Delphinium




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50.7  Delphinium L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 530. [BY]

Comments:

(1) As the problematic arctic variation seems to occur within Russia   Siberia, I ask our Russian collaborators to evaluate if all the taxa still shall be kept at the rank given by Fl. Arct. URSS 6. Justification is needed. American authors include, e.g., D. chamissonis in D. brachycentrum. (Elven)
50.7.1  Delphinium cheilanthum Fisch. ex DC. (1818), Syst. Nat. 1: 352.

S

2n= 16 (2x).



2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list two non-arctic counts.

G SIB


Comments:

(1) Indication of 2n=16 for the Tiksi Harbour plants (Sokolovskaya & Strelkova 1960) should be referred to D. chamissonis, the only Delphinium species from this locality. (Yurtsev)


50.7.2  Delphinium chamissonis G. Pritz. ex Walp. (1843), Repert. 2, Suppl. 1: 744.

S D. pauciflorum Rchb. ex Ledeb. (1841), non D. Don (1825); D. brachycentrum auct., non Ledeb. (1841).

2n= (1) 16 (2x). (2) 32 (4x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list three counts, all as arctic. (2) ?

G SIB RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) Reported for arctic Alaska by Fl. Arct. URSS and in Yurtsev's draft. This implies that the plants named as D. brachycentrum on the American side are included in D. chamissonis by Yurtsev. Warnock (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3) rather unites D. brachycentrum and D. chamissonis under the former name. (Elven)

(2) A plant with a rather disjunctive distribution both in NE Asia and NW North America. It is mistakenly mixed with the Kamtchatkan endemic D. brachycentrum Ledeb. by the authors of the North American flora. (Yurtsev)

(3) Yurtsev has promised to put forward the arguments for why D. chamissonis is to be used also for the North American plants. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be included in an extended D. brachycentrum.
50.7.3  Delphinium middendorffii Trautv. (1846), Fl. Taim. 63.

S D. cheilanthum auct., non Fisch. ex DC. (1818).

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Lavrenko & Serditov (1985 N Rs)

G RUS SIB RFE

Comments:

(1) A hybridogenous taxon, originated from an ancient crossing: D cheilanthum x D. chamissonis. (Yurtsev)

(2) We have decided that 'hybridogeny' without experimental proof should not be accepted. This is therefore not a 'hybridogenous taxon' unless proved. As both parents and the offspring is diploid, an introgression in the meeting zone is a much more probable explanation. Such introgressions should not be named unless they are proved morphologically distinct from both parents. (Elven)



WARNING! Will be excluded if not much better justified.
50.7.4  Delphinium brachycentrum Ledeb. (1841), Fl. Ross. 1: 60.

S

T [Described from Kamtchatka.]



Comments:

(1) Three subspecies are indicated as arctic by Löve & Löve (1975), but two of these occur only outside the Arctic as we define it, acc. to Fl. Arct. URSS 6, p. 151: subsp. brachycentrum in Kamchatka and subsp. beringii Jurtz. in Commodore Isl. These are not included. (Elven)

(2) This name is commonly used for the small-grown Alaskan plant in American literature as late as 1997. Russians should convince us why the application of the name is wrong. That D. brachycentrum is described from Kamtchatka is not reason enough. The most near-lying option is to consider D. chamissonis as another subspecies of D. brachycentrum. (Elven)
50.7.4.1  Delphinium brachycentrum Ledeb. subsp. maydellianum (Trautv.) Jurtz. in Tolm. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 151.

B D. maydellianum Trautv. (1878), Fl. Tschuk. 7.

S

T [Described from Russian Far East: Anadyr area.]



2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Zhukova (1969 NE As).

G RFE

Comments:


50.7.5  Delphinium glaucum S. Wats. (1880), Bot. California 2: 427.

S

T [Described from USA: California.]



2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Lewis et al. (1951 N Am, non-arctic).

G ALA CAN

Comments:


50.7.6  Delphinium elatum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 531.

S

Comments:


50.7.6.1  Delphinium elatum L. subsp. elatum

S

2n= 32 (4x).



2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several non-arctic counts; Lavrenko & Serditov (1985, 1986 N Rs).

