Dinosauria: a return to the age of dinosaurs production bible




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DINOSAURIA: A RETURN TO THE AGE OF DINOSAURS

PRODUCTION BIBLE

They were the superlatives; they were the biggest, the heaviest, the meanest,



the longest. You name it, dinosaurs were it.”

Prof. Phil Currie, University of Alberta


Since their discovery by a few English professors in the 1820s, dinosaurs have captured the imagination of people unlike any other animal. The ferocity of Tyrannosaurus, the size of Argentinosaurus, and the bizarre appearance of Ankylosaurus have been the stuff of dreams and nightmares for more than a century. However, for as much as the public adores these prehistoric beasts, they really know very little about them, and much of what they do know is as much misconception and the fantasies of Hollywood as it is real fact. That is where we come in. Dinosauria: A Return to the Age of Dinosaurs is a project done in conjunction with several natural history museums around the world in order to educate the public about how dinosaurs really lived. Not through the stuffy, quiet halls of museums, but through one of the world's new favorite passtimes, video gaming. Taking a cue from Will Wright's Sim City, which managed to make civic planning a fun, exciting experience, Dinosauria will use an innovative, interactive approach to allow the player to learn about dinosaurs and the world they lived in by watching and experimenting with the animals. Revolutionary artificial intelligence and terrain generation techniques will ensure the most authentic, realistic picture of dinosaurs ever seen, all at the player's fingertips.
Once again, dinosaurs live and breathe, all at the whims of your mouse or gamepad.

T
yrannosaurus rex

image © Scott Hartman
PART I – THE ANIMALS
In order to properly capture the feel of an authentic Mesozoic world, Dinosauria is proud to boast an expansive assortment of prehistoric life. The completed game will feature seventy genus of dinosaur (with more species among those genus), as well as dozens of flying pterosaurs, marine reptiles, and other prehistoric life forms with which the dinosaurs shared their world. Undoubtedly, the dinosaurs will be the focus of the game, but fans of the flying and swimming animals with which they shared their world will not be disappointed.
Acrocanthosaurus atokensis

(pronounced “ACK-row-CANTH-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Carnosauria > Allosauroidea > Carcharodontosauridae

Length: 12 meters (39 feet)


Aegyptosaurus baharijensis

(pronounced “aye-JIP-tow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Somphospondyli > Titanosauria

Length: 16 meters (63 feet)


Albertosaurus sarcophagus

(pronounced “al-BURT-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Tyrannosauroidea > Tyrannosauridae > Albertosaurinae

Length: 9 meters (30 feet)


Allosaurus (A.fragilis, A.ferox, A.jimmadseni)

(pronounced “AL-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Carnosauria > Allosauroidea > Allosauridae

Length: 7-10 meters (23-34 feet)


Anatotitan copei

(pronounced “ah-gnat-oh-TIE-tan”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea > Hadrosauridae > Hadrosaurinae > Edmontosaurini

Length: 12 meters (40 feet)


Ankylosaurus magniventris

(pronounced “ahn-KYE-low-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Thyreophora > Ankylosauria > Ankylosauridae > Ankylosaurinae

Length: 9 meters (30 feet)


Apatosaurus (A.ajax, A.excelsus, A.louisae)

(pronounced “ah-PAT-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Diplodocoidea > Flagellicaudata > Diplodocidae

Length: 23 meters (75 feet)


Brachiosaurus altithorax

(pronounced “brah-KEY-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Brachiosauridae

Length: 25 meters (82 feet)


Bugenasaura infernalis

(pronounced “boo-JEN-uh-saw-rah”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Hypsilophodontidae > Thescelosaurinae

Length: 4-5 meters (13-15 feet)


Camarasaurus (C.supremus, C.lentus)

(pronounced “CAM-ah-rah-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Macronaria

Length: 18 meters (60 feet)


Carcharodontosaurus saharicus

(pronounced “car-CAR-oh-don-tow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Carnosauria > Allosauroidea > Carcharodontosauridae

Length: 12 meters (40 feet)


Ceratosaurus (C.nasicornis, C.magnicornis)

(pronounced “seh-RAT-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Ceratosauria

Length: 6-8 meters (20-27 feet)


Coelophysis bauri

(pronounced “see-low-FYE-sus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Coelophysoidea > Coelophysidae

Length: 3 meters (10 feet)


Deinonychus antirrhopus

(pronounced “die-NON-ick-us”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > ... > Eumaniraptora > Dromaeosauridae > Dromaeosaurinae

Length: 3 meters (10 feet)


Deltadromeus agilis

(pronounced “dell-tah-DROW-me-us”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Ceratosauria > Noasauridae

Length: 13 meters (44 feet)


Diplodocus (D.longus, D.carnegiei)

(pronounced “dih-PLO-doh-cus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Diplodocoidea > Flagellicaudata > Diplodocidae

Length: 27 meters (90 feet)


Dromaeosaurus albertensis

(pronounced “drow-MAY-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > ... > Eumaniraptora > Dromaeosauridae > Dromaeosaurinae

Length: 2 meters (6 feet)


Dromiceiomimus brevitertius

(pronounced “drow-MEE-see-oh-MY-muss”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Ornithomimosauria > Ornithomimidae

Length: 4 meters (12 feet)


Dryosaurus altus

(pronounced “DRY-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Dryosauridae

Length: 5 meters (14 feet)


