Electronic Supplementary Material Table S1




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a.

b.


Figure S2. Scatterplots of the standardized values contrasting mean latitudinal (a) and elevational (b) distributions of urban and rural species within 100 genera. Standardized differences calculated as (mean value for urban species – mean value for rural species) / mean value for genus. Any values greater than zero (dashed line) represent instances where the urban species had a broader mean elevational or latitudinal distribution than rural species within the same genus.
Appendix S1. Concise version of the questionnaire used for data collection. The questionnaire was translated into Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian for circulation to respondents across the globe.

Instructions:

Please include birds found breeding in your city. Do not list birds that rely on parkland (i.e. are not found outside of areas of low human impact) and birds that do not breed in the city (i.e. birds that winter in the city but do not breed there).
Name of city:


  • 10 common native birds that breed in the city:





















  • Your experience with the birds of your city:

    • Active bird-watcher, experienced with observing and identifying birds

    • Casual bird-watcher, familiar with common urban birds

    • Biologist, familiar with birds of the city, but not an ornithologist

    • Biologist / ornithologist, professionally study birds

    • Other (please describe): _____________________________

Appendix S3 Summary of post-hoc statistical analyses conducted to determine if the global pattern persisted in restricted analyses of two subsets of the data.

Methods

Following our primary analyses (see main text), we subsequently explored the potential influence of two factors. First, species represented in many cities might be expected to have broader distributions, and to respond to urbanization differently (Figure S2). We tested whether these species drove our general results by repeating the original analysis using genera that were reported in only one city (N = 36). Second, some urban species may primarily occur in urban habitat (i.e. “urban specialists”), but nonetheless have broad geographic ranges due to the broad distributions of cities. To address this potential bias, we repeated the original analyses including genera found exclusively in the Americas (N = 37), where the relatively recent occurrence of urbanization would minimize the incidence of native urban specialists. We conducted these tests to determine if broadly distributed species or urban specialists drive the global pattern.



Results

In our global analyses, urban birds had significantly broader elevational and latitudinal distributions than rural congeners (one-tailed one-sample t-tests of the standardized difference in each parameter within genus; elevation, t = 4.60, d.f. = 99, p <0.00001; latitude, t = 5.42, d.f. = 100, p <0.000001; Figure 2a and b). This pattern remained when analyses were restricted to genera reported in only one city (elevation, t = 2.14, d.f. = 34, p = 0.02; latitude, t = 2.02, d.f. = 35, p = 0.03), or genera found exclusively in the Americas (elevation, t = 2.12, d.f. = 36, p = 0.02; latitude, t = 2.28, d.f. = 36, p = 0.01).



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