De Haan, P. (1998) How native-like are advanced learners of English? In Renouf, A. (ed.) Explorations in Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 55-65.
De Haan analyses recurring word class sequences (tag n-grams) in subsets of 100,000 words of four of the ICLE subcorpora (Dutch, Finnish, French and native subcorpus).
His aim is the clarification of what is “near native” language production (a syntyactic characterisation of the written production of advanced learners).
The author compares the occurrence of the most frequent sequences of 2,3,4 word classes in the writings of advanced learners with thar of the writings of native speakers.