Description of orders




Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
Памер54.02 Kb.
ESRM 452, Lab 4

DESCRIPTION OF ORDERS
PASSERIFORMES: Songbirds
Family Tyrannidae (Flycatchers, Kingbirds)

  • Significant features:

Largest bird Family, about 400 species

Large heads and broad flattened bills



  • Distribution: North and South America

  • Habitat: varies by species, often utilize edges

  • Size: 9-28 cm, 4-88 g

  • Plumage: generally similar year-round and between sexes (exception is Vermillion Flycatcher)

  • Food: primarily insects, also fruit

  • Foraging Behavior: catch insects in flight

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: monogamous

Nest shape: open cup, also cavities and spherical nests

Clutch size: 2-8, usually 3-5

Incubation: 13-17 days, by female

Chicks: altricial

Fledgling: 12-23 days



  • Conservation: Habitat loss


Family Laniidae (Shrikes)

  • Significant features:

Impaling behavior, caching

Prey mimicking

Convergent evolution


  • Distribution: World-wide, most species are found in Africa

  • Habitat: Shrubsteppe

  • Plumage: Males = Females (except bush shrikes in Africa)

  • Food: Insects, small birds and mammal species

  • Foraging Behavior: Sit and wait predator

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous

Nest shape: Cup nest made of sticks and grasses

Clutch size: 4-8 eggs

Incubation: 15 - 17 days, female incubates but males feed females during incubation

Fledgling: 17 - 21 days, both sexes feed nestlings, post-fledgling period 3-4 weeks.


  • Conservation: Loggerhead shrike threatened over most of its range


Family Vireonidae (Vireos)

  • Significant features: Neotropical migrants

  • Distribution: New world species

  • Habitat: Forests, shrublands, oak forests, forest edges

  • Plumage: Male = Female

  • Food: Omnivorous (seeds, berries, insects)

  • Foraging Behavior: Foliage gleanning

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous

Nest shape: Cup nesters

Clutch size: 3 - 5 eggs

Incubation: 11 - 14 days, female, male and female in some species

Fledgling: 10 - 16 days, both adults feed nestlings


  • Conservation:

Habitat destruction

Brown-headed cowbird host (Black-capped Vireo > 90%)


Family Corvidae (Jays, Nutcrackers, Magpies, Crows, Ravens)

  • Significant features:

Spatial memory and food caches

Mimic calls of birds of prey

Tool users

Nests and nest parasites



  • Plumage: Male = female, summer = winter

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous/Helpers

Nest substrate: Trees

Nest: Cup nests made of sticks, Magpies built dome nests lined with mud

Clutch size: 2-13 eggs

Incubation: 16-21 days, female/male depending on species

Fledgling: 25-34 days, nestlings are fed by both adults

Conservation: Some species have increased drastically; Prey on nests of endangered species (Marbled Murrlet, Desert Tortoise)
Family Alaudidae (Larks)


  • Significant features:

Usually in large flocks

Elaborate songs given in display flight



  • Distribution: Mostly Old World and Australia, only one native North American species

  • Habitat: open, sparsely vegetated or barren, ground

  • Size: 10-23 cm, 15-75 g

  • Plumage: dimorphic

  • Food: small seeds and insects

  • Foraging Behavior: picks from ground or low vegetation

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: monogamous

Nest shape: generally small cups, often on ground

Clutch size: 2-9

Incubation: 10-16 days, by female

Chicks: altricial

Fledgling: 10-20 days



  • Conservation: Pesticide poisoning


Family Hirundinidae (Swallows)

  • Significant features:

Very short legs

Short bills and strong jaws

Long, narrow, pointed wings


  • Distribution: Worldwide

  • Habitat: open habitat, often with water

  • Size: 10-20cm; 10-60g

  • Plumage: sexes are similar looking, female is often drabber

  • Food: flying insects, Tree Swallow also eats berries in winter

  • Foraging Behavior: aerial feeding over grassy meadows or ponds

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: monogamous

Nest shape: varies widely, including cavities, burrows, and mud nests

Clutch size: 4-7

Incubation: 11-20 days, generally by female

Chicks: altricial

Fledgling: 17-30 days



  • Conservation: Habitat loss


Family Paridae (Chickadees)

  • Significant features:

Learning

White mouse in ornithology

Excavation of cavity important for pair bond


  • Distribution: Northern Hemisphere

  • Habitat: Forests
  • Size: Male > Female


  • Plumage: Summer = Winter, Male = Female

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous/Polygynous

Nest substrate: Cavity nester (Primary and Secondary)

Nest: Cup nest made of moss and hair

Clutch size: 5-10 eggs

Incubation: 11-15 days, female/male?