Edmontosaurus (E.regalis, E.annectens, E.saskatchewanensis)

(pronounced “ed-MON-tow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea > Hadrosauridae > Hadrosaurinae > Edmontosaurini

Length: 9-13 meters (30-43 feet)


Falcarius utahensis

(pronounced “fall-CAR-ee-us”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > Therizinosauria

Length: 4 meters (12 feet)


Gastonia burgei

(pronounced “gas-TONE-ee-uh”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Thyreophora > Ankylosauria > Ankylosauridae > Polacanthinae

Length: 6 meters (20 feet)


Herrerasaurus ischigualatensis

(pronounced “heh-REH-ruh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Herrerasauria > Herrerasauridae

Length: 4 meters (14 feet)


Hypacrosaurus altispinus

(pronounced “hi-PACK-row-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea > Hadrosauridae > Lambeosaurinae > Lambeosaurini

Length: 9 meters (30 feet)


Iguanodon lakotaensis

(pronounced “igg-WAN-oh-don”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Ankylopollexia > Iguanodontidae

Length: 10-13 meters (33-44 feet)


Majungatholus atopus

(pronounced “mah-jung-ah-THOW-luss”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Ceratosauria > Abelisauridae

Length: 6 meters (21 feet)


Ornitholestes hermanni

(pronounced “or-nith-AW-less-tees”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria

Length: 2 meters (7 feet)


Othnielia (O.rex, O.consors)

(pronounced “awth-NEEL-ya”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Hypsilophodontidae > Othnieliinae

Length: 2 meters (7 feet)


Ouranosaurus nigeriensis

(pronounced “owe-RAHN-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea

Length: 7 meters (24 feet)


Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis

(pronounced “pack-ee-RINE-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Ceratopsia > Ceratopsoidea > Ceratopsidae > Centrosaurinae > Pachyrhinosaurini

Length: 6-7 meters (18-23 feet)


Paralititan stromeri

(pronounced “puh-rall-eh-TIE-tan”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Somphospondyli > Titanosauria

Length: 28-30 meters (92-98 feet)


Plateosaurus (P.engelhardti, P.longiceps)

(pronounced “PLAY-tee-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Prosauropoda > Plateosauridae

Length: 6-10 meters (20-33 feet)


Pleurocoelus (P.nanus, P.altus)

(pronounced “ploo-roh-SEE-luss”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Brachiosauridae

Length: 9-18 meters (30-60 feet)


Rebbachisaurus garasbae

(pronounced “reh-BATCH-ee-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Diplodocoidea > Rebbachisauridae

Length: 20 meters (68 feet)


Rugops primus

(pronounced “ROO-gops”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Ceratosauria > Abelisauridae

Length: 7-9 meters (24-30 feet)


Spinosaurus aegyptiacus

(pronounced “SPY-no-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Megalosauroidea > Spinosauridae > Spinosaurinae

Length: 15-17 meters (49-57 feet)


Stegosaurus (S.armatus, S.stenops)

(pronounced “STEGG-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Thyreophora > Stegosauria > Stegosauridae > Stegosaurinae

Length: 7-9 meters (23-30 feet)


Stygimoloch spinifer

(pronounced “stih-jee-MAW-lock”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Pachycephalosauria > Homalocephaloidea > Pachycephalosauridae > Pachycephalosaurinae

Length: 3 meters (10 feet)


Tenontosaurus (T.tilletti, T.dossi)

(pronounced “ten-NON-tow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Tenontosauridae

Length: 7 meters (22 feet)


Thecodontosaurus antiquus

(pronounced “thee-ko-DON-to-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha

Length: 1-3 meters (4-9 feet)


Thescelosaurus neglectus

(pronounced “THESS-ell-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Hypsilophodontidae > Thescelosaurinae

Length: 3-4 meters (8-13 feet)


Torosaurus latus

(pronounced “TORE-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Ceratopsia > Ceratopsoidea > Ceratopsidae > Ceratopsinae

Length: 8 meters (25 feet)


Torvosaurus tanneri

(pronounced “TORR-voh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Megalosauroidea > Megalosauridae > Megalosaurinae

Length: 10-12 meters (33-40 feet)


Triceratops (T.horridus, T.prorsus)

(pronounced “try-SARE-oh-tops”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Ceratopsia > Ceratopsoidea > Ceratopsidae > Ceratopsinae

Length: 9 meters (30 feet)


Tyrannosaurus rex

(pronounced “tie-RAN-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Tyrannosauroidea > Tyrannosauridae > Tyrannosaurinae

Length: 12-14 meters (39-46 feet)


Utahraptor ostrummaysorum

(pronounced “YOO-taww-rap-torr”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > ... > Eumaniraptora > Dromaeosauridae > Dromaeosaurinae

Length: 7 meters (22 feet)


HIDDEN SPECIES

The following species are available only in the hidden environments, which become unlocked after completing some of the goal-oriented levels in the game. For more about hidden environments and the gameplay modes, please see the following respective sections.


