Department of veterinary microbiology semester III




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EXISTING

REVISED

DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY

SEMESTER III
GENERAL VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY

VMC-211 Credit Hours: 1+1=2

THEORY

Introduction and history of Microbiology. Morphology, structure, growth and nutrition of bacteria. Classification and nomenclature of bacteria. Sources and transmission of infection. Pathogenicity, virulence and infection. Resistance and susceptibility of host, bacteraemia, septicaemia, toxaemia, endotoxins and exotoxins; Bacterial genetics. Plasmids, Antibiotic resistance. Introduction, morphology, growth, nutrition, reproduction in fungi, Classification of fungi. Introduction to viruses: General properties, Replication, Cultivation and Purification of viruses. Cell-Virus interactions. Viral genetics. Interferon.



PRACTICAL

Equipment, Sterilization, disinfection and asepsis, Staining (simple & Grams, acid fast, lactophenol cotton blue), Special staining (metachromatic granules, capsular, spore). Bacterial motility, Preparation of culture media. Aerobic and anaerobic cultivation, Isolation of bacteria in pure culture, Morphological and cultural characteristics, biochemical characters, Antibiogram, Phenol coefficient test, Slide culture technique for fungus.



SEMESTER IV

VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY

VMC 221 Credit Hours: 1+1=2
THEORY

Concepts in Veterinary and Medical Immunology. Immune system: organs, tissues and cells. Types of immunity. Development of humoral and cellular immune responses. Antigens: definition, specificity, types and factors affecting immunogenicity, blood group antigens. Antibodies: Structure, properties and function of different classes of immunoglobulins, Site, mechanism and theories of antibody production, Monoclonal antibodies. Major histocompatability complex, Complement system; Cytokines: Major types and functions. Serological reactions: Agglutination, precipitation, haemagglutination; Phagocytosis, opsonic index, cytolysis; Complement fixation, neutralization, toxin and antitoxin reaction, immunofluoroscence; Hypersensitivity: classification and mechanism of induction. Autoimmunity and immunotolerance. Immunization of animals. Biologicals: Role of conventional and modern vaccines in immunoprophylaxis. Adjuvants. Quality control of biologicals.
PRACTICAL

Preparation of antigen, Raising of antisera, Concentration of Immunoglobulins, Agglutination (plate, tube), Precipitation (AGPT, CIE, RIE), Indirect agglutination (Latex, co-agglutination, PHA, RPHA), HA, CFT, IPT, FAT, ELISA, CMI response, Veterinary biologicals (visits and appraisal).

SEMESTER V

SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY BACTERIOLOGY AND MYCOLOGY

VMC-311 Credit Hours: 2+1=3
THEORY

Study of following important pathogenic bacteria and fungi in relation to their morphology, isolation, growth, colonial, biochemical and antigenic characters. Pathogenicity and diagnosis of bacterial and fungal diseases caused by the following genera:

Bacteria: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae (E.coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, Klebsiella and Proteus), Campylobacter, Brucella, Pasteurella and Mannheimia, Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, Moraxella, Haemophilus and Taylorella, Listeria, Actinobacillus, Actinomyces, Arcanobacterium and Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Dermatophilus, Spirochetes, Gram negative anaerobes, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila.

Fungi: Dermatophytes, Rhinosporidium, Sporotrichum, Candida, Mycetomal fungi. Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes and Dimorphic fungi. Mycotic mastitis and abortion, Mycotoxicoses.

PRACTICAL

Laboratory identification of agents of Mastitis, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, Enteric infections, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis and Johne’s disease, Clostridial infections, Wooden tongue and Lumpy jaw, Anthrax, Glanders, Aspergillosis, Dermatophytosis, Demonstration of other agents of importance (Phycomycetes, yeasts etc.).



SEMESTER VI

SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY

VMC 321 Credit Hours: 2+1=3

THEORY

Brief history, classification and characteristics of various families of DNA and RNA viruses causing diseases in livestock and poultry, laboratory diagnostic techniques, immunity to viral infections, systemic virology including: DNA viruses: Poxviridae: Pox viruses of cow, sheep, goat and fowl. Asfarviridae: African swine fever, Herpesviridae: Aujeszky's disease, malignant catarrhal fever, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, equine abortion, Marek’s disease, infectious laryngeotracheitis. Adenoviridae - Infectious canine hepatitis, EDS, IBH-HPS. Papillomaviridae: Papillomatosis, Parvoviridae: Canine Parvovirus. Circoviridae: Chicken infectious anaemia. RNA viruses: Orhomyxoviridae: Swine, equine and Avian influenza. Paramyxoviridae: Rinderpest, PPR, canine distemper and Ranikhet disease, Flaviviridae: Classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea. Picornaviridae: - FMD, duck viral hepatitis, Rhabdoviridae: - Rabies, vesicular stomatitis, ephemeral fever, Coronaviridae:– Avian Infectious bronchitis, transmissible gastroenteritis, Togaviridae: - Equine encephalitis, Arteriviridae: equine viral arteritis, Caliciviridae: vesicular exanthema, Retroviridae: Avian leucosis group. Lentiviruses- Equine infectious anemia virus, Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis, Maedi/visna. Reoviridae: African horse sickness and blue tongue, Calf Rotavirus, Birnaviridae: Infectious bursal disease. Prions, Exotic and emerging animal and poultry viruses.