Fledgling: 13-21 days, nestlings are fed by both adults



  • Conservation: None


Family Aegithalidae (Bushtits)

  • Significant features:

Nest adaptations (takes 13-15 days to built)

Highly gregarious during winter

Use interspecific communal roost sites


  • Distribution: Northern Hemisphere

  • Habitat: Savannah to early successional forests
  • Size: Males > females


  • Plumage: Winter = summer, male = female

  • Food: Omnivorous, but forage heavily on insects

  • Foraging Behavior: Gleaning and Probing

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous

Nest shape: Pendant

Male built several nests which are inspected by females

Clutch size: 3-7 eggs

Incubation: 10-12 days by both adults

Fledgling: 14-21 days, both adults feed nestlings



  • Conservation: None


Family Sittidae (Nuthatches)

  • Significant features: Tool users

  • Distribution: Northern Hemisphere

  • Habitat: Coniferous and deciduous Forests

  • Food: Insectivorous

  • Foraging Behavior: Glean and probe bark

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous, some have helpers and long-term pair bonds (Pygmy Nuthatch)

Nest: Cavity nesters (Primary and Secondary).

Clutch size: 5-10 eggs

Incubation: 12-16 days, female

Fledgling: 13-16 days, nestlings are fed by both adults


  • Conservation: Old stand dependent with lots of snags


Family Certhidae (Creepers)

  • Significant features:

Form mixed species flocks during the winter

Use camouflage when pursuit



  • Distribution: Worldwide

  • Habitat: Temperate and Tropical forests (most species)
  • Size: Male > Female


  • Plumage: No sexual dimorphism, winter = summer plumage

  • Food: Insectivorous

  • Foraging Behavior: Gleaning and Probing, ascending down the tree

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous

Nest: Built nest under tree bark, cup nesters

Clutch size: 4-8 eggs

Incubation: 14-17 days, female

Fledgling: 13-16 days, nestlings are fed by both adults, young can creep as soon as leaving nest


  • Conservation: Depend on large trees


Family Troglodytidae (Wrens)

  • Significant features:

New World species

Intra and interspecific nest attacks



  • Distribution: Mainly New World

  • Habitat: Temperate and Tropical Forests
  • Size: Males > Females


  • Plumage: No sexual dimorphism, winter = summer plumage

  • Food: Insectivorous

  • Foraging Behavior: Probing and gleaning

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous/Polygynous

Nest: Cup nesters, nest built in root wads, usually well hidden

Clutch size: 4-12 eggs

Incubation: 11-16 days, female

Fledgling: 13-19 days, nestlings are fed by both adults


  • Conservation: None


Family Cinclidae (Dippers)

  • Significant features:

Aquatic adaptations

Dipping


Altitudinal migration

  • Distribution: World wide

  • Habitat: Rivers and streams

  • Plumage: Males = females, summer = winter

  • Food: Aquatic invertebrates and fish

  • Foraging Behavior: Diving

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: Monogamous/Polygynous

Nest substrate: Cliffs often below waterfall

Nest: Sperical made off moss

Clutch size: 4-6 eggs

Incubation: 13-17 days, female

Fledgling: 18-25 days, nestlings are fed by both adults



  • Conservation: Water pollution


Family Regulidae (Kinglets)

  • Significant features:

small, nervous, and active

sometimes found in small flocks mixed with chickadees, warblers, or creepers



  • Plumage: similar year-round and between sexes except for colorful crown patch in males

  • Food: tiny insects

  • Foraging Behavior: hang upside-down or hover at tips of branches

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: monogamous

Nest shape: cup

Clutch size: 3-12

Incubation: 14-17 days, by female

Chicks: altricial

Fledgling: 16-22 days


Family Turdidae (Bluebirds, Thrushes, Robins)

  • Significant features:

Short blunt bills, long legs, and upright posture

Fluting song

Generally private and solitary although some species (example American Robin) form flocks and forage in the open


  • Distribution: Worldwide

  • Habitat: wooded and open areas

  • Size: 12-33 cm, 21-178 g

  • Plumage: varies, some species sexually dimorphic

  • Food: insects, snails, fruit

  • Foraging Behavior: on ground

  • Breeding Behavior:

Mating system: monogamous

Nest shape: open cup

Clutch size: 2-10, usually 4-5

Incubation: 10-17 days, typically by female

Chicks: altricial

Fledgling: 8-19 days



  • Conservation:

Habitat loss

Increased predation








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