G RUS SIB

Comments:
50.7.6.2  Delphinium elatum L. subsp. cryophilum (Nevski) Jurtz. in Tolm. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 153.

B D. cryophilum Nevski in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 724.

S

2n= 32 (4x).



2nD Sokolovskaya (1962b N Rs).

G RUS


Comments:

(1) We need some additional arguments and documentation before the comparatively local endemic subsp. cryophilum in the former glaciated parts of N Russia is fully accepted. (Elven)



WARNING! This race is still unclear to non-Russians.
50.7.7  Delphinium ochotense Nevski in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 724.

S

2n=



2nD

G SIB


Comments:

(1) Might this be an eastern parallel to D. elatum (s. str.), i.e., a geographical race (subspecies)? (Elven)

(2) Comments to this view have been promised by Yurtsev. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of D. elatum.

50.8  Aconitum L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 532. [BY]
50.8.1  Aconitum septentrionale Koelle (1787), Spic. Observ. Aconit. 22.

S A. lycoctonum L. (1753), nom. ambig., Sp. Pl. 532; A. lycoctonum L. subsp. lycoctonum; A. lycoctonum L. subsp. septentrionale (Koelle) Mela & Caj. (1906), Suomen Kasvio, ed. 5, 268; A. excelsum Rchb. (1823-1827), Ill. Sp. Acon. t. LIII.

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list three counts, one near-arctic; Engelskjøn (1979 S Norw); Lavrenko & Serditov (1985 N Rs); Lavrenko et al. (1988 N Rs).

G RUS SIB

Comments:

(1) I here base the choice of name on the view that an unambiguous typification of the Linnaean A. lycoctonum may be problematic. This is also the approach taken by Karlsson in Jonsell (in prep., Flora Nordica 2). However, many European authors accept this plant as A. lycoctonum subsp. lycoctonum. Opinions? (Elven).
50.8.2  Aconitum baicalense Turcz. ex Rapaics ***

S A. czekanovskyi Steinb. in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 733; A. jamalicum Gowor. (1943), Bot. Zhurn. 28, 5: 190.

2n= 32 (4x).

2nD [Described from Siberia: Norilsk area.]

G SIB

Comments:



(1) There are chromosome counts of 2n=16 and 40-48 from the southern Siberia. (Yurtsev)
50.8.3  Aconitum x stoerkianum Rchb. (1818), Flora 1: 202.

S A. napellus L. x A. variegatum L.; A. x cammarum auct., non L. (1762).

T In nemoribus montosis M. Lejeune Verviers 1800 (G-DC) lectotype, selected by ***

2n=


2nD

G NOR*


Comments:

(1) Established ('remaining') alien in NE Norway (Vadsø), in the arctic parts. (Elven)


50.8.4  Aconitum delphinifolium DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 380.

S

T [Described from Alaska.]



Comments:

(1) The species is here considered fairly widely with three subspecies which all perhaps reach the Arctic as defined. However, see the arguments of Calder & Taylor (1968) and Welsh (1974), also mentioned by Brink & Woods (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3) for no recognition of subspecific taxa. (Elven)


50.8.4.1  Aconitum delphinifolium DC. subsp. delphinifolium

S A. delphinifolium DC. var. delphinifolium

2n= 32 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list four Russian counts, three as arctic.

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) Yurtsev in draft gives 2n=16 for this subspecies. The discrepancy between this and the reports by Löve & Löve must be solved. It may influence the taxonony, as seen from comment below. (Elven)
50.8.4.2  Aconitum delphinifolium DC. subsp. paradoxum (Rchb.) Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 725.

B A. paradoxum Rchb. (1820), Monogr. Acon. 76.

S A. delphinifolium DC. [subsp. delphinifolium] var. paradoxum (Rchb.) Jurtz. in Tolm. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 161.

T [Described from Russian Far East: Chukotka Peninsula, St. Lawrence Bay.]

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list four Russian and American counts, most as arctic.

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) If the ploidy difference holds, this entity should be treated at least as a subspecies. (Elven)
50.8.4.3  Aconitum delphinifolium DC. subsp. chamissonianum (Rchb.) Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 724.

B A. chamissonianum Rchb. (1820), Monogr. Acon. 80.