PRACTICAL

Glassware and media preparation, Demonstration of Cell culture, Virus propagation by egg inoculation, animal inoculation and cell culture, study of cytopathogenesis, viral inclusions, diagnostic procedures, serological techniques, preservation and transportation of clinical samples for virological investigations. Diagnostic procedures for PPR, FMD, RD, Blue tongue, IB, IBD and other viral.





VETERINARY MICROBILOGY Credit Hours: 3+2
THEORY

UNIT-1 (GENERAL & SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY BACTERIOLOGY)

Introduction and history of Microbiology; Classification and nomenclature of bacteria; Microscopy and Micrometry; Bacterial stains and techniques; Structure and morphology of bacteria; Growth and nutritional requirement of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; Normal, opportunistic and saprophytic bacterial flora: Types and sources of infection, method of transmission of infection. Pathogenicity, virulence, determinants of virulence, Epizootic and enzootic diseases, bacteremia, septicaemia and toxaemia, endotoxins, exotoxins, antitoxins, toxoids; Bacterial genetics (Mutation, Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation), plasmids and antibiotic resistance.

Study of the following bacteria in relation to isolation, growth, cultural, morphological, biochemical and antigenic characteristics, epidemiology and pathogenesis, pathogenicity, diagnosis, prevention and control of bacterial diseases caused by following bacteria:

Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Corynebacterium, Trueperella,Rhodococcus; Listeria and Erysepelothrix; Bacillus; Mycobacterium; Clostridium, Actinomyces, Nocardia, Streptomyces and Dermatophilus; Family Enterobacteriaceae (E.coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Proteus); Pseudomonas and Burkholderia; Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus and Haemophilus, Brucella; Vibrio; Campylobacter; Bordetella and Moraxella; Gram negative anaerobes: Bacteriodes, Dichlobacteria and Fusobacterium; Leptospira and other Spirochaetes;Mycoplasma, Coxiella, Neorickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Rickettsia; Chlamydia and Chlamydophila

Emerging, re-emerging and transboundry bacterial pathogens.

UNIT-2 (VETERINARY MYCOLOGY)

Introduction, classification, general properties of fungi; Growth and Reproduction of fungi; Study of following important pathogenic fungi in relation to their isolation, growth, morphological, cultural, biochemical and antigenic characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of fungal diseases caused by following genera: Candida and Cryptococcus; Aspergillus; Penicillium; Dermatophytes and Malassezia; Dimorphic fungi, Rhinosporidium and Sporotrichum; Mycetoma and Zygomycetes; Mycotic mastitis and mycotic abortion; Mycotoxicoses



UNIT-3 (MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY)

Basic concepts and scope of Recombinant DNA technology; Gene cloning, Cloning vectors and expression vectors; Transformation and transfection; Southern, Northern and Western blotting; Bioinformatics, Gene banks; Application of molecular & biotechnological techniques: Polymerase chain reaction, Nucleic acid hybridization, DNA library, DNA sequencing and DNA fingerprinting; IPR. Ethics and regulatory issues in Animal Biotechnology.



UNIT-4 (VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY)

History of Immunology; Lymphoid organs, tissues and Cells: Types of Immunity; Antigens, heptan, epitope, Specificity, T dependent and T independent Antigens, heterophile Antigens, cross reacting Antigens, blood group Antigens, Mitogens and factors affecting immunogenicity; Adjuvants; Antibody: Structure, physiochemical properties and functions of various classes of immunoglobulins, Theories of antibody production; Hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies, Serological reactions. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) structure, function and gene organization; Structure of BCR and TCR; Antigen processing and presentation; Complement system: activation pathways and biological consequences; Cytokines: general properties, major types and function; Hypersensitivity: classification and mechanism of induction; Autoimmunity; Immunotolerance; Concept of Immunity to Microbes, Vaccines and other biological.



