Department of environment ministry of agriculture, natural resources and environment nicosia, september




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Goals and targets

Progress towards the Target (highlighting national targets, key actions, outcomes and overall assessment of progress)


Protect the components of biodiversity

Goal 1. Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and biomes




National targets

National actions

Outcomes achieved

Overall assessment

Target 1.1: At least 10% of each of the world’s ecological regions effectively conserved.

Cyprus fully implements both the Habitat and Bird Directives in order to protect biodiversity of the island with a substantial size of protected areas.

These areas have been selected to cover habitats and species of particular importance for the Mediterranean biogeographic region.



Monitoring scheme initiated in some protected areas for both habitats and species.

Sites are designated with the aim of conserving specific biological or geomorphological features.




Protected areas increased from 11.8% to 19.% (2006-2010) and the PA coverage expected to exceed in the next two to three years due to the establishment of marine areas

The status of some priority species are well know however much more monitoring needed




There is a need of an overall assessment on a survey basis for the status and conservation issues of biodiversity.

Under the obligation for the Habitats Directive carried out an assessment of both habitats and species, which resulted in the status of biodiversity of the Island.



Target 1.2: Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected



National targets

- Important Birds Areas and Special Protected Areas designated during 2006-2010

- 25 management plans have been prepared for Natura 2000 sites, aiming at the protection of habitat and flora and fauna species of EU importance. Additionally 7 management plans are being prepared for the forest areas included in the protected areas.

- Projects implemented in Cyprus for the protection and conservation of mammals (Ovis gmelini ophion) and birds of prey (Gyps fulvus)

- Natura sites that include river basins, fall into the 1st River Base Management Plan (proposed in June 2010) in the context of Water Framework Directive - 2000/60/EC

- Protected coastal areas are designated as marine park for conserved for more than 20 years for the protection of sea turtle



National action

Designation of the most important sites for the protection of the biodiversity of the Island.

The catalogue of the Natura 2000 areas was updated with the designation of new protected areas (SCIs and SPAs) in 2010.

A guidance has been prepared for the identification and surveying of habitats and is implementation has been initiated.



Outcomes achieved


Overall assessment

Management plans for 25 sites have been completed and will be enforced in order to substantially protect the Natura 2000 sites (habitats and species)



Goal 2. Promote the conservation of species diversity




Target 2.1:

Restore, maintain, or reduce the decline of populations of species of selected taxonomic groups.



National target

The red data book of flora list more than 300 plan as threatened.

The number of threatened species (higher plans), during 2002 was 1

The number of threatened species, of birds during 2002 was 3

The number of threatened species of mammals during 2002, was 3


National Action

A program of reintroduction of Gyps fulvus in Cyprus will be implemented for the reestablishment of the population.

Sea turtle species (Loggerhead and Green), have been protected since 1971 under the Fisheries Legislation, while a Turtle Conservation Project is running for many years (since 1978) aiming at the protection of their nesting beach sites, including protection of eggs, hatchlings and adult turtles and education campaign. Areas have been designed as Natura 2000 areas.

Establishment of micro reserve areas for the protection of specific habitats and species .

Farmland birds are used as indicators for the status of agroecosystems.


Outcome achieve

Increase of the muflon population due to protected measures that applied, the monitoring and systematic control in the past 13 years as a result of conservation measures

Restore and maintenance of Bonellis eagle.

Increase in the population of nesting turtle in Cyprus.




Overall assessment

Target indicators have to be set and assessed in the right bases in order to evaluate the status of biodiversity.



Target 2.2: Status of threatened species improved.




National Target

Conservation project for the Bonelli eagle in order to maintain and restore its habitat and population size. The species is well conserve and a healthy population in maintained all over the island.

Conservation of sea turtles


National Action

Maintained species by ensuring food sources of the species and its nesting sites.

Monitoring project over the coastal nesting areas


Outcome achieve

Increase of population all over the island

Increase of population size


Overall assessment

Action plan for threatened species are in place in order to ensure conservation.




Goal 3. Promote the conservation of genetic diversity




Target 3.1: Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and of harvested species of trees, fish and wildlife and other valuable species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained.




National target

A gene bank for cultivated crops and rare species has been established.

Collection for genetic resources (cultivars) for conservation purpose and restoration of native the native species.

Establishment of herbarium and flora genetic resources.




National Action

Establishment of gene bank of both livestock and crops

Botanical gardens are established in several places of the island in order to conserved endemic and rare plans.


Outcome achieve

Improvement of gene diversity



Overall assessment

A national action plan needed in order to ensure genetic diversity.



Promote sustainable use

Goal 4. Promote sustainable use and consumption.

Target 4.1: Biodiversity-based products derived from sources that are sustainably managed, and production areas managed consistent with the conservation of biodiversity.



National target

Organic production has been established. So far no data on marketing of organic products in international and local markets has been available.

Establishments of experimental station for both crops and animals and botanical gardens


National action

Gene bank are established for both forested plan and cultivate crops.

Ensure of plant conservation via botanical gardens and the experimental stations


Outcome achieve

Increase in areas of organic farming




Overall assessment

Progress needed for increase of the genetic diversity



Target 4.2. Sustainable management of biological resources

Forest is managed in ecological way for conserving biodiversity

Control of collection or harvesting of wild plants (herbs – medicinal plants)

Establishment of microreserve and botanical gardens.

Reestablishment of oak species and other species in Natura areas.



Management of forest resources in a sustainable way and afforestation of state land.


