Data sheets on invasive alien plants Fiches informatives sur les plantes exotiques envahissantes

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European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes

Data sheets on invasive alien plants

Fiches informatives sur les plantes exotiques envahissantes

P IAS Point 5.2

EPPO data sheet on Invasive Plants
Senecio inaequidens

Scientific name: Senecio inaequidens De Candolle

Synonyms: Senecio burchellii De Candolle, Senecio

Taxonomic position: Asteraceae.

Common names: Narrow-leaved ragwort, South African ragwort (English), séneçon du Cap (French), schmalblättriges Greiskraut, schmalblättriges Kreuzkraut, südafrikanisches Greiskraut (German), senecione sudafricano (Italian).


Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature:

Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae) is a perennial plant originally growing in South Africa which was unintentionally and independently introduced into several sites in Europe from 1889 onwards.

The identity of the plant in Europe has long been in doubt; it has been called S. harveianus Mac Owan and quite erroneously S. lautus Solander ex Willd (Tutin et al., 1976). In fact, Senecio inaequidens De Candolle, Senecio madagascariensis Poiret and Senecio harveianus Mac Owan are three Senecio species growing in South Africa frequently confused by the botanists.

Molecular studies have shown that the South African S. madagascariensis was more closely related to the South African S. inaequidens than to the Madagascan S. madagascariensis. However chromosome counts revealed that individuals of S. inaequidens are tetraploids in Europe whereas Australian individuals of S. madagascariensis, which have a South African origin, are diploids. The tetraploid form is very aggressive (Lafuma et al., 2003). A comparison of some South African populations of the three species and a study on ploidy level was conducted. It showed that S. inaequidens, S. madagascariensis and S. harveianus are the same species. Polyploidization of S. inaequidens occurred in South Africa and seeds introduced in Europe probably came from tetraploid populations in the Lesotho area (Lafuma et al., 2002).

Other species such as S. paniculatus (syn. S. reclinatus), S. harveianus (syn. S. vimineus), S. douglasii and S. lautus do not occur in Europe and have not spread outside their area of origin.

Phytosanitary categorization: EPPO A2 List of invasive alien plants

Plant type

S. inaequidens is a perennial herbaceous or woody shrub, seed or vegetatively propagated.

S. inaequidens is up to 100 cm tall, spherically shaped, rising from a shallow taproot (Hilliard, 1977). Stems are erect, more or less glabrous, often numerously branched from the woody base. Leaves are
alternate, bright green, simple, slightly thick, usually with clasping stems at the base (occasionally petiolate), becoming reduced in size from the base, very variable, from 3 to 14 cm long and 0.3 to 1 cm wide. Cauline leaves are mostly linear-lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute, margins denticulate to coarsely and irregularly-toothed, referring to its name “inaequidens” meaning “irregular tooth” in Latin. Upper leaves are occasionally pinnately-lobed, shortly petiolate, subsessile or sessile.

Inflorescences are open, terminal or axillary, corymbose panicles, 80 to 100 per plant. Capitula range from 18 to up to 25 mm in diameter and are radiate. Involucral bracts are lanceolate (about 20), acute, more or less glabrous, keeled, 5(4-7) mm long, resinous. Calyculus bracts are few, acute, more or less glabrous, dark-tipped. Ray florets are 13, sometimes as few as 7, female, ligule bright yellow, becoming revolute. Disc florets are numerous, perfect, tube bright yellow and have lobes with a median resinous line.

Achenes are 2-2.5 mm long, cylindrical, pubescent between ribs. Pappus is white, 2 to 3 times as long as achenes, readily detached. The genus name “Senecio” comes from “senex” and means “old man”, referring to the white pappus.

Similarities to other species

S. inaequidens is unlikely to be confused with other Senecio spp. in its exotic range, though it ressembles S. lythroides, indigenous to the western Mediterranean area.

