatives for

Artefacts (movable items)


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative [information and references relating to species will be added later]

Sulphuryl fluoride for non-food items*







Termites, insects (e.g. longhorn beetles, powderpost beetles, clothes moths, cockroaches), rodents and other pests; egg stages of insects require higher doses (MBTOC 2002:143).

Phosphine* - when sensitive metals are not present

Germany U.








Hydrogen cyanide*

Czech Republic R.





Rodents, insects, other pests. High efficacy for pest control in artefacts (MBTOC 2002:126-7).

Humidified nitrogen* in fixed chambers or mobile cocoons or bubbles

Germany U nitrogen flow fumigation for museum artefacts, archives and heritage items.

Sweden U.







All stages of museum insect pests after purging to bring oxygen level down to about 1% (MBTOC 2002:121). Wide range of pests found in artefacts (Reichmuth 2002).

Controlled atmospheres* (based on CO2 or burner gas ) + controlled humidity

Belgium U.

Netherlands U for artefacts, historical items, antiques, furniture (6500 m3 treated in 2003).










Oxygen absorber sachets (iron + activator) + barrier plastic film, used for individually wrapped artefacts

Europe: available.










Heat + controlled humidity

Germany U.








Cooling or freezing + controlled humidity - for artefacts that can withstand cold treatments









Insecticides such as pyrethroids + IPM

Europe: U.








Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

























* combined with moderate heat when necessary

Table 3 Cheddar cheese and cheese stores

  • CUN for farmhouse cheddar cheese and cheese stores in UK. Common target pests: Acarus siro linnarus (cheese mites)

Available alternatives for

Cheese and cheese stores


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative

Sanitation / IPM (cleaning, scrubbing surfaces, prevention of infestation, wax coating on cheese)

Europe: U.




Cheese mites (Price 1938).

Cold temperature storage

Europe: U.




Cheese mites grow at temperatures between 15.5 and 32°C (Price 1938).

Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered


























Table 4 Chestnuts

  • CUN for chestnuts in France. Common target pests: Cydia splendana, Curculio elephas

Available alternatives for

Chestnuts


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative

Heated water / steam followed by cooling, drying, aeration

Portugal U.








High pressure + CO2 for treatment of small batches

Europe.








Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

Iodomethane#






















# Trials in Japan found iodomethane was as effective as MB for disinfestations of chestnuts (Anastácio & Pires 2004).

Table 5 Cocoa beans and coffee beans

  • CUN for cocoa beans and coffee beans imported into Poland. Common target pests: Acarus siro, Araecerus fasciculatus, Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella, Stegobium paniceum, Tribolium confusum, Tyrophagus putrescentiae

Available alternatives for

Cocoa and coffee beans


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative

Phosphine + moderate heat (using phosphine generators when possible)

Greece R.

UK R.


Europe: phosphine generator equipment is available.








Cylinderised phosphine (in CO2 or N2) + moderate heat

Germany R phosphine gas in nitrogen, U for coffee and cocoa beans.





Germany: registered for control of stored product pests.

Controlled atmospheres*

Netherlands U for coffee and cocoa beans.








High pressure + CO2

Germany U.








Vacuum-hermetic treatment










Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

Sulphuryl fluoride*










Propylene oxide










* combined with heat when necessary

Table 6 Dried fruit

  • CUN for dried fruits in UK; dried figs and raisins in Greece. Common target pests: Ephestica cautella, Plodia interpunctella, Carpophilus hemipterus.

Available alternatives for

Dried fruit


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative

Phosphine + moderate heat (using phosphine generators if necessary)

Germany RU.

Greece R.

UK R.

Europe: phosphine generator equipment is available.







Most pests of dried fruit are highly susceptible to phosphine (MBTOC 2002:14).

Cylinderised phosphine (in CO2 or N2) + moderate heat

Germany R phosphine gas in nitrogen, U for dried fruit.





Germany: registered for control of stored product pests.

Controlled atmospheres*

Germany U (CO2 fumigation).

Netherlands U for raisins and other dried fruit.










High pressure + CO2

Germany U.








Vacuum-hermetic treatment










Cold storage, freezing (not appropriate for dried vine fruit)

Germany U (freezing with liquid air or liquid nitrogen).








Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

Sulphuryl fluoride*







Empty mills and structures.

Propylene oxide










Cylinderised ethyl formate (in CO2)










* combined with heat when necessary
Table 7 Dried mushrooms

  • CUN for dried mushrooms in Poland. Common target pests: Ephestia cautella, Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpunctella, Stegobium paniceum, mites, fungi (Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp.)

Available alternatives for

Dried mushrooms


Countries where alternative is available

(R = registered, U = used at commercial level)



Countries where registration is underway; estimated year of registr.

Key pests species controlled by this alternative

Magnesium phosphide

Germany RU.







High pressure + CO2

Germany U.








Irradiation










Alternatives under development

Stage of development

Countries considering registration, estimated year

Other uses for which it is registered

Propylene oxide









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