Ecology Dr. Saeed Damhoureyeh




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Results obtained from the laboratory work:

Carbon concentration %


Area

Sample1


Sample2

Sample3

Average

Dead sea

2.1


2.4

3.9

2.8

Naur

3.9


3.6

3.6

3.7

Adassyah

5.4


3

3.6

3.7




Area

Vegetative cover


Max height

1


2

3

avg

1

2

3

avg

Naur

55%


71%

57%

61%

30

39

35

34.7

Adasseyah

41%


32%

44%

39%

41

35

31

35.6


property

Naur

adasseyah

dead sea

1

2

3


avg

1

2

3

avg

1

2

3

avg

Capillarity min


15:15

18:41

26:3

19:95

6:27

9:25

15:10

13:5

1:45

10:12

12:60

8:4

Gaseous volume

40%

40%

37.7%

39.2%

55.5%

51.1%

40%

48.9%

20%

33.3%

31.4%

28.4%

Permeability

Cm/min.


1.59

.37

.24

.73

.32

.22

.18

.24

.18

.23

.49

.2


Granulometry of Naur:



Size/ Weight

Sample1

Sample 2

Sample 3

Average

percentage

>3.35

16.4

26.35

16.3

19.68

19.68%

3.35- 1.7

24.6

24.4

16.95

21.98

21.98%

1.7- 0.7

33.2

26.4

30.5

30

30%

0.7- 0.5

2.25

5.25

7.65

5.05

5.05%

0.5- 0.25

1.3

6.15

9.4

5.61

5.61%

0.25- 0.125

3.5

2.7

6.65

4.28

4.28%

<0.125

2.2

2.4

4.6

3.1

3.1%


Granulometry of Adasseyah:

percentage

Average

Sample 3

Sample 2

Sample 1

Size/ weight

26.2%

23.6

23.15

19.22

28.35

>3.35

15.2%

13.7

16.1

13.6

11.45

3.35- 1.7

18.2%

16.4

23.15

13.65

12.4

1.7- 0.7

5.7%

5.1

5.6

5.9

3.9

0.7- 0.5

11.2%

10.1

12.4

11.58

6.25

0.5- 0.25

11.6%

10.5

8.45

15.7

7.25

0.25- 0.125

7.4%

6.7

7.75

3.1

9.2

<0.125

Granulometry of Dead Sea:

Size/ Weight

Sample1

Sample2

Sample 3

Average

percentage

>3.35

4.05

14.0

3.1

7.05

7.05%

3.35- 1.7

11.5

11.0

14.5

12.3

12.3%

1.7- 0.7

12.2

10.0

11.05

11.1

11.1%

0.7- 0.5

31.8

35.2

63.65

43.55

43.55%

0.5- 0.25

3.8

4.0

3.0

3.6

3.6%

0.25- 0.125

14.8

10.1

2.3

9.1

9.1%

<0.125

14.2

1.9

2.4

6.2

6.2%


Conclusion and discussion:
Dead Sea
Little vegetation was observed in the Dead Sea due to the following:

Climatical factors:



Soil type:

The yellow and white sandy soil matched what we expected and the obtained results from granulometry.

Naur

Vegetation is non tree vegetation, with two layers:

Bushes and herbaceous. (Figure no.7)

The noticed remnant of forest (Figure no.8), is an example of the degradation due to climatical factors and human interference.

Soil type is yellow red soil that is why there was heavy vegetation because red soil is a fertile soil due to high percentage of organic matter as shown in the table of carbon concentration above.

And from granulometry results we can conclude that soil particles are gravel and fine gravel mostly.



Adasseyah

Very little vegetation and this match the results from the table of vegetation cover. This is due to



  • Low organic matter (as obtained in carbon concentration table).

  • Calcareous and stony soil (as obtained from the granulometry results).

  • Mineralization processes

  • Pollution, which also affected the decrease in number of medicinal plants and the diversity of invertebrates present there.

In comparison of vegetation in the three visited area, Naur was with the highest vegetation. (Chart no.1)

Also Naur was with the highest organic matter as mentioned above. (Chart no.2)

Gaseous volume of Adasseyah was the highest (poor quality of soil).( chart no.3)

While Permeability and capillarity were highest in Naur (chart no.4&5).



Figures and charts


Vegetation cover


Chart no.1


Carbon concentration

Chart no.2




Capillarity /min


Chart no.3




Permeability cm/min

Gaseous volume %

Chart no.4 Chart no.5





Figure No. 1



Figure No. 2



Figure No. 3



Figure No. 4



Figure No. 5



Figure No. 6



Figure No. 7



Figure No. 8

References

  • JCSBD: Jordan Country Study on Biological Diversity. (Ministry of Environment)

  • Al-Eisawi: vegetation of Jordan, prepared by Dr. Dawud Al-Eisawi.(January 1996)

  • Atlas tours:

www.atlastours.net/jordan

  • Haiti H. Fariz:

www.ejge.com

  • Bassam Z. Mahasneh

Department of Civil Engineering, Mu’tah University, Jordan.

  • Al Atlas: Royal Jordanian Geographical Center.



  • Ecology Laboratory Manual.
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