Biology and Ecology
S. inaequidens is a short-lived perennial, with a life span of 5-10 years (Brunel, 2003). In Europe, the species has two main periods of flowering, one starting in July and one in September, lasting untill January (Heger et al., 2005). In the south of France, flowering has been observed from April to January. It seems that the species has kept its South African flowering period (which in Central Europe now takes place in autumn and the beginning of winter) and has added a second one during the European spring (Heger et al., 2005). S. inaequidens is visited by many types of insects, mainly Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera (Ernst, 1998). It is an important food plant for wild insect species in its introduced range (Schmitz and Werner, 2001) and may be a nectar source for honey bees. S. inaequidens is considered self-compatible by Ernst (1998), but self-incompatible by Harland (1955), and thus this plant may be another example of a successful self-incompatible colonizer like S. squalidus and S. jacobaea.
Reproduction is primarily by achenes produced from June to January (in France). Vegetative propagation also occurs by the rooting of stems that touch the ground (Ernst, 1998). Individual S. inaequidens plants vary greatly in the numbers of achenes that they produce. On average, 10 000 seeds are produced per plant and per year. Achenes may remain viable for at least 2 years when stored dry; dormancy lasting several months has also been observed (Ernst, 1998). They are mainly dispersed by wind over large distances. They can also be dispersed by birds and mammals. Massive germination occurs all year long, the highest rates being spring and autumn.
A chromosome number of 2n= 40 is reported for S. inaequidens in Europe (Chichiricco et al., 1979), and Hunziker et al. (1989) reported 2n=20 for S. madagascariensis in Argentina (see notes on taxonomy and nomenclature). Natural hybrids have not yet been reported although they were possible to produce experimentally (Harland, 1954, 1955). Germination occurs especially when temperatures reaches 20°C (Lopez-Garcia and Maillet, 2005).


S. inaequidens colonizes open and disturbed lands: wastelands, fallows, railway tracks and roadsides, crops (mainly vineyards) , burnt land and pastures. It is also found in natural environments such as dunes and cliffs in littoral areas, and temporary ponds in France (Brunel, 2003).
Environmental requirements

S. inaequidens is ubiquist as it is found from plains to mountains (it is observed from coastal areas to up to 1900 m altitude). S. inaequidens can grow under temperate and Mediterranean climates. It is opportunistic and has the ability to colonize a wide range of habitats. Reseedings germinate better in compact soils, but the plant can survive under most soil moisture conditions. It has been observed that S. inaequidens is able to tolerate heavy metals in soil (Heger et al., 2005). The plant prefers open sites, which indicates a demand for light (Ernst, 1998). Mean annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 1000 mm, and mean annual temperatures from 10 to 20°C. It grows on sites where mean maximum temperatures of the hottest month are 30-35°C, mean minimum temperature of the coldest month -5-0°C. The absolute minimum temperature is -15°C. A crucial obstacle to the establishment of seedlings is low temperatures (Ernst, 1998).
S. inaequidens seems to require no particular daylength, no vernalization, and to have no special demands concerning the abiotic conditions (Heger et al., 2005).

Climatic and vegetational categorization

S. inaequidens is associated with areas with a warm to hot, wet summer and a cool winter (dry or wet). It is hardy and well adapted to zone 7 (lowest temperatures as low as -18 to –12°C). It is associated with the following vegetation zones: temperate deciduous forests, temperate steppes and Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests and sclerophyllous shrubs succeeding them.

Natural enemies

Up to now, 62 phytophagous insects have been observed feeding on S. inaequidens in Europe. Of these, 11 only feed on flowers and fruits, leaving 51 which could affect the growth of the plants. Three of these species are specialists for the genus Senecio, and three for Asteraceae. Aphis jacobaea has been found feeding on Senecio inaequidens in southern France and could be a potential biological control agent (Fort et al., 2003).
Not much is known concerning non-insect predators of S. inaequidens. An alien rust (Puccinia laenophorae) grows on the plant, and an indigenous fungus (Coleosporium senecionis) has also been observed. The degree influence that these or other pathogens have on the plant remains an open question (Heger et al., 2005).

Geographical distribution
EPPO region: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy (including Sardinia), the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Wales.

Asia: Taiwan.

Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland.

North America: USA (Hawaii)

Central America: Mexico.

South America (recorded as Senecio madagascariensis): Argentina, Brazil, Colombia.

Oceania (recorded as Senecio madagascariensis): Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria)
Note: several plants were discovered in Corse and have been eradicated by pulling them out manually) (L Hugot, pers. comm.).

Although the CABI Crop Protection Compendium contains data on S. inaequidens from Poland, it is only mentioned in "Checklist of Flowering Plants and Pteridophytes of Poland" as an ephemerophyte noted in Krakow in the 1990s (Mirek et. al. 2002). The current database of alien plants present in Poland does not contain it (Mirek et. al. 2005).