Amargasaurus cazaui

(pronounced “ah-MARR-gah-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Diplodocoidea > Flagellicaudata > Dicraeosauridae

Length: 10 meters (33 feet)


Anabisetia saldiviai

(pronounced “anna-bee-SET-ee-uh”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia

Length: 3 meters (10 feet)


Argentinosaurus huinculensis

(pronounced “arr-jen-TEEN-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Somphospondyli > Titanosauria

Length: 30-35 meters (98-115 feet)


Bothriospondylus robustus

(pronounced “bawth-rio-SPAWN-deh-luss”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Neosauropoda > Macronaria > Titanosauriforma > Brachiosauridae

Length: 15-20 meters (50-65 feet)


Callovosaurus leedsi

(pronounced “call-OH-voh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia

Length: 8 meters (26 feet0


Cetiosaurus (C.medius, C.oxoniensis)

(pronounced “SEE-tee-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Sauropodomorpha > Sauropoda > Eusauropoda > Cetiosauridae

Length: 15-18 meters (49-59 feet)


Citipati osmolskae

(pronounced “SEH-tee-PAH-tee”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > Oviraptorosauria > Oviraptoridae > Oviraptorinae

Length: 3 meters (9 feet)


Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis

(pronounced “yoo-STREP-tow-spawn-deh-luss”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Megalosauroidea > Megalosauridae > Eustreptospondylinae

Length: 5-7 meters (17-23 feet)


Giganotosaurus carolinii

(pronounced “jig-ah-NO-tow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Carnosauria > Allosauroidea > Carcharodontosauridae > Giganotosaurinae

Length: 14 meters (45 feet)


Irritator challengeri

(pronounced “IRR-it-tay-tor”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Megalosauroidea > Spinosauridae

Length: 8 meters (26 feet)


Lexovisaurus durobrivensis

(pronounced “lex-OH-veh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Thyreophora > Stegosauria > Stegosauridae

Length: 5 meters (16 feet)


Mapusaurus roseae

(pronounced “MAP-poo-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Carnosauria > Allosauroidea > Carcharodontosauridae > Giganotosaurinae

Length: 13 meters (41 feet)


Megalosaurus bucklandii

(pronounced “MEH-gall-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Megalosauroidea > Megalosauridae > Megalosaurinae

Length: 9 meters (30 feet)


Prenocephale prenes

(pronounced “PREE-no-SEPH-ah-lay”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Pachycephalosauria > Homalocephaloidea > Pachycephalosauridae

Length: 3 meters (10 feet)


Proceratosaurus bradleyi

(pronounced “PRO-seh-rat-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria

Length: 4 meters (12 feet)


Protoceratops andrewsi

(pronounced “PRO-tow-SARE-uh-tops”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Heterodontosauriforma > Marginocephalia > Ceratopsia > Protoceratopsidae

Length: 2 meters (5-7 feet)


Saurolophus kryschtofovici

(pronounced “saw-RAWL-oh-fuss”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea > Hadrosauridae > Hadrosaurinae > Saurolophini

Length: 10 meters (32 feet)


Shantungosaurus giganteus

(pronounced “shawn-TUNG-oh-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Ornithopoda > Iguanodontia > Hadrosauroidea > Hadrosauridae > Hadrosaurinae > Edmontosaurini

Length: 15 meters (50 feet)


Shuvuuia deserti

(pronounced “shoo-VOO-ya”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > Alvarezsauria

Length: 1 meter (2 feet)


Tarbosaurus bataar

(pronounced “TAR-bow-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Tyrannosauroidea > Tyrannosauridae > Tyrannosaurinae

Length: 10-14 meters (33-46 feet)


Tarchia giganteus

(pronounced “tar-CHEE-uh”)

Dinosauria > Ornithschia > Thyreophora > Ankylosauria > Ankylosauridae > Ankylosaurinae

Length: 8 meters (26 feet)


Therizinosaurus cheloniformis

(pronounced “THARE-eh-ZIN-no-saw-rus”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > Therizinosauria > Therizinosauridae > Therizinosaurinae

Length: 10-12 meters (33-40 feet)


Unenlagia comahuensis

(pronounced “ooh-nen-LAW-gee-uh”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > ... > Eumaniraptora > Dromaeosauridae > Unenlagiinae

Length: 2 meters (7 feet)


Velociraptor mongoliensis

(pronounced “veh-LOSS-eh-RAP-tore”)

Dinosauria > Saurischia > Theropoda > Neotheropoda > Tetanurae > Avetheropoda > Coelurosauria > Maniraptoriforma > Maniraptora > ... > Eumaniraptora > Dromaeosauridae > Velociraptorinae

Length: 2 meters (6 feet)


OTHER WILDLIFE
Of course, dinosaurs weren't the only animals alive during the Mesozoic era, as massive flying reptiles took to the wing during this time as the dominant flying life forms, and the oceans were ruled by ferocious sea carnivores the size of whales. Dinosauria will also feature these animals living alongside dinosaurs, as well as various other ancient forms of land reptiles, mammals, and derived birds. Fan favorites like the crested flyer Pteranodon, the long-necked Elasmosaurus, and enigmatic bird Archaeopteryx, as well as obscure animals like the peculiar Pterodaustro, early icthyosaur Cymbospondylus, and giant crocodile Deinosuchus will all be represented in the game interacting with, killing, and being killed by the dinosaurs they share their world with. In total, adding these animals to the roster of dinosaurs, the game will boast over 100 forms of wildlife when completed.

