Electronic Appendix S1: Number of seeds of each species fed to




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Electronic Appendix S1: Number of seeds of each species fed to Colossoma individuals. The size of captive fish was not determined in 2004 and 2005, but those individuals were as large as the 2006 adults. Adult fish were used in all three years, but juveniles were only included in 2006.

Species (Family)

Year

Number of seeds fed per fish per trial

Number of fish

Number of trials

SL (mean + SE)

Cecropia latiloba (Urticaceae)

2004, 2005, 2006

2004: >100

2005: 200

2006: 60


2004: 5

2005: 5


2006: 4 adults; 5 juveniles

2004: 2

2005: 3


2006: 3

Adults: 39.67 + 0.33

Juveniles:

24 + 0.35


Duroia duckei (Rubiaceae)

2004, 2005, 2006

2004: >100

2005: 100

2006: 60 (2 trials) and 70 (1 trial)


2004: 5

2005: 5


2006: 4 adults; 5 juveniles

2004: 2

2005: 3


2006: 3

Adults: 39.67 + 0.33

Juveniles:

24 + 0.35


Cayaponia tubulosa (Cucurbitaceae)

2006

5 to adults; 3 to juveniles

5 adults; 4 juveniles

1

Adults: 49.8 + 5.09

Juveniles:

23.9 + 0.43


Cayaponia cruegeri (Cucurbitaceae)

2005

15

5

2




Annona muricata (Annonaceae)

2006

7 to adults; 4 to juveniles

5 adults; 5 juveniles

1

Adults: 48 + 4.93

Juveniles:

23.1 + 0.48


Crateva tapia (Capparaceae)

2006

10 (1 trial) and 12 (1 trial)

3 adults; 4 juveniles for 1 trial, and 5 for the second trial

2

Adults: 39.67 + 0.33

Juveniles:

23.4 + 0.38


Bactris bidentula (Arecaceae)

2006

7 to adults; 4 to juveniles

5 adults; 5 juveniles

1

Adults: 39.67 + 0.33

Juveniles:

23.1 + 0.48


Electronic Appendix S2: Intact seeds present in the digestive tracts of Colossoma (n=144) and

Piaractus (n=51) individuals at Pacaya-Samiria National reserve. The occurrence columns report

the number of individual fish with intact seeds of each plant species in their digestive tracts. Species that were also present in the botanical transects are noted with an asterix.






Colossoma macropomum

Piaractus brachypomus




Species of seed

Number of seeds

Occurrence

Number of seeds

Occurrence

Wet seed mass (g)C

Cecropia spp.a (Urticaceae)*


698185B

111

406895


39

0.0054 + 0.001

Duroia duckei (Rubiaceae)*

1353


14

91

4

0.031 + 0.024

Bactris maraja (Arecaceae)*

8

3

128

6

2.19 + 0.99

Bactris bidentula (Arecaceae)*

99

8

127

12

1.26 + 0.26

Crateva tapia (Capparaceae)*

88

12

19

4

0.54 + 0.29

Cayaponia cruegeri (Cucurbitaceae)

70

2

0

0

0.076 + 0.013

Carica microcarpa (Caricaraceae)

0

0

73

1

0.048 + 0.027

Annona muricata (Annonaceae)*

10

3

53

2

0.61 + 0.26

Genipa spruceana (Rubiaceae)

0

0

46

2

0.34 + 0.20

Ternstroemia penduliflora (Theaceae)

41

1

0

0

0.44

Unidentified 1

0

0

37

1

0.11

Maclura tinctoria (Moraceae)*

34

2

0

0

Unmeasured

Cayaponia tubulosa (Cucurbitaceae)*

26

5

24

5

2.54 + 0.68

Maquira coriacea (Moraceae)

24

1

0

0

Unmeasured

Bactris sp. (Arecaceae)

0

0

23

1

1.22

Endlicheria sp.

(Lauraceae)



0

0

10

1

5.25

Unidentified 2

9

1

0

0

0.6

Neea floribunda

(Nyctaginaceae)



0

0

8

1

0.31

Chrysophyllum argenteum (Sapotaceae)

6

1

5

1

0.83

Ceiba samauma

(Bombacaceae)



0

0

5

3

0.42 + 0.12

Unidentified 4


0

0

4

1

0.23

Leonia glycycarpa (Violaceae)*

3

1

0

0

0.5

Pouteria sp.