History of introduction and spread

Both diploid and tetraploid forms of S. inaequidens are native to the Lesotho region (Port Elisabeth) in South Africa. In European countries, S. inaequidens was first found around wool-processing factories in Germany (Hanover in 1889 and Bremen in 1896; Kuhbier, 1977). It was later found in the UK in 1908, Belgium in 1922, France in 1935 and Italy in 1947. Many were sites of introduction associated with the wool trade: Mazamet (southern France; Senay, 1944; Guillerm et al., 1990), Calais (northern France; Jovet and Bosserdet, 1962; Antoine and Weill, 1966), Verona (northern Italy; Kiem, 1975), Lüttich (eastern Belgium; Mosseray, 1936) and Bremen (northern Germany; Kuhbier, 1977). Additional sites of introduction were also associated with the wool industry, such as Edinburgh in 1928 (Scotland, UK; Lousley, 1961) and Galashiels in 1908 (Scotland, UK; Hayward and Druce, 1919; incorrectly identified as S. lautus). Since the 1970s, there have been an increasing number of records across Europe and the species continues to spread. It is most extensively documented in Germany (Werner et al., 1991; Kuhbier, 1996) and in the Netherlands (Ernst, 1998) where the most important sites of initial colonization are roadsides and railways (Griese, 1996; Radkowitsch, 1997; Ernst, 1998; Bornkamm, 2002).

Pathways for movement
Natural dispersal

Huge numbers of seeds are wind-dispersed over large distances. Seeds may accidentally be carried by animals (birds and mammals).

Accidental transport

Conveyances via road and rail vehicles are considered a transport pathway for long distance movement by Ernst (1998). In fact, the plant disperses by first colonizing communication paths, then spreading to other habitats such as pastures. Movement with soil, building materials or machinery is also possible.

Agricultural practices

S. inaequidens is favoured by fires, hence cutting and burning turf is therefore to be avoided. The plant contains toxic alkaloids and is unpalatable to cattle. It can more easily invade pastures if they are overgrazed.
Movement in trade

Historically, S. inaequidens reached Europe as a contaminant of imported wool. Ernst (1998) considers containers and packing as a possible means of transport for this plant. Achenes of the plant could eventually be carried in trade and transport of plants products. But the plant itself is not known to be sold as an ornamental plant.

S. inaequidens has negative effects on crops, wild plants and biodiversity. It also has negative social impact.
Effects on plants

S. inaequidens is reported as a weed in vineyards (Michez, 1995; Mayor, 1996). It is difficult to assess the costs in vineyards as treatments are used for all the weeds present (J Maillet, pers. comm.).

It also reduces the value of invaded pastures (Brunel, 2003).

Environmental and social effects

S. inaequidens develops dense populations in ruderal habitats, potentially interfering with their management and improvement. It also invades natural habitats such as dunes and cliffs in littoral areas and temporary ponds in the French Mediterranean area. Its impact on the native plant Centaurea corymbosa threatens biodiversity (Brunel, 2003).

It may also be considered a nuisance in the management of railway tracks and motorway verges and is an unsightly colonizer of wasteland.

Like the native S. jacobaea, S. inaequidens is toxic to livestock and humans, as it contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In Switzerland, there is a concern about all Senecio spp. because of their toxicity to livestock. In addition, alkaloids from Senecio spp. pass into milk, which cannot then be consumed (S Buholzer, pers. comm.). S. inaequidens is also a honey plant; in southern France, honey has been reported to contain the Senecio alkaloids. However, its consequences on honey composition are not well known (Brunel, 2003). The plant is poisonous to horses and may provoke their death (Sarcey et al., 1992). Moreover, these plants modify landscapes, as they can flower all year round and cover large surfaces.

Summary of invasiveness
S. inaequidens is a prolific seed producer and has vigorous growth. It adapts to a wide range of environments. It is very actively spreading in Europe at present, following its accidental introduction over the last century in wool exports from South Africa and is likely to continue to spread, particularly along roads and railway tracks. These disturbed areas are sources for further colonization of vineyards, pastures and natural areas. The plant has adverse impact on crops, plants, biodiversity and even has social impacts, being toxic to human and cattle. It could become of concern for trade and international relations.

Although the plant has shown invasive behaviour in other parts of the world, it seems to be the most invasive in Europe. Large areas of Southern and Eastern Europe remain to be invaded. Control of the plant is almost impossible once the plant is established.

Cultural control

Reducing the risk of fires, not overgrazing land and sowing with perennial species having a good ground cover such as Trifolium spp. are likely to limit the invasion of S. inaequidens (Brunel 2003).

Mechanical control

It has variously been observed that S. inaequidens is promoted by mowing (Heger et al., 2005).