O
thnielia rex

image © Scott Hartman

PART II – THE WORLD
Late Triassic, Northern Pangea, Norian Epoch, 211 million years ago

The Late Triassic is characterized by the supercontinent Pangea, in which all current landmasses save for parts of Indochina were connected in one singular landmass. As a result of this continuous continent, weather patterns were extremely harsh, with sparse little rain reaching the interior, and the coastlines being inundated with fierce tropical storms due to the massive ocean Panthalassa, which surrounded the continent. The air was extremely hot, and animals likely congregated around small bodies of water to survive, resulting in much competition for resources. In northern Pangea (North America, Europe, and parts of Asia), conifers dominated the plant life, while early dinosaur varieties outclassed the formerly dominant mammal-like reptiles to become the heirs to the planet. At around this point in the Triassic, Pangea was beginning to show the first signs of breakage, with a massive rift splitting the continent horizontally, eventually becoming the Atlantic Ocean. This rift valley was likely unusually lush for the continent's interior, and attracted many animals to it from both the northern and southern hemispheres.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Coelophysis bauri

Herrerasaurus ischigualatensis

Plateosaurus (P.engelhardti, P.longiceps)

Thecodontosaurus antiquus
Late Jurassic, Western Laurasia, Kimmeridgian Epoch, 151 million years ago

By the Jurassic, Pangea had broken up into two primary landmasses: the supercontinent Gondwana to the south—comprised of South America, Africa, and India—and Laurasia to the north—comprised of North America, Europe, and Asia. Western Laurasia, North America, was likely a very temperate landscape, with conifers dominating a landscape that also appeared to be lush in ginkgoes, cycads, and tree ferns, as well. Vast, grassless plains dotted by patches of forest and riverbeds that flooded seasonally likely comprised the bulk of the environment, with mountain ranges and arid flatland nearer the center.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Allosaurus (A.fragilis, A.ferox, A.jimmadseni)

Apatosaurus (A.ajax, A.excelsus, A.louisae)

Brachiosaurus altithorax

Camarasaurus (C.supremus, C.lentus)

Ceratosaurus (C.nasicornis, C.magnicornis)

Diplodocus (D.longus, D.carnegiei)

Dryosaurus altus

Ornitholestes hermanni

Othnielia (O.rex, O.consors)

Stegosaurus (S.armatus, S.stenops)

Torvosaurus tanneri


Early Cretaceous, North America, Aptian Epoch, 120 million years ago

The less stable of the two supercontinents, Laurasia separated in the Cretaceous, with only sparse few land bridges connecting North America to Europe. In North America, the continent seemed to become flatter and more open, with wide fertile plains surrounded by smaller forests, and a vast floodplain running vertically down the center of the continent dotted with several riverbeds and likely a fair bit of marshland. Rocky, tree-dotted valleys likely bordered this floodplain, and opened up to higher, dryer plains on either side.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Acrocanthosaurus atokensis

Deinonychus antirrhopus

Falcarius utahensis

Gastonia burgei

Iguanodon lakotaensis

Pleurocoelus (P.nanus, P.altus)

Tenontosaurus (T.tilletti, T.dossi)

Utahraptor ostrummaysorum
Middle Cretaceous, Eastern Gondwana, Cenomanian Epoch, 98 million years ago

By the middle Cretaceous, the southern supercontinent Gondwana began to drift apart, with India separating from Africa and Africa separating from South America. However, at this point South America and Africa were still very much connected, and shared an environment whose flora and fauna had developed along its own path, unique from the more well-known life forms of Laurasia. Interestingly, what we know of as the dry Sahara desert and lush Serengeti of Africa today were reversed in the Middle Cretaceous, with the Sahara being an ultra lush floodplain, and the center of the continent being decidedly dryer and hotter.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Aegyptosaurus baharijensis

Carcharodontosaurus saharicus

Deltadromeus agilis

Majungatholus atopus

Ouranosaurus nigeriensis

Paralititan stromeri

Rebbachisaurus garasbae

Rugops primus

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus


Late Cretaceous, North America, Campanian Epoch, 71 million years ago

One of the most famous Mesozoic landscapes alongside the North American Jurassic, this period in time features some of the most famous dinosaurs of all-time, including Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus. At this point in time, the perpetually tropical climate has begun to cool down with the aid of heightened volcanic activity and the formation of poles, creating genuine seasons of cooler and warmer weather, and plant life using this system to survive. Flowering plants thrive in this landscape, dotting the still-grassless landscape and outlining the patches of conifer forest that remain dominant. The massive floodplain at the center of the continent has become a vast shallow sea that cuts North America in two, with thick, tangled marshland making up most of what will become the fabled “Old West.” The vast grassless flatland that makes up the bulk of the landscape is dominated by horned Ceratopsians, with Tyrannosaurids stalking them from the shadows of the surrounding forests.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Albertosaurus sarcophagus

Anatotitan copei

Ankylosaurus magniventris

Bugenasaura infernalis

Dromaeosaurus albertensis

Dromiceiomimus brevitertius

Edmontosaurus (E.regalis, E.annectens, E.saskatchewanensis)

Hypacrosaurus altispinus

Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis

Stygimoloch spinifer

Thescelosaurus neglectus

Torosaurus latus

Triceratops (T.horridus, T.prorsus)

Tyrannosaurus rex
HIDDEN STAGE: Middle Jurassic, Central Laurasia, Bathonian Epoch, 165 million years ago

