Declared Plant Policy




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Declared Plant Policy
Broomrapes, other than branched broomrape (Orobanche spp.)
The genus Orobanche includes about 200 species. All are root parasites of a wide range of broadleaf plants, without chlorophyll and appearing above ground only when they flower. Some are important as weeds of legumes (e.g. lucerne, peas, beans and lentils) and vegetables (e.g. tomato, potato, capsicum, and lettuce), reducing yield or causing failure in these crops. All broomrape seed is prohibited from import into Australia. One broomrape species, clover broomrape (O. minor) is widespread as a weed of gardens.
Branched broomrape (O. ramosa) is the subject of a separate policy. One other species of broomrape, O. cernua var. australiana, is native to South Australia with threatened species status, is not a pest of agriculture and is excluded from the declaration.

Management Plan for Broomrapes




Outcomes





  • No impact of broomrapes on agriculture or pasture production in South Australia.




  • No impact of broomrape contamination on the marketability of South Australian produce.


Objectives





  • Prevent the entry of any additional broomrape species to South Australia .




  • Prevent the spread of clover broomrape to farming systems where it may cause losses.


Implementation





  • Any importation or sale of seed contaminated with broomrape seed to be prevented.




  • Natural Resources Management (NRM) authorities in all regions to maintain surveillance for alert weeds including broomrape.




  • All new infestations of broomrape found on arable land to be reported to the Chief Officer for determination of the species.




  • Any high priority infestations of clover broomrape to be controlled as detailed in regional management plans.




  • Infestations of other broomrapes to be destroyed as found.

Regional Implementation
Refer to regional management plans for further details.
For clover broomrape:


NRM Region

Actions

Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges

Protect sites

Alinytjara Wilurara

Limited action

Eyre Peninsula

Protect sites

Kangaroo Island

Protect sites

Northern and Yorke

Protect sites

South Australian Arid Lands

Limited action

South Australian Murray-Darling Basin

Protect sites

South East

Protect sites

For other broomrape species:




NRM Region

Actions

Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges

Destroy infestations Alert

Alinytjara Wilurara

Destroy infestations Alert

Eyre Peninsula

Destroy infestations Alert

Kangaroo Island

Destroy infestations Alert

Northern and Yorke

Destroy infestations Alert

South Australian Arid Lands

Destroy infestations Alert

South Australian Murray-Darling Basin

Destroy infestations Alert

South East

Destroy infestations Alert


Declaration

To implement this policy, these broomrape species are declared under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 throughout the whole of the State of South Australia so that movement of contaminated produce can be prevented. Their movement or transport on a public road by themselves or as a contaminant, their entry to South Australia, or their sale by themselves or as a contaminant are prohibited.


Land owners are required to notify NRM authorities of broomrape plants growing on their land and are responsible for destroying these plants, with the exception of clover broomrape. NRM authorities are required to destroy infestations on road reserves and may recover costs from the adjoining land owners.
Broomrapes are declared in category 1 under the Act for the purpose of setting maximum penalties and for other purposes. Any permit to allow their movement or sale can only be issued by the Chief Officer pursuant to section 188. Under the Natural Resources Management (General) Regulations 2005, the transport or movement of grain for milling or wool for cleaning is exempt from the operation of sections 175 and the sale of wool or grain is exempt from section 177(2) if at the time of the sale the person believes on reasonable grounds that the purchaser will remove the plant from the wool or grain before any re-sale.
The following sections of the Act apply to clover broomrape throughout each of the NRM regions noted below:


Region

Sections of Act



AMLR

AW

EP

KI

NY

SAAL

SAMDB

SE

175(1) Prohibiting entry to area

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

175(2) Prohibiting movement on public roads

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(1) Prohibiting sale of the plant

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(2) Prohibiting sale of contaminated goods

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

180 Requiring notification of infestations

























182(1) Landowners to destroy the plant on their properties

























182(2) Landowners to control the plant on their properties

























185 Recovery of control costs on adjoining road reserves

























The following sections of the Act apply to broomrapes other than clover broomrape, branched broomrape and the native broomrape throughout each of the NRM regions noted below:




Region

Sections of Act



AMLR

AW

EP

KI

NY

SAAL

SAMDB

SE

175(1) Prohibiting entry to area

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

175(2) Prohibiting movement on public roads

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(1) Prohibiting sale of the plant

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

177(2) Prohibiting sale of contaminated goods

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

180 Requiring notification of infestations

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

182(1) Landowners to destroy the plant on their properties

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

182(2) Landowners to control the plant on their properties

























185 Recovery of control costs on adjoining road reserves

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X


Review

This policy is to be reviewed by 2020 or in the event of a change in one or more regional management plans for broomrapes.