(Sapotaceae)



0

0

3

2

4.43 + 0.11

Unidentified 5

0

0

2

1

0.75

Cordia ulei (Boraginaceae)

0

0

2

1

0.75

Pouteria cladantha (Sapotaceae)*

1

1

0

0

1.5

Ocotea sp.

(Lauraceae)*



1

1

0

0

Unmeasured

Discophora guianensis

(Icacinaceae)



1

1

0

0

Unmeasured

Simaba polyphylla

(Simaroubaceae)



1

1

0

0

0.85

Unidentified 6

1

1

0

0

0.3

Unidentified 7

1

1

0

0

0.2

Unidentified 8

1

1

0

0

1.4

Astrocaryum sp. (Arecaceae)

0

0

1

1

2.1

Dulacia candida (Olacaceae)

0

0

1

1

0.4

Unidentified 9

0

0

1

1

9.9

a Since Cecropia seeds are small difficult to identify to species, we pooled at least two species of including C. latiloba and membranacea. We included two Cecropia species in the estimate of species diversity of intact seeds in the diets of Piaractus and Colossoma.

B We weighed all Cecropia seeds, and estimated seed number based on the following regression model (F1,13=626.4, p<0.0001, R2=0.98): Seed number = 78.1 + 162.01 * weight (g).

C Seeds from the digestive tract of each individual were pooled. Averages and standard deviations are based on seed numbers and the pooled weights. When a species is present only in the digestive tract of on individual, there is no standard deviation. We did not record seed mass in 2004.

Electronic appendix S3: Cumulative number of plant species whose intact seeds were present in the digestive tracts of Colossoma and Piaractus, 2004-2006.




Electronic appendix S4: Species composition, abundance, and fruit production from botanical transects. The habitat affinity of plant species (floodplain forest or savannah) is included as well as whether intact seeds were present in the digestive systems of Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus, or both species. Species are organized in descending order of abundance.



habitat

species

family

number of fruiting plants

total number of fruits

Intact seeds in digestive systems?

growth form

both

Cecropia latiloba

Urticaceae

39

3404

both

pioneer tree

both

Crateva tapia

Capparidaceae

32

483

both

tree

both

Duroia duckei

Rubiaceae

18

718

both

tree

floodplain forest

Eugenia discreta

Myrtaceae

15

1738

 

small tree

both

Pseudobombax munguba

Bombacaceae

10

76

 

tree

both

Leonia glycycarpa

Violaceae

9

98

Colossoma

tree

both

Maripa peruviana

Convolvulaceae

9

3323

 

liana

floodplain forest

Neea virens

Nyctaginaceae

9

2707

 

tree

both

Annona muricata

Annonaceae

8

37

both

tree

floodplain forest

Guarea macrophylla

Meliaceae

7

557

 

tree

both

Tococa capitata

Melastomataceae

7

257

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Bactris bidentula

Arecaceae

6

213

both

tree

floodplain forest

Rudgea sessiliflora

Rubiaceae

6

526

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Margaritaria nobilis

Euphorbiaceae

5

130

 

tree

floodplain savannah

Psittacanthus calcaratus

Loranthaceae

5

827

 

parasitic liana

both

Alibertia stenantha

Rubiaceae

4

41

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Coccoloba densifrons

Polygonaceae

4

265

 

tree

floodplain forest

Duguetia spixiana

Annonaceae

4

23

 

tree

floodplain forest

Inga punctata

Fabaceae

4

33

 

tree

both

Iryanthera tessmannii

Myristicaceae

4

1090

 

tree

floodplain forest

Trymatococcus amazonicus

Moraceae

4

2550

 

tree

floodplain forest

Doliocarpus dentatus

Dilleniaceae

3

111

 

liana

flooded savannah

Eugenia egensis

Myrtaceae

3

1945

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Ficus krukovii

Moraceae

3

318

 

tree

both

Rourea camptoneura

Connaraceae

3

5111

 

liana

floodplain forest

Swartzia auriculata

Fabaceae

3

67

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Allophylus loretensis

Sapindaceae

2

662

 