The center of the supercontinent Laurasia was never very stable, and began to break up almost as soon as the landmass had formed. As a result, the area of what is now Europe was more like a patchwork of gigantic islands for most of the Age of Dinosaurs, with rich, jungle greenery at the center and vast, sandy beaches abound. The vast, shallow sea that these islands inhabited was ripe with large ocean carnivores, and the few dinosaurs who could migrate by swimming the relatively short distance between islands did so at their own risk. It's really rather surprising that the forerunners to such plains animals as Stegosaurus and Diplodocus got their genuine start on this disjointed land.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Bothriospondylus robustus

Callovosaurus leedsi

Cetiosaurus (C.medius, C.oxoniensis)

Eustreptospondylus oxoniensis

Lexovisaurus durobrivensis

Megalosaurus bucklandii

Proceratosaurus bradleyi


HIDDEN STAGE: Middle Cretaceous, Western Gondwana, Cenomanian Epoch, 98 million years ago

While sharing a similar hot, humid climate as the eastern part of Gondwana, the region of modern-day South America was not quite as wet. Rather, it was steep and rocky, and the formation of what are today the Andes Mountains resulted in an unstable volcanic line along the westernmost coast, and wide fields of volcanic ash at the center of the continent. Towering forests of conifer trees appeared sparsely, and to compensate for the lack of nutritious food and water, herbivores grew big to slow the momentum of their metabolisms. As a result, the carnivores grew big to tackle the herbivores, and a true land of giant came to be, where the largest land animals of all time reigned supreme.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Amargasaurus cazaui

Anabisetia saldiviai

Argentinosaurus huinculensis

Giganotosaurus carolinii

Irritator challengeri

Mapusaurus roseae

Unenlagia comahuensis


HIDDEN STAGE: Late Cretaceous, China, Campanian Epoch, 71 million years ago

Oft-overlooked, China in the Late Cretaceous was truly an unusual and fascinating place. In this arid, hilly land, where most water and vegetation came from rolling oases and seasonal rains, wildlife thrived in highly peculiar ways. Plant eaters appeared with carnivores' bodies, feathered dinosaurs reigned supreme, and this vast, endless desert was home to one of the richest and most prolific ecosystems that dinosaurs had ever partaken in.


This environment features the following dinosaur species...

Citipati osmolskae

Prenocephale prenes

Protoceratops andrewsi

Saurolophus kryschtofovici

Shantungosaurus giganteus

Shuvuuia deserti

Tarbosaurus bataar

Tarchia giganteus

Therizinosaurus cheloniformis

Velociraptor mongoliensis



Velociraptor mongoliensis

image © Scott Hartman
PART III – THE GAMEPLAY
Gameplay in Dinosauria will consist of four main modes, across two principal types of gameplay: sandbox play and goal-oriented play. The sandbox style gameplay will be the main focus, much like in Sim City, and will involve the player observing and freely tinkering with the environments to see what sort of impact it will have on the dinosaurs. The goal-oriented gameplay modes will be the secondary focus, and will be used to teach more specific and hotly-debated theories on dinosaurs by having the player focus more closely on looking for these theories to pass stages. However, players will be encouraged to play these goal-oriented levels, as passing them will unlock hidden stages that they can then explore in the sandbox gameplay modes.
Observance Mode

This first mode of sandbox gameplay is also the main mode of the game. Simply put, it's observing the behaviors of various dinosaur species within an environment, and letting the game's terrain generation and A.I. Work together to create the most realistic and lifelike recreation of the age of dinosaurs yet known. Players will watch in real-time as animals herd, mate, fight, hunt, eat, drink, and perform numerous other behaviors in accordance with the most recent paleontological theories.


Experimentation Mode

Experimentation Mode plays out much like Sim City, and will probably be the main draw of the game for players. In this mode, players have free reign to take an environment and manipulate it to their own specifications, using the game's Dinopalette and Enviropalette tool palettes to mold terrain and alter the behavior and population of the dinosaurs, and see how those changes affect the world as a whole. If the player so chooses, they could populate a Late Jurassic landscape with nothing but carnivores and see what effect that will have on the environment, or create disastrous floods or droughts and see how the animals manage to survive (if indeed they survive at all). Unlike Observation Mode, this mode will not work in real-time, but will work in an accelerated form so that players can see the effects of their changes more immediately.
Scenario Mode

Scenario Mode plays out like a goal-oriented version of the Experimentation Mode. Given a limited set of controls, the player must accomplish a set objective within a set time frame in order to move on to the next level. This mode is very much like Sim City's own scenario setup, and should be a familiar concept to players.
There are six missions in Scenario Mode.


  1. The prey population in a Western Gondwana environment has changed, and larger Argentinosaurus are moving into an area formerly dominated by smaller Amargasaurus. The Giganotosaurus in the area are accustomed to preying on the Amargasaurus, and are not used to hunting the larger Argentinosaurus. Within one year, adjust the Giganotosaurus' behavior so that they are used to hunting Argentinosaurus, and can compete with a new population of Mapusaurus, which are already used to hunting the larger Sauropods.


This mission's solution will be to increase Socialization and Feeding in the Dinopalette (see Gameplay Mechanics below for more details on the Dinopalette) to create a pack-hunting habit among the Giganotosaurus that will allow them to hunt the larger Argentinosaurus and make the larger prey necessary, while increasing Territory Defense to drive away to competing Mapusaurus.