Weed Risk
Invasiveness
Broomrape seed is produced in large quantities and are shed within months of emerging from the soil. The seeds are very small, under 0.5 mm long, but one plant can produce tens of thousands of seeds. Due to its small size, broomrape seed is very difficult to detect in produce. It can be dispersed by livestock (both internally and externally), in soil, fodder and seed for sowing, and in mud on vehicles or footwear.
The highest risk for further spread is via soil adhering to machinery, and roadsides provide the likeliest pathway for this mode of spread. Seed may possibly be spread by wild animals or with eroded soil blown in strong winds, but the risk of these incidents is much lower.
As broomrapes depend on the habitat provided by their host plants, they have a high ability to establish within this specialised habitat. Grasses and woody plants are not potential hosts.

Impacts
Overseas, broomrapes are major pests of vegetable crops and irrigated pastures as they parasitise a wide range of broadleaf plants. In particular, O. aegyptiaca, O. cernua, and O. crenata are important crop pests in many countries.
The most widespread crop hosts of clover broomrape are the forage legumes, but safflower, sunflower, guizotia, lettuce, groundnut, faba bean and tobacco may also be attacked.
Contamination with broomrape seed has potential to impact the marketability of produce, including the small seeds industry.
Potential distribution
Distribution of broomrapes is determined by the availability of suitable host plants and can grow wherever host crops are grown. Some species such as O. crenata grow on widespread weeds and could grow throughout the agricultural zone, in residential gardens and in the southern permanent pasture zone.
Local strains of clover broomrape in Europe have adapted to the hosts that were available in each region. The clover broomrape introduced to South Australia grows on many widespread broadleaf weeds, and therefore could grow throughout the agricultural zone, in residential gardens and in the southern permanent pasture zone.

Feasibility of Containment
Control costs
Because they develop below ground, broomrapes are not easy targets for selective herbicide control. Spot infestations can be treated by destroying the host plant with non-selective herbicides. There is scope for broadacre control using herbicides of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups. Translocated herbicides such as glyphosate have been used at very low rates and become concentrated to effective levels in the parasite, but this is practicable only in broadbean crops.
Considerable effort has been made overseas to produce resistant cultivars of vulnerable crop species; but resistance varies according to the Orobanche genotype and environmental conditions. The use of comparatively resistant cultivars and management of infested fields with appropriate rotations are the standard control methods overseas. The most effective control techniques involve the destruction of broomrape seeds in the soil. This can be done by pre-planting fumigation, or by solarisation of the soil under plastic sheeting during the growing season; both are relatively expensive. Pre-emergent herbicides, expendable "trap crops" that stimulate the Orobanche seeds to germinate and biological control have also been used.
Persistence
Seed of broomrapes remains viable for at least 20 years in the soil, forming long-lived seed banks. As long as any host plants are present, broomrape can renew its seed bank annually.
Broomrape infestations are not easy to detect or delimit because the plants only emerge above the soil level for a short time to flower and release their seeds. They are close to the ground and can be overlooked. In unfavourable years for their growth, flowering shoots may be few and small, or may not emerge at all.
Current distribution
Clover broomrape is an uncommon garden weed associated with hosts such as gazania, nasturtium and creeping boobialla in suburban Adelaide and regional towns. Infestations in South Australia are small and isolated.
None of the other exotic broomrapes covered in this policy are known to be present in Australia.

State Level Risk Assessment

Assessment using the Biosecurity SA Weed Risk Management System gave the following comparative weed risk and feasibility of containment scores for clover broomrape by land use:



Land use


Weed Risk

Feasibility of control

Response at State Level


Crop-pasture rotation

medium

42


high

28


protect sites

Grazing - Southern

medium

56


high

17


protect sites

Irrigated pastures

medium

63


medium

40


manage sites

Vegetables

medium

67


medium

39


manage sites

The potential impacts of other broomrapes are conjectural and vary widely between species. As they are absent from Australia their feasibility of control is very high, and the option of eradication would be considered based on risk assessment of the species involved:




Land use


Weed Risk

Feasibility of control

Response at State Level


Crop-pasture rotation

negligible to medium

0 to 57


very high

0


contain spread

alert


Grazing - southern

negligible to medium

0 to 67


very high

0


contain spread

alert


Irrigated pastures

negligible to high

0 to 112


very high

0


destroy infestations

alert


Vegetables

negligible to medium

0 to 67


very high

0


contain spread

alert



Considerations

The sporadic occurrences of clover broomrape in gardens are not targeted for control. The aim of protecting sites is achieved by a prohibition on the transport of produce and other materials known to be contaminated with the seed.


All other species of Orobanche are prohibited imports to Australia, and are Alert Weeds in South Australia. Their declaration under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 facilitates a post-border response to any future incursion. Their spread is best contained by preventing their entry or establishment.

Synonymy
Orobanche L., Sp. Pl. 2: 632 (1753), all species except:


  • the native Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. australiana (F.Muell. ex Tate) J.M. Black ex G.Beck.




  • Orobanche ramosa L., branched broomrape, an introduced weed which is the subject of a separate policy.

Taxonomic synonym:


Phelipanche Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl. 102 (1874).

Hon Ian Hunter MLC

Minister for Sustainability, Environment and Conservation
Date: 3 January 2015



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