Hand-pulling or mowing before flowering, if repeated for several years, has proven to be effective in some natural areas of the South of France. This method requires constant care. Monitoring and control should be carried out over several years to remove the seed bank and should be undertaken each time new plants are established.

Hand-pulling is the most efficient method when plants are established in a small area. Eradication has been achieved in Corse in this way. It is essential to collect and destroy the plants which have been pulled out as they can still produce achenes for 2 or 3 days.

Chemical control

It has been observed that the plant is able to resist the application of herbicides (Heger et al., 2005).

In vineyards, treatments with low toxicity phytosanitary products has been trialled in the South of France and have proven to be effective. In pastures, several selective phytosanitary products gave good results on mature plants of S. inaequidens (Brunel, 2003).
Biological control

The aphid Aphis jacobaeae, associated with the European native S. jacobaea, has been observed to attack and cause damage to S. inaequidens in France and is considered a potential biocontrol agent (Fort et al., 2003).

Regulatory status

S. inaequidens is not currently regulated by any European country. The plant is listed as a noxious weed in Hawaii. In Australia, it is a declared pest plant in Queensland and New South Wales and is a prohibited species in Western Australia.

The following people provided information for this data sheet:
S Buholzer (CH),, I Dancza (HU),; L. Hugot (FR),; J Maillet (FR),; G Schrader (DE); U Starfinger (DE),

Antoine G, Weill J (1966) Un Senecio sud-africain à Calais. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 113, 342-344.
Bornkamm R (2002) On the phytosociological affiliations of an invasive species Senecio inaequidens in Berlin. Preslia, 74(4), 395-407.
Brunel S (2003) Plantes envahissantes de la région méditerranéenne, Fiche No. 15. Agence Méditerranéenne de l’environnement Languedoc-Roussillon, Agence Régionale Pour l’Environnement Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. Montpellier.
Chichiricco G, Frizzi G, Tammaro R (1979) [Chromosomic numbers for the Italian Flora.] Informatore Botanico Italiano, 11, 3-35. (in Italian)
Heger T, Böhmer HJ (2005) The invasion of Central Europe by Senecio inaequidens DC. – a complex biogeographical problem. Erdkunde, 59, 34-49.
Ernst W H O (1998) Invasion, dispersal and ecology of the South African neophyte Senecio inaequidens in the Netherlands: from wool alien to railway and road alien. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 47, 131-151.
Fort N, Brunel S, Maillet J, Sheppard A (2004) Etudes préliminaires à l’utilisation du puceron Aphis jacobaeae Schrank comme agent de lutte biologique contre une plante envahissante: le Séneçon du Cap, Senecio inaequidens DC. XIIème Colloque International sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes. Dijon – 31 août – 2 septembre 2004.
Griese D (1996) Zur Ausbreitung von Senecio inaequidens DC. an Autobahnen in Nordostdeutschland. Braunschweiger Naturkundliche Schriften, 5, 193-204.
Guillerm JL, Le Floc'h E, Maillet J, Boulet C (1990) The invading weeds within the Western Mediterranean Basin. In (eds. di Castri F, Hansen AJ, Debussche M) Biological invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands pp. 61-84.
Harland SC (1954) The genus Senecio as a subject for cytogenetic investigation. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles, 1, p.256.
Harland SC (1955) The experimental approach to the species problem. In: Lousley JE, ed. Species Studies in the British Flora. London, UK: Botanical Society of the British Isles, pp. 16-20.
Hayward IM, Druce GC (1919) The adventive flora of Tweedside. Arbroath, UK, T. Buncle & Co.
Hilliard OM, Burtt BL (1977) Notes on some plants of Southern Africa chiefly from Natal: IV. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 34, 73-100.
Hunziker JH, Wulff AF, Xifreda CC, Escobar A (1989) Karyological Studies in Compositae V. Darwiniana San Isidro, 29, 25-40.
Jovet P, Bosserdet P (1962) Senecio harveianus MacOwan Relevé chronologique des observations en France. Bulletin du Centre d’Etudes de Recherches Scientifiques de Biarritz, 7, 417-420.
Kiem J (1975) Ein afrikanischer Korbblütler im südlichen Etschtal (Senecio inaequidens DC.). Der Schlern, 49, 238-239.
Kuhbier H (1977) Senecio inaequidens DC - ein Neubürger der nordwesdeutschen Flora. Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu Bremen, 38, 383-396.
Kuhbier H (1996) 100 years of Senecio inaequidens in Bremen. Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu Bremen, 43, 531-536.
Lafuma L, Balkwill K, Imbert E, Verlaque R, Maurice S (2003) Ploidy level and origin of the European invasive weed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 243, 59-72.
Lafuma L, Vimond L, Maurice S (2002) Identity and origin of the polyploid invasive weed Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae) in Europe. EFS Workshop
Lopez-Garcia MC, Maillet J (2005) Biological characteristics of an invasive south African species. Biological-Invasions 7(2), 181-194
Lousley JE (1961) A census list of wool aliens found in Britain, 1946-1960. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles, 4, 221-247.
Mayor JP (1996) Un nouveau séneçon menace nos vignobles! Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 28(2), 99-101.
Michez JM (1995) Le Séneçon du Cap. De la laine à la vigne. Phytoma, 468,39-41.
Mirek Z, Piękoś-Mirkowa H, Zając A & Zając M (2005) Vascular plants of Poland, a checklist. Polish Botanical Society.
Mosseray R (1936) Matériaux pour une flore de Belgique. V. Genre Senecio. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique Naturel de Belgique, 14, 57-82.
Radkowitsch A (1997) Senecio inaequidens DC. - ein Beitrag zur Verbeitung in Deutschland unter besonderen Berücksichtigung von Bayern. Hoppea, 58, 389-404.
Sarcey G, Gault G, Lorgue G (1992) Les intoxications par les séneçons chez les équidés. Le point vétérinaire, 141(23), 963-970
Schmitz G, Werner DJ (2001) The importance of the alien plant Senecio inaequidens DC. (Asteraceae) for phytophagous insects. Zeitschrift für ökologie und Naturschutz, 9(3), 153-160.
Senay P (1944) Le Séneçon adventice de Mazamet. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 91,111-113.
Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM & Webb DA (eds.) (1976) Flora Europaea. Vol 4. Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 195.
Werner DJ, Rockenbach T, Hölscher ML (1991) Herkunft, Ausbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Ökologie von Senecio inaequidens DC. unter besonder Berücksichtigung des Köln-Aachener Raumes. Tuexenia11, 73-107.