  1. During their regular seasonal migration, a herd of Pachyrhinosaurus attempted to cross a river during a heavy rainstorm. Unfortunately, due to the rain, the river flooded, and the herd's population was decimated. The few animals that remain are in dire situation, and must regroup and finish the migration to their new seasonal grazing grounds. Using only the Dinopalette, guide the herd across an environment rich in carnivorous Albertosaurus to their new feeding ground, and ensure that the animals breed within one generation to ensure that the herd will be well on its way to regaining its former numbers.

This mission's solution will be to decrease Territory Range to zero, forcing the Pachyrhinosaurus to migrate, while increasing Socialization in order to make them more likely to move in large numbers and defend each other. Upon reaching their feeding ground, increasing Territory Range and Parenting is necessary to ensure the animals breed properly.




  1. A population of Hypacrosaurus is struggling to survive because each successive generation is yielding gradually lower birth rates than the last. Unless the animals find a better nesting area and change their breeding strategies, they will go extinct in this region. In three generations, use the Dinopalette to not only stabilize the Hypacrosaurus birth rates, but put them on the increase.

The Hypacrosaurus in this mission start with very low Socialization, very high Territory Defense, and medium-low Territory Range. Increasing Socialization and lowering Territory Defense will allow the animals to breed, while Increasing Territory Range will allow them to find a better nesting site. Increasing Parenting will allow them to defend against small carnivores that steal eggs.




  1. Lack of rain has devastated a Late Jurassic floodplain and put strain on the animals in the area. Suffering most are the Allosaurus in the area, as the lack of water has driven away their main prey source—the large Sauropods—and driven them to the brink of starvation. Worse, the stress of this food and water shortage has driven the Allosaurus to fight amongst each other for survival, which has lowered the reproduction rate. Using only the Dinopalette to adjust their behavior, ensure that the Allosaurus are able to find water, seek out a new food source, and successfully breed within two generations.

The player's solution in this mission is to increase Territory Range to increase how much land the Allosaurus have to find water on, while lowering Feeding to make the Allosaurus scavenge dead animals that have died from dehydration. The player must then lower Territory Defense and slightly increase Socialization to allow the Allosaurus to breed, but increasing Socialization too much will result in too many animals in one area and a lack of food.




  1. A subtle change in vegetation and the introduction of a new population of Utahraptor has caused unrest for a population of Iguanodon. The new food is tougher to digest, and the largely solitary Iguanodon in the area are easy prey for the coordinated pack hunting techniques of the Utahraptor. In only one generation, adjust the Iguanodon population's behavior so that they can cope with the new food source, and defend themselves against the new predators.

The solution here is to decrease Feeding, to make the Iguanodon eat less and eat more nutritious food, while increasing Socialization so that the animals cluster together in large numbers capable of intimidating the Utahraptor in the area. Alternatively, the player can drop Territory Range to zero to force the animals to migrate out of the region and towards an area of fresher food and fewer predators.




  1. A new ecological niche for large carnivores has opened up in an area, and two predators, Megalosaurus and Eustreptospondylus, are vying to fill it. In four generations, take control of the Megalosaurus population and breed them so that their hunting, breeding, and territorial strategies make them capable of muscling the Eustreptospondylus out of the region, and establish the Megalosaurus as the dominant predator of the area.

The trick in this mission is to get the Territory Defense just right. Setting it too low will allow the Eustreptospondylus to encroach too much, while setting it too high will make the Megalosaurus fight too much amongst each other to sufficiently mate. Increasing Territory Range, Feeding, and Parenting are also necessary to winning this mission.


Passing all six Scenario Mode missions will unlock the Middle Jurassic Central Laurasia environment for play in the Observation and Experimentation Modes.
Safari Mode

Much like Scenario Mode is a goal-oriented Experimentation Mode, Safari mode works like a goal-oriented Observation Mode. In this mode, players are given a specific behavior they are to observe within a population of dinosaurs, and are given the ability to take snapshots with a camera to “document” this behavior, much in the way of games like Pokemon Snap. But unlike those games, though, where the specified behaviors are predetermined, in Dinosauria said behaviors are random, based on the dinosaurs' A.I., making this mode more of a challenge, and requiring the players to be more observant. Unlike other gameplay modes, the camera in Safari Mode will be fixed at a human eye level in the game, to make the idea of going on a safari more feel more authentic. Also, unlike Scenario Mode, there is no time limit on Safari Mode.
There are six missions in Safari Mode.


  1. It's widely accepted that many small carnivore species lived and hunted in social groups, much like wolves and hyaenas do today. However, within only the last four or five years, new fossil evidence has arisen to indicate that some large carnivorous dinosaurs may also have lived in social groups. The first of these discoveries was a bonebed in Canada in 2002, which contained the remains of between ten and twelve Albertosaurus sarcophagus, including young juveniles and old adults. However, some scientists remain skeptical, insisting that these animals were only drawn together due to unique circumstances, like a food shortage or flood. Follow an Albertosaurus and document how regularly it interacts with others of its species. Document two instances of how it hunts, two instances of how it migrates, two instances of how it tends to its territory, and two instances of how it mates, all to determine how, if at all, it associates with other Albertosaurus.

The player will discover in this mission that Albertosaurus was a very close-knit animal, which not only hunts in groups, but also migrates in groups and mates like modern wild dogs, with alpha males and females dictating the actions of the others.




