Electronic Supplementary Material Effects of sheep grazing and temporal variability on population dynamics of the clonal herb Geranium sylvaticum in an alpine habitat Plant Ecology Evju m 2, Halvorsen R, Rydgren K




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Electronic Supplementary Material

Effects of sheep grazing and temporal variability on population dynamics of the clonal herb Geranium sylvaticum in an alpine habitat
Plant Ecology

Evju M*1.2, Halvorsen R, Rydgren K, Austrheim G and Mysterud A
1 Department of Research and Collections, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1172 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway

2 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo, Norway

*Corresponding author; marianne.evju@nina.no, fax: +47 22 60 04 24


Online Resource 1 Estimation of individual plant size

In 2002, aboveground parts of 200 ramets, covering the size range of ramets observerd in the field were collected well outside the permanent plots. Five morphological variables were measured; plant height (H, cm), number of leaves (L), length and width of the largest leaf (LL and WL, cm) and stem diameter at the ground level (SD, mm). The ramets were dried to constant weight at 80 °C and weighed. A multiple regression model was constructed from data on dry mass (DM, in mg) and the morphological variables. To reduce heteroscedasticity, the variables were log2-transformed and a constant added. An increase in one log2DM-unit thus corresponds to a doubling in size.


The regression model for estimation of dry mass of Geranium sylvaticum plants from morphological measurements that was best in terms of fraction of variation explained (R2adj = 0.944) was:
log2(DM) =

153.26 × log2(WL + 14.91) + 0.62 × log2(L) + 6.36 × log2(SD) + 0.29 × log2(H + 1.85)

+ 103.97 × log2(LL + 61.83) − 1.42 × log2(WL + 14.91) × log2(SD)

− 23.8 × log2(WL + 14.905) × log2(LL + 61.83) − 660.96



Online Resource 2. Transition probability matrices for the three populations of Geranium sylvaticum.

Transition probabilities that are based on pooled data are in italics. See Materials and methods for details.


A. High sheep density

Stage at time t + 1

Stage at time t






















Seedling

Clonal offspring

Small

Medium

Large

X-large

Dormant

2002−03

n = NA

n = NA

n = 12

n = 31

n = 59

n = 48

n = NA

Seedling

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.792

0.000

Clonal offspring

0.000

0.019

0.167

0.097

0.068

0.125

0.000

Small

0.596

0.241

0.500

0.097

0.017

0.042

0.476

Medium

0.018

0.241

0.250

0.323

0.169

0.083

0.226

Large

0.009

0.056

0.000

0.258

0.390

0.313

0.070

X-large

0.000

0.204

0.000

0.065

0.136

0.542

0.039

Dormant

0.009

0.056

0.000

0.129

0.203

0.000

0.070



Stage at time t + 1

Stage at time t






















Seedling

Clonal offspring

Small

Medium

Large

X-large

Dormant

2003−04

n = 39

n = 15

n = 40

n = 32

n = 50

n = 41

n = 20

Seedling

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.036

0.834

0.000

Clonal offspring

0.000

0.000

0.025

0.063

0.140

0.171

0.000

Small

0.513

0.133

0.700

0.219

0.000

0.049

0.421

Medium

0.026

0.133

0.125

0.469

0.200

0.024

0.371

Large

0.000

0.067

0.000

0.188

0.680

0.366

0.071

X-large

0.000

0.200

0.000

0.031

0.080

0.463

0.021

Dormant

0.000

0.067

0.000

0.031

0.020

0.049

0.000

2004−05

n = 36

n = 17

n = 72

n = 49

n = 65

n = 29

n = 5

Seedling

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

1.174

0.000

Clonal offspring

0.000

0.059

0.069

0.041

0.108

0.241

0.000

Small

0.778

0.294

0.639

0.204

0.015

0.000

0.476

Medium

0.000

0.235

0.139

0.388

0.231

0.069

0.226

Large

0.000

0.059

0.069

0.163

0.400

0.103

0.070

X-large

0.000

0.235

0.014

0.061

0.262

0.828

0.039

Dormant

0.000

0.059

0.028

0.041

0.015

0.000

0.070



Stage at time t + 1

Stage at time t






















Seedling

Clonal offspring

Small

Medium

Large

X-large

Dormant

2005−06

n = 34

n = 22

n = 92

n = 51

n = 45

n = 51

n = 7

Seedling

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.313

0.000

Clonal offspring

0.000

0.000

0.011

0.020

0.111

0.216

0.000

Small

0.500

0.273

0.652

0.412

0.178

0.059

0.637

Medium

0.029

0.318

0.043

0.294

0.267

0.059

0.000

Large

0.029

0.045

0.000

0.059

0.333

0.216

0.000

X-large

0.000

0.182

0.000

0.039

0.067

0.588

0.000

Dormant

0.029

0.045

0.065

0.039

0.067

0.000

0.209

2006−07

n = 16

n = 18

n = 117

n = 52

n = 31

n = 39

n = 15

Seedling

0.000

0.190

0.000

0.000

0.000

1.859

0.000

Clonal offspring

0.000

0.056

0.000

0.058

0.032

0.051

0.000

Small

0.375

0.056

0.564

0.135

0.000

0.000

0.476

Medium

0.063

0.333

0.128

0.423

0.161

0.051

0.226

Large

0.000

0.222

0.000

0.154

0.613

0.077

0.070

X-large

0.000

0.278

0.000

0.038

0.194

0.769

0.039

Dormant

0.009

0.056

0.039

0.038

0.031

0.017

0.070
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