References by countries
EPPO Region

Austrian Action Plan on Invasive Alien Species (Listed as potentially invasive)

List according to Essl & Rabitsch (2002)
Melzer H (1991) Senecio inaequides DC., das Schmalblättrige Greiskraut, neu für die Flora von Steiermark und Oberösterreich. - Linzer biologische Beiträge, 23(1), 365-369.
Melzer H Bregnant E (1993) Bemerkenswerte Funde von Gefäßpflanzen in der Steiermark. - Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins von Steimark, Graz, 123, 183-205.
Polatschek A (1984) Senecio inaequidens DC. - neu für Österreich und Spanien. - Verhandlungen des Zooligischen und Botanischen Gesellschaft, Wien 122: 93-95.

Lambinon J, (1957) Contribution a l'étude de la flora adventice de la Belgique. I. Adventices rares ou nouvelles pour la Belgique. – Bulletin de la Société Royale Botanique de Belgique, 89, 85-100.

Lambinon J, de Langhe JE, Delvosalle L & Duvigneaud J (1992) Nouvelle Flore de la Belgique, du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des Régions Voisines. - Editions du Patrimonie du Jardin botanique national de Belgique, 1092 pp.
Mosseray R (1936) Matériaux pour une flore de Belgique. V. Genre Senecio. – Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 14, 57-82.
Czech Republic (Casual)

Pysek P, Sadlo J, Mandak B (2002) Catalogue of alien plants of the Czeck Republic. Preslia, Praha, 74, 97-186


Skovgaard F (1993) En ny brandbaeger I Danmark. – Medlemsblad for Dansk Botanisk Forening pp. 3–5.


Kurtto A & Helynranta L (1998) Helsingin kasvit. Kukkivilta kiviltä metsän syliin (Flora of Helsinki. From Flowering Stones to Forest Floor) - Helsinki, City of Helsinki Environment Centre and Helsinki University Press.

France (Naturalized, invasive)

Antoine G & Weill J (1966) Un Senecio sud-african à Calais. – Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 113, 342-344.