Increase of afforestation sites in a state land

Environmental impact assessment needed for afforestation

Target 4.3: Endangered species of wild flora or fauna caused by international trade

Six of the Cyprus' Flora species are included in the IUCN edition " The Top 50 Plants of the Mediterranean Islands" which presents fifty of the most threatened plant taxa of the Mediterranean islands (not endangered by international trade but other anthropogenic factors.)


Establishment of botanical gardens and microreserve sites.

Action of endangered species is taking place thought national and EU project.

More research needed in order to ensure protection of both flora and fauna.

Address threats to biodiversity

Goal 5. Pressures from habitat loss, land use change and degradation, and unsustainable water use, reduced.

Target 5.1. Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased.




National target

Quantity and quality of forest increased

Designation of protected areas increased.


National Action

Increased of afforestation in state land



Outcome achieve

Increase of woodland in abandoned agricultural land and state land as well as afforestation in burned forest sites.



Overall assessment

Assessment for afforestation needed in order to improve conservation of the sites.



Goal 6. Control threats from invasive alien species

Target 6.1. Pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled.




National target

Control measures in place to control alien species

Control for planting alien species

Eradication of alien species in protected areas.




National Action

Control of acacia species in Natura sites



Outcome achieve

Control of planting alien species



Overall assessment

Action plan needed for control and eradicate alien species



Target 6. 2. Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species.

Action plan for the limitation of the impact of Acacia

Control of species (fauna and flora) enters the island.



Eradication of acacia plan in Natura 2000 sites.

CITES species control



More action needed for controlling alien species especially in gardens

National action need for all alien species.

Goal 7. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change, and pollution

Target 7.1. Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate change.

Research is going to assist the adaptation of biodiversity components to climate change.


Modeling is taking place in several institute in order to assist with measures to biodiversity conservation

Action needed for climate changes and biodiversity adaptation




Target 7.2. Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity.




National target

Better water quality of river and wetlands improves the status of inland waters species

1st River Base Management Plan (proposed in June 2010) in the context of Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC

Indicators are assessed for the ecological (biological and chemical) status of rivers and waters resources

Control of chemicals, fertilizers and farm reduced, and its impact to biodiversity.

New landfills and recycling is in place.




National target

Action plan will put into place for good ecological status of water



Outcome achieve

Campaign started for water resources



Overall assessment

Management Action Plan will be enforce


I.Maintain goods and services from biodiversity to support human well-being


Goal 8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods

Target 8.1. Capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained.




National target

The quality of forests is maintained (by keeping more tree species) so that forests could provide more timber and non timber products

Prevention of erosion measures

Water quality and air quality

Maintain the capacity in order to get goods and services of ecosystems


National Action

Enhance of afforestation areas.

Forest are maintain in an ecological way


Outcome achieve

A wealth forest ecosystem is managed over the last 20 years.



Overall assessment

Good ecological status of the forested areas of the island.



Target 8.2. Biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people maintained.

Sustainable fishing

Surface and ground water quality



Maintain fish stock







Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices

Goal 9 Maintain socio-cultural diversity of indigenous and local communities

Target 9.1. Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices.


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Target 9.2. Protect the rights of indigenous and local communities over their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, including their rights to benefit sharing.

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Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources

Goal 10. Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources

Target 10.1. All access to genetic resources is in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity and its relevant provisions.



National target

Ratification of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources on Food and Agriculture



National action

Conserve genetic resources



Outcome achieve

Establishment of gene bank



Overall assessment

Target 10.2. Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources shared in a fair and equitable way with the countries providing such resources in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity and its relevant provisions

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Ensure provision of adequate resources

Goal 11: Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and technological capacity to implement the Convention

Target 11.1. New and additional financial resources are transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20.

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Target 11.2. Technology is transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with its Article 20, paragraph 4.

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4.3 Conclusions
Considerable progress has been made regarding the designation of areas for protection of nature, in the knowledge base, and in awareness, particularly by Government ministries. The progress has been achieved for the implementation of the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. The designation of sites under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives and the designation of further areas under national law, represent a major effort and will have long-lasting benefits.
The status of species and habitats needs further research. Only a small percentage of EU annex species was assessed as having a 'bad' conservation status. There are still bird species on the red list (IUCN), Conservation measures the Bonellis eagle appear to have a success conservation.
The major pressures and threats to Cyprus's biodiversity are similar to those faced by many other Mediterranean countries. They comprise direct loss and destruction by land use change, development, over-grazing, unsustainable exploitation, pollution, and invasion by alien species. There is a deterioration of riparian ecosystems due the construction of dams which represents a major threat to biodiversity of the ecosystems, the coastal area and in freshwaters.
The land use changes and the expansion of development (infrastructure, housing etc.), cause a major impact in all habitats and species of the Island.
Climate change is an additional pressure on certain habitats, particularly in the coastal area and can exacerbate the problems arising from the spread of certain alien invasive species. Although a number of measures to control alien species are being implemented, wider application of such measures is necessary on an all-island basis, supported by strengthened legislation.
A substantial body of legislation on biodiversity has come into force and, among other things, this has facilitated a range of conservation measures. Cyprus is beginning to adopt the 'mainstreaming' approach to biodiversity conservation but, much more needs to be done. Although priority has had to be given to the conservation of protected habitats and species, improved conservation measures for biodiversity in the wider countryside and marine environment need be put in place and implemented. Wider conservation measures are also needed to maintain the ecological structure and function of the ecosystems.



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