liana

floodplain forest

Bactris maraja

Arecaceae

2

100

both

tree

both

Cayaponia tubulosa

Cucurbitaceae

2

13

both

liana

both

Cecropia membranacea

Urticaceae

2

140

both

Pioneer tree

floodplain forest

Dioclea ucayalina

Fabaceae

2

5

 

liana

floodplain forest

Eugenia florida

Myrtaceae

2

75

 

small tree

both

Garcinia madruno

Clusiaceae

2

39

 

tree

both

Gnetum nodiflorum

Gnetaceae

2

280

 

liana

floodplain savannah

Maclura tinctoria

Moraceae

2

392

Colossoma

tree

floodplain forest

Ouratea iquitosensis

Ochnaceae

2

7

 

small tree

both

Paullinia clavigera

Sapindaceae

2

85

 

liana

floodplain forest

Paullinia grandifolia

Sapindaceae

2

830

 

liana

both

Phthirusa retroflexa

Loranthaceae

2

1700

 

liana

floodplain forest

Pinzona coriacea

Dilleniaceae

2

15004

 

liana

floodplain forest

Pouteria glomerata

Sapotaceae

2

30

 

tree

floodplain forest

Pseudoxandra polyphleba

Annonaceae

2

40

 

tree

floodplain forest

Strychnos guianensis

Loganiaceae

2

164

 

liana

floodplain forest

Tetracera parviflora

Dilleniaceae

2

30000

 

liana

floodplain forest

Allophylus floribundus

Sapindaceae

1

10000

 

liana

floodplain forest

Unknown

Unknown

1

1

 

 

floodplain savannah

Pouteria cladantha

Sapotaceae

1

20

Colossoma

tree

floodplain savannah

Calyptranthes creba

Myrtaceae

1

1

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Clarisia racemosa

Moraceae

1

10000

 

tree

floodplain forest

Clitoria falcata

Fabaceae

1

13

 

liana

floodplain savannah

Couepia subcordata

Chrysobalanaceae

1

26

 

tree

flooded savannah

Couepia williamsii

Chrysobalanaceae

1

52

 

tree

floodplain forest

Curarea toxicofera

Menispermaceae

1

53

 

liana

floodplain forest

Cynometra bauhiniifolia

Fabaceae

1

69

 

tree

floodplain forest

Diospyros poeppigiana

Ebenaceae

1

39

 

tree

floodplain forest

Faramea amplifolia

Rubiaceae

1

90

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Ficus americana

Moraceae

1

10000

 

tree

floodplain forest

Ficus gomelleira

Moraceae

1

4

 

tree

floodplain forest

Ficus maxima

Moraceae

1

8000

 

tree

floodplain forest

Ficus trigona

Moraceae

1

200

 

tree

floodplain forest

Guatteria inundata

Annonaceae

1

105

 

liana

floodplain forest

Guettarda aromatica

Rubiaceae

1

1

 

liana

floodplain forest

Licania heteromorpha

Chrysobalanaceae

1

66

 

tree

floodplain forest

Ocotea sp.

Lauraceae

1

30000

Colossoma

tree

floodplain savannah

Phthirusa pyrifolia

Loranthaceae

1

420

 

liana

floodplain forest

Picramnia sellowii

Simaroubaceae

1

183

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Psidium acutangulum

Myrtaceae

1

300

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Psychotria barbiflora

Rubiaceae

1

78

 

small tree

floodplain savannah

Rheedia gardneriana

Clusiaceae

1

2000

 

tree

floodplain forest

Salacia impressifolia

Hippocrateaceae

1

71

 

liana

floodplain forest

Salacia macrantha

Hippocrateaceae

1

1

 

liana

floodplain forest

Simira rubescens

Rubiaceae

1

700

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Sloanea guianensis

Elaeocarpaceae

1

50

 

tree

floodplain savannah

Solanum acuminatum

Solanaceae

1

5

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Solanum stramoniifolium

Solanaceae

1

45

 

small tree

floodplain savannah

Symmeria paniculata

Polygonaceae

1

25

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Tetracera volubilitis

Ebenaceae

1

25

 

liana

floodplain forest

Xylosma benthamii

Flacourtiaceae

1

4000

 

small tree

floodplain forest

Unknown

Unknown

1

1

 

 

Electronic appendix S5: Intact seeds present in the digestive tracts of Piaractus brachypomus (n=15), Caura river, Venezuela, June-July 2002. Germination trials were not conducted with these seeds.