  1. For many years, the horns and frills of Ceratopsian dinosaurs have always been assumed to have been the animals' sword and shields. The horns were believed to have been used in dramatic charges, impaling attacking carnivores, while the shields were believed to have been defense against attacks on the horned dinosaurs' necks. However, new fossil evidence has called this assumption into doubt. Following herds of three Ceratopsian species—Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis, Triceratops horridus, and Torosaurus latus—document three instances each of these species using their horns and frills. Document whether the animals use them as weapons, or as something else entirely.

What the player is meant to watch for in this mission are mating displays. Torosaurus and Triceratops use their large, fragile frills as visual displays, while using their horns like deer antlers in jousting matches. Pachyrhinosaurus uses its large bony nasal boss in strength matches, pushing back rivals.




  1. Late Cretaceous China is a peculiar area in terms of dinosaur research. Large populations of herbivores, particularly small Ceratopsians like Protoceratops, are thriving in the area, despite it being a region sorely deprived of water and easily digestible vegetation. Following a herd of Protoceratops, document five instances of the animals acquiring food and water to determine how they're managing to be so successful in such a resource-starved region.

To the player's intended surprise, the Protoceratops find food by scavenging starved corpses where no food is to be found, and using their clawed hands to dig up roots to obtain residual water.




  1. The Late Jurassic was the heyday of the long-necked Sauropod dinosaurs. It was during this time that they reached their peak of diversification, and reached all corners of the Earth with the sort of proliferation they would never again achieve. Driving their diversification was the way in which the animals all co-existed together, yet fit into different ecological niches. Following Brachiosaurus, Camarasaurus, Apatosaurus, and Diplodocus, document two instances of feeding and two instances of socialization each in order to find out how each genus lived differently fro the others.

The player is intended to find three different feeding strategies, and three different socialization strategies among the four Sauropod genus. The Diplodocus and Apatosaurus graze low-lying fern bushes with their horizontal necks and peglike teeth, the Camarasaurus will use their big spoonlike teeth to snap off mid-level branches, and the Brachiosaurus will use their high-reaching necks and scissorlike teeth to graze the very tops of trees for the softer vegetation found there. The Brachiosaurus will generally be more solitary animals, as there are few trees on the plains they inhabit, while Diplodocus move in large, single-species herds, and the Camarasaurus and Apatosaurus herd together for mutual protection from carnivores.




  1. The ecology of East Gondwana is a confusing one. There appear to me as many carnivorous species in the region as there are herbivores, and the carnivores in the area appear to be highly specialized to pursue certain types of food. Following five African carnivores—Spinosaurus, Rugops, Majungatholus, Carcharodontosaurus, and Deltadromeus—document two instances of each carnivore acquiring its food in order to discover how each one fit a different niche in the meat-eater-rich area.

The intent of this mission is for the player to discover how each carnivore ate, and how they co-existed with one another. The player will find that despite its reputation, Spinosaurus was really a giant beach comber, hunting fish and crocodilians by the beach, while Carcharodontosaurus was the main big game hunter. Deltadromeus, being the fastest carnivore in the region, chased and outran mid-sized prey, while Rugops and Majungatholus served as scavengers and hunters of smaller and sicker game.




  1. For the past decade, there has been a raging debate as to the feeding habits of Tyrannosaurus rex. Some scientists insist that Tyrannosaurus was too big and too clumsy to actively chase and kill its own prey, and got all of its food by scavenging already-dead animals and stealing the kills of other, more capable predators. Others insist that Tyrannosaurus was so highly developed for killing that it did nothing but hunt and take down its own, fresh prey items. Follow a Tyrannosaurus and document five instances of the animal acquiring its food, in order to get a fair assessment of the animals feeding strategies. As a bonus, also document three instances of sub-adult (teenage) Tyrannosaurus acquiring food, in order to see if any differences among the two age groups' feeding habits exist.

The objective for the player in this final mission is to discover that Tyrannosaurus neither hunted or scavenged exclusively, but did both fairly evenly, and while adults targeted heavier animals like Triceratops, the teenagers targeted faster, smaller animals like Dromiceiomimus.


Passing all six Safari Mode missions will unlock the Late Cretaceous China environment for play in the Observation and Experimentation Modes.
Passing all twelve total missions between both Scenario and Safari Modes will unlock the Middle Cretaceous Western Gondwana environment for play in the Observation and Experimentation Modes.

A
llosaurus fragilis

image © Scott Hartman
PART IV – THE GAME MECHANICS
For all but the Safari mode of the game, the camera will be freely movable via the mouse, keyboard, or gamepad, and capable of zooming out to a bird's eye view, or zooming in within inches of the dinosaurs' faces. With this free-roaming camera, players will be able to go anywhere and see anything involving the environment and the animals inhabiting it.
Interacting with this environment is primarily done through the use of two tool palettes, the Dinopalette and Enviropalette. As the names suggest, these palettes are use to adjust the dinosaurs and environment respectively, through Passive or Active Controls. Passive Controls adjust subtle things like weather and animal behavior, while Active Controls allow the player to literally sculpt the environment or play with things like animal population.
In the Scenario Mode of the game, only the Passive Controls of the Dinopalette will be usable.
The Dinopalette

The Dinopalette is the player's way of manipulating the dinosaurs. Selecting an animal or population of animals and opening the Dinopalette gives the player the opportunity to alter their behaviors via Passive Controls, or actively drag and drop the animals or play with their population with Active Controls. However, the player should be careful, as Passive Controls affect one another, and pushing one too far may interfere greatly with another.