S

2n=


2nD

G ALA


Comments:

(1) Given in Yurtsev's draft for W Alaska. Hultén (1968) mapped no occurrences in the arctic parts, only in non-arctic S Alaska and Pribilof Islands. If this subspecies is to be admitted in the list, there must be some more recent record further north. (Elven)

(2) Seen by me in Seward Peninsula. (Yurtsev)

(3) Collections controlled against American materials? (Elven)



WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic, see comments.
50.8.5  Aconitum productum Rchb. (1819), Monogr. Acon. 75.

S A. delphinifolium DC. subsp. anadyrense Worosch. (1967), Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada 64: 34.

2n= 32 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list three Russian counts, all as arctic.

G SIB RFE

Comments:

(1) An alternative treatment, applied by Fl. Arct. URSS, is as yet another subspecies of A. delphinifolium. (Elven)

(2) A good enough species. (Yurtsev)



WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of A. delphinifolium.

50.9  Anemone L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 538. [OR]

S Anemonoides Mill. (1754), Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4; Anemonastrum Holub (1973), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8: 158; Jurtsevia Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511; Anemonidium (Spach) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1982), Taxon 31: 124

Comments:

(1) We have to decide between a narrow genus concept   accepting these listed above and perhaps some others   or a broad one as in the draft below. The included genera are indicated as 'groups' in the current draft. A broad concept should perhaps also including Pulsatilla. A concept which includes all the others but excludes Pulsatilla is not in accordance with assumed phylogeny of the group. In this draft, Pulsatilla is still retained as a genus. (Elven)


The Anemonidium group
50.9.1  Anemone canadensis L. (1768), Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 3, App. 231.

S Anemonidium canadense (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1982), Taxon 31: 124.

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1964, 1982 Can: Manitoba).

G CAN

Comments:



(1) Reaches the Arctic along the south shore of Hudson Bay (Churchill, York Factory). (Elven)
50.9.2  Anemone dichotoma L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 540.

S Anemonidium dichotomum (L.) Holub (1974), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9: 272.

2n=

2nD


G SIB

Comments:

(1) Not included by Fl. Arct. URSS or Rebristaya's draft. Mapped by Hultén & Fries (1986, map 830) with occurrences in the lowermost reaches of Ob, within the Arctic as defined. The boundary should probably have been revised in this area, but it is now too late for the checklist. As it now stands the species is to be considered as an arctic border case. (Rebristaya & Elven)

(2) Löve & Löve (1982, Taxon 31: 124) superfluously re-published the Anemonidium combination. (Elven)


The Anemonoides group
50.9.3  Anemone nemorosa L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 541.

S Anemonoides nemorosa (L.) Holub (1973), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8: 166.

2n= 28-30-46.

2nD Many aneuploid numbers in the range given, all counted within one area (Sweden); Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts of 2n=30.

G NOR* RUS

Comments:

(1) Reaches the Arctic as defined as native in Bolshezemelskaya Tundra and as an established alien in NE Norway (Vadsø). (Rebristaya & Elven)
The Jurtsevia group
50.9.4  Anemone richardsonii Hook. in Franklin (1824), Narr. Journ. Polar Sea, ed. 2, App. 7: 749.

S Jurtsevia richardsonii (Hook.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511.

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several Russian and American counts, most of them as arctic.

G SIB RFE ALA CAN GRL

Comments:

(1) Dutton et al. (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3) state that the first publication was by Hook. (1829), Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 6. (Elven)
The Anemone group
50.9.5  Anemone sylvestris L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 540.

S

T Herb. Clifford 224, Anemone 1 (BM) lectotype, selected by Jonsell & Jarvis (1994, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 160).



Comments:
50.9.5.1  Anemone sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris

S

2n= (1) 16 (2x). (2) 32 (4x).



2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, none as arctic; more recent counts listed by Jalas & Suominen (1989). (2) Lavrenko & Serditov (1986 N Rs).

G RUS


Comments:

(1) Not arctic. (Rebristaya et al.)

(2) The northernmost square mapped by Jalas & Suominen (1989) in Bolshezemelskaya Tundra is well within the Arctic as the Russians have drawn their boundary. Either this occurrence must be refuted or the material re-identified. Otherwise, this taxon is to be accepted in the list. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic.
50.9.5.2  Anemone sylvestris L. subsp. ochotensis (Fisch. ex Pritzel) Petrovsky in Tolm. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 166.