UNIT-5 (GENERAL & SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY)

History of Virology; Introduction to viruses; Structure of Viruses; Classification of Viruses; Viral Replication; Genetic and Non-genetic viral interactions; Virus-Cell Interactions; Viral Pathogenesis, Oncogenesis, latency and immunopathology. Studies on General Properties, Antigens, Cultivation, Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis, Prevention & Control of following Viruses and Prions Causing Diseases in Livestock & Poultry: Birnaviridae: Infectious bursal disease virus; Reoviridae: Rotaviruses, Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus; Paramyxoviridae: Newcastle disease virus, Canine distemper virus, PPR virus; Rhabdoviridae: Rabies virus, Ephemeral fever virus, Bornaviridae: Borna virus. Orthomyxoviridae: Swine, Equine, Avian Influenza Viruses. Coronaviridae: Infectious Bronchitis virus, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus; Arterivirdae: Equine viral arteritis virus, Picornaviridae: FMD virus, Duck viral hepatitis virus; Caliciviridae: Feline calici Virus, Togaviridae: Equine encephalomyelitis viruses; Flaviviridae: Swine fever virus, BVD virus; Retroviridae: Visna/maedi virus, Equine infectious anemia virus, Lymphoid leucosis virus, Bovine leukemia virus. Poxviridae: Capripoxvirus, Avipoxvirus, Cowpoxvirus; Asfarviridae: African Swine Fever Virus; Herpesviridae: Bovine herpes viruses, Equine Herpes viruses, Infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Marek’s disease virus, Pseudorabies virus, Malignant Catarrhal Fever virus; Duck Plague virus, Adenoviridae: Infectious Canine Hepatitis virus, Egg Drop Syndrome virus, Fowl adenovirus, Papillomaviridae: Papillomatosis, Parvoviridae: Canine parvoviruses, Feline panleucopenia virus; Circoviridae: Chicken Anemia Virus: Prions: Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Emerging, re-emerging and transboundry viruses & Viral Infections.



PRACTICALS

UNIT-1 (GENERAL & SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY BACTERIOLOGY)

Orientation to bacteriology laboratory; Methods of sterilization and disinfection; Preparation of culture media for cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; Methods of inoculation, Cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria; Isolation of bacteria in pure culture; Simple staining, Negative staining, Differential staining procedures of bacteria: Gram’s staining, Acid fast staining; Special staining procedures: Capsule and Spore staining; Bacterial motility; Culture sensitivity test; Outlines of collection, transportation and processing of samples for bacterial disease diagnosis. Characterization of Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; E. coli Salmonella; Klebsiella and Proteus; Pseudomonas; Pasteurella; Clostridium; Isolation and identification of bacteria from clinical cases of Mastitis, Abortions, Enteric, Respiratory and Pyogenic infections.



UNIT-2 (VETERINARY MYCOLOGY)

Outline of collection, transportation and processing of samples for fungal disease diagnosis, Preparation of culture media, Cultivation and slide culture technique of fungi; Cultural characteristics of fungi; Lactophenol cotton blue staining to study morphology of fungi; Culture sensitivity test of fungi; Diagnosis of Aspergillosis and Candidiasis; Demonstration of other important yeast, moulds and Dermatophytes



UNIT-3 (MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY)

Extraction and quantitation of nucleic acid; Plasmid isolation and plasmid profiling; Agarose gel electrophoresis for studying/ diagnosis of nucleic acid of microbes; SDS PAGE electrophoresis for studying/ diagnosis of proteins of microbes; Use of Multimedia and audio-visual aids for molecular biology aspects.



UNIT-4 (VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND SEROLOGY)

Inoculations and bleeding of lab animals using multimedia, preparation of antigen, Raising of antisera, separation and preservation of serum, Concentration of Immunoglobulins, Agglutination tests: Plate, Tube, Haemagglutination, Precipitation test: Agar gel precipitation Test, Single radial immunodiffusion test, Immunoelectrophoresis, Cell mediated immune response (DTH), Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Visit and appraisal of Veterinary biological institute.



UNIT-5 (GENERAL & SYSTEMATIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY)

Orientation to a virology laboratory; Collection, preservation, transport of samples and their processing in virology laboratory; Isolation and cultivation of viruses in laboratory animals/ poultry; Isolation of viruses in embryonated chicken eggs; Preparation of media and reagents for cell culture; Subculture and maintenance of continuous cell lines; Quantitation of cells by viable cell counts in a haemocytometer; Cryopreservation and recovery of cell cultures; Preparation of Primary cell culture (chicken embryo fibroblast / Lamb kidney); Demonstration of cytopathic effect by viruses in cell culture (Important virus isolates available in the department); Demonstration of Titration of virus by TCID50 and plaque assay in cell cultures*; Demonstration of neutralizing antibodies by serum neutralization test in cell cultures* ; Agar gel precipitation test for detection of virus infection*; Titration of Newcastle disease virus by haemagglutination test; Haemagglutination inhibition test for detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus; ELISA for detection of viral antigen and antibodies; Molecular techniques for viral disease diagnosis



*Important virus isolates available in the department.
ANNUAL EXAMINATION
PAPERS UNITS MAXIMUM MARKS WEIGHTAGE

THEORY


Paper-I 1,2and 3 50 25

Paper-II 4 and 5 50 25


PRACTICAL

Paper-I 1,2and 3 30 15



Paper-II 4 and 5 30 15


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