Dinopalette Controls – Passive

Socialization: Controls how social the animals are. Lower socialization makes the animals more solitary, while higher socialization results in close-knit herds.

Territory Range: Controls how wide of a territory the animal controls. Low Territory Range means less for the animal to guard, making it more likely to move around and be nomadic. High Territory Range gives the animal a large region to cover, making it more likely to stay in that territory and not move around much.

Territory Defense: Controls how fiercely the animal defends its territory. Low Territory Defense means the animal is more likely to let others of its own species and other species into its territory, while high Territory Defense results in a higher chance the animal will attack others of its own kind or other kinds. High Territory Defense and low Socialization results in an unwillingness among animals to breed, while the opposite improves likelihood of breeding.

Parenting: Controls how much the animal cares for its young. Low Parenting means the animal will likely abandon its young, while high Parenting will result in animals not only caring for their own offspring, but the offspring of others in the same species, as well.

Feeding: Controls how the animal acquires its food. For carnivores, low Feeding results in an animal that exclusively scavenges, while high Feeding results in an animal that exclusively hunts. For herbivores, low Feeding results in the animal eating less and subsisting on higher-nutrient foods and a pickier diet, while high Feeding results in a preference for less nutritious foods and a more frequent, less prejudiced approach to grazing. High Feeding and high Socialization results in coordinated pack-hunting among carnivores, while the opposite results in high competition within the species for food.
Dinopalette Controls – Active

Population: Controls the population of various dinosaur species. Allows the player to place animals in the environment or removed them as he or she sees fit.

Foreign Population: Governs the player's ability to place animals from other environments into the selected environment to see how they may thrive or falter in the area. Allows the player to do things like place a Tyrannosaurus in the Late Jurassic, or place a Velociraptor in Late Triassic Pangea.

Relocation: Allows the player to freely pick up and move dinosaurs or groups of dinosaurs to anywhere on the map they choose.
The Enviropalette

The Enviropalette is the player's way of manipulating the environment around the dinosaurs, allowing him or her to control the mountains, bodies of water, weather, and vegetation in a specified area. Like the Dinopalette, the Enviropalette has both Passive and Active Controls, and like the Dinopalette, the Enviropalette's Passive Controls affect one another and interact.


Enviropalette Controls – Passive

Rain: Activating rain increases the wetness of an area, allowing for things like increased water for animals to drink, as well as a smaller effect similar to the Plant Growth and Erosion tools. However, too much rain can cause flooding, and can result in hurricanes and tropical monsoons when combined with the Wind tool.

Drought: The opposite of Rain, the Drought tool dries out an area, decreasing wetness and making it harder for animals to find drinking water and for plants to grow.

Wind: Wind tool creates windstorms, from small dust devils to hurricane-like storms. Primarily designed to work in combination with other tools, like Rain, Drought, and Volcanism.

Volcanism: The Passive means of creating mountains, Volcanism pushes up earth and reforms the landscape, but at the same time results in either earthquakes in light, infrequent use, or full-on volcanic eruptions in heavy, constant usage. Combined with Wind, Volcanism can create ash clouds that have disastrous effects on animal and plant life in a region.

Erosion: Erosion is used to wear down mountains and hills at a rate faster than that of the Rain tool, but not as drastic as the Active tool option of Digging. Erosion combined with Rain can create landslides, and Erosion combined with Wind and Drought can create dust storms.

Plant Growth: A faster means of creating plant life than the Rain tool, but like the Erosion tool, not as fast or drastic as its Active tool alternative. When used on an area, the type of plant that grows in the area is pre-determined based on the type of land the plant growth is appearing on.
Enviropalette Controls – Active

Digging: A more drastic and creative alternative to Volcanism and Erosion, the Digging tool allows players to actively carve their own landscape, including digging rivers, raising mountain ranges, and creating deserts or beaches.

Plant Placement: Like Plant Growth, except the player can instantly place a plant of their own choosing, independent of the type of environment the plant is being placed onto.
PART V.B – THE PLATFORMS
Dinosauria's primary platforms will be PC, Mac, and the XBox 360, with console alternatives being offered on the Playstation 3 and Wii. With the ever-changing nature of the paleontological field, and with the plan to produce expansion packs with new environments and dinosaur species at a later date, the game will only be offered on platforms that offer downloadable content, so that expansions and patches to compensate for new scientific discoveries will be easily deliverable to players.

A
crocanthosaurus atokensis

image © Scott Hartman
PART V – THE AUDIENCE

The game is designed to be produced in conjunction with numerous natural history museums across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, and will likely be sold at these museums' gift shops, as well as educational retail outlets like The Discovery Store. The target audience the game is designed to be sold to consists of anyone, regardless of age, who has an interest in dinosaurs and the world they lived in. Game content is designed to accurately reflect this world, and will not be simplified or censored to appeal exclusively to children. At the same time, it will not be so mired in scientific terminology and the more technical aspects of the anatomy, biology, ecology, and chemistry that made up the dinosaurs' world as to completely isolate the younger audiences and the layman. It will be straightforward and honest about how these animals lived, with enough focus on their active lifestyle to keep the interest of those who want to see fighting and hunting. Yet at the same time, the violence will not be overglorified in order to maintain the all-ages demographic.

D
iplodocus carnegiei

image © Scott Hartman


PART VI – INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY TERMS
Dinosauria

Dinosauria: A Return to the Age of Dinosaurs



Dinopalette

Enviropalette


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