Species

Number of seeds

Occurrence

Crescentia amazonica (Bignoniaceae)

1460

4

Cecropia spp. (Urticaeae)

1224

1

Unidentified 1 (Sapotaceae)

208

10

Brysonima sp. (Malpighiaceae)

50

6

Unidentified 2 (Myrtaceae)

26

4

Unidentified 3 (Sapotaceae)

28

2

Unidentified 4

14

1

Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae)

9

2

Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae)

8

1

Unidentified 5

2

1

Trichilia sp. (Meliaceae)


1


1

Unidentified 6

1

1

Unidentified 7 (Sapotaceae)

1

1

Unidentified 8

1

1

Unidentified 9

1

1

Unidentified 10

1

1

Note: Fishes were captured in gill nets, and no bait was used.



Electronic Appendix S6: Intact seeds present in the diets of Byrcon bicolor (n=104; an additional 4 individuals had empty digestive tracts) June 2002, Ventuari River, Venezuela. A subset of these seeds was used in a pilot germination study. We dissected the digestive tracts of 69 individuals separately, and we pooled the digestive tracts of 39 individuals that were obtained from local fishers. Here, data on the total number of seeds are presented for all 104 individuals in this study. Data on the occurrence of a species of seed in the diet of B. bicolor is based only on fish for which we have individual-level data (60 of 69 fish had intact seeds in their digestive systems).

Species (Family)

Total number of seeds present in digestive tracts

Occurrence: number of individual fish (of 60) with each species of seed in the digestive system.

Germinated after 3 weeks?

Genipa americana (Rubiaceae)

329

3

Yes

Leopoldinia pulchra (Arecaceae)

151, plus 46 in pooled sample

44 (4 additional fish had fruit pulp of this species, but no seeds)

NoA

Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae)

69, plus 68 in pooled sample

11

YesB

Unidentified 1

23

2

Yes

Byrsonima sp. (Malpighiaceae)

13

6




Unidentified 2 (Myrtaceae)

12

3

Yes

Quiina sp. (Quiinaceae)

10

3

Yes

Trichilia sp. (Meliaceae)


7 in pooled sample





Yes

Unidentified 3

7

3




Unidentified 4 (Myrtaceae)

6

4

Yes

Unidentified 5 (Olacaceae)

5

2

Yes

Strychnos sp. (Loganiaceae)

5

1

Yes

Unidentified 6

5

2

Yes

Mauritia flexuosa

(Arecaceae)



1, plus 3 in pooled sample

1

No

Unidentified 7 (Sapotaceae)

3

2

Yes

Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae)

3

3

No

Unidentified 8

2, in pooled sample




Yes

Unidentified 9

2, in pooled sample




Yes

Unidentified 10

2, in pooled sample







Ocotea sp. (Lauaraceae)

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 11 (Rubiaceae)

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 12 (Myrtaceae)

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 13 (Myrtaceae)

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 14

1, in pooled sample




No


Unidentified 15

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 16

1

1

Yes

Unidentified 17

1

1

No

Unidentified 18

1

1

No

Unidentified 19

1

1

No

Unidentified 20

1

1

No

Unidentified 21

1

1

No

Unidentified 22

1

1

No

Note: Fish were captured on hooks bated with fruits of Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae); local fishermen report that this species is a major component of the diet of Brycon during July, and that seeds are found intact in the digestive system. Fruits of this species were not mature at the time of this study; Ocotea seeds found in the diet of Brycon came from the bait, except for one individual that had independently consumed Ocotea. This one individual is noted in the table. Fishermen harvested these fruits early for the purpose of capturing Brycon. We also attempted to capture fish with other bait, such as worms and small pieces of fish; these baits invariably did not succeed.
A A congener germinated only after 80-100 days (Kubitzki and Ziburski 1994).

B Seeds of Clusia sp. even germinated while submerged in water

Kubitzki, K., and A. Ziburski. 1994. Seed dispersal in flood plain forests of Amazonia. Biotropica 26:30-43.





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