B A. ochotensis Fisch. (1812, nomen nudum, Cat. Hort. Gorenk. 42) ex Pritzel (1841), Linnaea 15: 687.

S

2n=


2nD

G SIB


Comments:
50.9.6  Anemone parviflora Michx. (1803), Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 319.

S

T [Described from Canada: Hudson Bay area.]



2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve 81975) list several arctic and non-arctic counts.

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:


The Anemone drummondii aggregate (A. drummondii, A. multiceps)

Comments:

(1) Dutton & Ford (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3) accept a separation between the two species. They also refer to Boraiah & Heimburger (1964, Canad. J. Bot. 42) and Hitchcock et al. (1955-1969?, Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. 2) as source for that "cytologically the two are quite distinct". The differences given are mainly in color of different floral parts and three ploidy levels are indicated, diploid (2n=16) for A. multiceps, tetraploid (2n=32) for the mainly western U.S. and Asian A. drummondii var. drummondii, and hexaploid (2n=48) for the NW American A. drummondii var. lithophila. Dutton & Ford: "Further biosystematic analysis of these entities is needed to determine whether A. multiceps is indeed distinct from A. drummondii". (Elven)
50.9.7  Anemone drummondii S. Wats. (1880), Bot. California 2: 424.

S

T [Described from USA: California.]



Comments:

(1) Differences in shape and indumentum are reported between A. drummondii s. str. and the 'lithophila' entity. They are also reported with different ploidy levels and as almost completely allopatric. Status as subspecies is natural within our guidelines. I have therefore tentatively and reluctantly accepted the subspecific name of Löve & Löve (1976)   'heimburgeri'   as this is typified from within the area of 'lithophila'. Reluctantly because the justification of it by the Löves is extremely insufficient, even for them. Tentatively because I have found no combination of the name 'lithophila' at subspecific level. The Löve combination is not included anywhere in the Flora of North America treatment in spite of its Alaskan typification. (Elven)


50.9.7.1  Anemone drummondii S. Wats. subsp. heimburgeri Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511.

S A. drummondii S. Wats. var. lithophila (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. in C.L. Hitchc. et al. (1964), Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. 2: 325 [basionym: A. lithophila Rydb. (1902), Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 152].

T Alaska: Bering Strait district, Teller, leg. Walpole 2006 (U.S. Natl. Herb.) holotype.

2n= 32 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list two non-arctic American counts for subsp. heimburgeri; Dutton et al. (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3).

G ALA CAN

Comments:
50.9.8  Anemone multiceps (Greene) Standley (1931), Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 8, 5: 310.

B Pulsatilla multiceps Greene (1893), Erythea 1: 4.

S Anemone 'multifida' Standley (1931, error for multiceps), non Poir. in Lam. (1810).

T Alaska: Porcupine River, leg. Turner (CAN) holotype?

2n= 16 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list one Russian and one American count, both as arctic.

G RFE ALA CAN

Comments:


50.9.9  Anemone multifida Poir. in Lam. (1810), Encycl. Suppl. 1: 364.

S A. multifida Poir. var. multifida; A. multifida Poir. var. saxicola Boivin (1951), Canad. Field-Nat. 65: 2.

T [Described from South America: Magellan Straits area.]

2n= 32 (4x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous non-arctic counts.

G ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) The two varieties listed in synonymy above are recognised by Dutton et al. (1997) in NW North America, both within the Arctic. Var. multifida is mapped from arctic parts of NE Alaska, N Yukon, the Hudson Bay area in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, and northernmost Ungava Peninsula. Var. saxicola is western Cordilleran and reaches the arctic in N Alaska. Several assumed independently inherited differential characters are given. Var. saxicola occurs almost entirely within the range of var. multifida. Opinions about them? (Elven)



WARNING! Varieties or subspecies might be recognised.
The Anemonastrum group

Comments:

(1) Subspecific rank is here proposed for the entities in the very widespread and disjunct A. narcissiflora complex. Specific rank for them is problematic. Dutton et al. (1997, Fl. N. Amer. 3) separate three American varieties: var. monantha, var. villosissima and var. zephyra. These are allopatric or parapatric, differ in two or more assumedly independent characters, and they would fit better into the category of subspecies in our concept. Three of the previously recognised subspecies, alaskana, interior and sibirica, are all proposed included by Dutton et al. in var. monantha DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 213. Opinions? (Elven)

(2) In addition to the taxa included in Fl. Arct. URSS and in the Russian draft, subsp. biarmiensis is added. (Elven)

(3) We would prefer to treat them at species level. (Rebristaya)

(4) But there is a fairly obvious inconsistency in the Russian draft. The Russian entities mentioned there ('calva', 'sibirica') are treated as species whereas the North American ones are treated as subspecies ('interior', 'villosissima'). The reason is obviously more political than biological. The North American plants do not correspond better with the C European A. narcissiflora s. str. than do the Russian plants, rather the opposite. The Russian arguments about wide discontinuities geographically, as justification for rank as species, is equally valid for the North American parts of the variation. Subspecies are therefore upheld as a proposal in the current draft version. (Elven)



50.9.10  Anemone narcissiflora L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 542.

S Anemonastrum narcissiflorum (L.) Holub (1973), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8: 165.

T [Described from Austria: the Alps.]

Comments:


50.9.10.1  Anemone narcissiflora L. subsp. sibirica (L.) Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 734.

B A. sibirica L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 541.

S Anemonastrum narcissiflorum (L.) Holub subsp. sibiricum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511; A. narcissiflora L. var. monantha DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 213, p. p.

T [Described from Siberia.]

2n= (1) 14 (2x). (2) 16 (2x).

2nD (1) Löve & Löve (1975) list three counts from Alaska and Russia. (2) Zhukova (1966 NE As).

G SIB RFE ALA

Comments:

(1) The 2n=16 chromosone number is probably an aneuploid one. (Elven)
50.9.10.2  Anemone narcissiflora L. subsp. interior Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 734.

S A. narcissiflora L. var. monantha DC. (1817), Syst. Nat. 1: 213, p. p.

T Canada: Yukon Terr., Keno, 06.1927, leg. Black (CAN) holotype.

2n=


2nD

G ALA CAN

Comments:
50.9.10.3  Anemone narcissiflora L. subsp. calva (Juz.) Hultén in sched.

B A. calva Juz. in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 279.

S Anemonastrum narcissiflorum (L.) Holub subsp. calvum (Juz.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511.

2n=


2nD

G SIB


Comments:

(1) Has this entity formally been published as a subspecies of Anemone narcissiflora? Hultén & Fries (1986: 1049) cite a probably unpublished manuscript of Hultén and the combination probably needs to be validated. (Elven)

(2) Anemone calva might deserve rank as full species. (Yurtsev & Rebristaya)
50.9.10.4  Anemone narcissiflora L. subsp. villosissima (DC.) Hultén (1944), Lunds Univ. Årsskr., n. f., avd. 2, 40, 1: 732.

B A. narcissiflora L. var. villosissima DC. (1824), Prodr. 1: 22.

S A. villosissima (DC.) Juz. in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 275, Anemonastrum narcissiflorum (L.) Holub subsp. villosissimum (DC.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976), Bot. Not. 128: 511.

T [Described from Alaska: Unalaska.]

2n=

2nD


G ALA

Comments:


50.9.10.5  Anemone narcissifolia L. subsp. biarmiensis (Juz.) Jalas (1988), Ann. Bot. Fenn. 25: ***.

B A. biarmiensis Juz. in Kom. (1937), Fl. SSSR 7: 272, 738.

S Anemonastrum biarmiensis (Juz.) Holub (1977), Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 12: 428.

2n= 14 (2x).

2nD Chupov (1974 Rs); Lavrenko & Serditov (1986 Rs).

G RUS


Comments:

(1) Not included in Rebristaya's draft. This Ural race reaches the Arctic as defined in Bolshezemelskaya Tundra, at least as a border case, see Jalas & Suominen (1989, map 1638). (Elven)

(2) Dubious records from Polar Ural. Non-arctic. (Rebristaya)

(3) That needs to be better documented before we can exclude it altogether. (Elven)



WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic.


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