Jovet P & Bosserdet P (1968) Senecio harveianus MacOwan. Relevé chronologique des observations en France. - Bulletin de la Centre Etudes Recherches Scientifiques de Biarritz, 7(2), 417-420.
Leredde Cl (1945) Une nouvelle localité de Senecio vimineus (DC.?) Harvey. – Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 92, 256-258.
Meusel H, JÄger EJ (1992) Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora III. - Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena - Stuttgart - New York.
Muller S (coord.) (2004) Plantes invasives en France. - Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 168 pp.
Senay P (1944) Le Séneçon adventice de Mazamet. – Bulletin de la Société Botanique deFrance, 91, 111-113.
Germany (Naturalized, invasive)

Brennenstuhl, G. (1995): Senecio inaequidens DC. bei Salzwedel – neu für Sachsen-Anhalt. – Floristische Rundbriefe, 29(2), 181-183.

Büscher D (1989) Zur weiteren Ausbreitung von Senecio inaequidens DC. in Westfalen. - Floristische Rundbriefe, 22(2,95-100.
Dickoré WB & Adolphi K (1977) Senecio inaequidens DC. im MTM 4908 Burscheid. – Göttinger Floristische Rundbriefe, 11, 98-99.
Gaida R & Schneider-Gaida M (1999) Die Dynamik der Entwicklung des Neophyten Senecio inaequidens DC. (Schamlblättriges Greiskraut) am Sandberg in der Hildener Heide (Hilden und Haan, Reinland) in den Jahren 1993 bis 1997. – Jahresbericht des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Wuppertal e.V., 52, 206-220.
König P (1995) Senecio inaequidens – nun auch in Berlin. – Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg, Berlin, 128(2), 159–163.
Korneck D (1982) Senecio inaequidens DC. im südlichen Mittelrheintal. – Hessische Floristische Briefe, 31, 4-7.
Kuhbier H (1977) Senecio inaequidens DC. - ein Neubürger der nordwestdeutschen Flora. - Abhandlungen Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein zu Bremen, 38, 383-396.
Meusel H, Jager EJ (1992) Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora III. - Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena - Stuttgart - New York.
Moll W, (1989) Zur gegewärtigen Verbreitung von Senecio inaequidens im nördlichen Rheinland. – Floristische Rundbriefe, 22(2), 101-103.
Neoflora Website (S. inaequidens is considered invasive)
Oberdorfer E (1994) Pflanzensoziologische Exkursionsflora. 7. Auflage. - Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, 1050 pp.
Sauerwein B (1986) Senecio inaequidens DC. – neu in Kassel. – Hessische Floristische Briefe, 35, 59-61.
Radkowitsch A (1997) Senecio inaequidens DC. - ein Beitrag zur Verbreitung in Deutschland unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Bayern. - Hoppea, Denkschr. Regensburgische Botanische Gesellschaft, 58, 389-404.
Stieglitz W (1981) Die Adventivflora des Neusser Hafens. – Göttinger Floristische Rundbriefe, 15(1), 45-54.
Wagenitz G (1987) Nachträge, Berichtigungen und Ergänzungen zum Nachdruck der 1. Auflage von Band VI/2. (1928/9). In: Hegi, G. (Bgrd.): Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa VI/4; 2. überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. (Bandhrsg.: Wagentiz, G.). - Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin - Hamburg, pp.: 1353-1452.
Zienert W & Scholz P (1994) Senecio inaequidens DC. neu für Thüringen. – Inform. Floristichen Kartierung in Thüringen, 6, 16.
Hungary (Potentially invasive)

Balogh L, Dancza I, Király G (2004) Actual list of neophytes in Hungary and their classification according to their success. In: Mihály, B. – Botta-Dukát, Z. (eds.), Biological invasions in Hungary – Invasive plants. pp. 61–92. TermészetBÚVÁR Alapítvány Kiadó, Budapest.

Dancza I & Király G (2000) Vorkommen von Senecio inaequidens in Ungarn. Kitaibelia, 5(1): 93-109.
Italy (including Sardinia)

Constantini L, & de Kock L (1993) La Flora del Monte Baldo. – Gruppi alpinistici e naturalistici Veronesi, Verona.

Heger T & Böhmer HJ (2005) The invasion of Central Europe by Senecio inaequidens DC. – a complex biogeographical problem. Erdkunde, 59, 34-49.
Kiem J (1975) Ein afrikanischer Korbblüter im südlichen Etschtal (Senecio inaequidens DC.) - Der Schlern, 49, 238-239.
Pignatti S (1982) Flora d'Italia III. - Edagricole, Bologna, 780 pp.
The Netherlands

Ernst WHO (1998) Invasion, dispersal and ecology of the South African neophyte Senecio inaequidens in the Netherlands: from wool alien to railway and

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Weeda EJ, Westra R, Westra Ch & Westra T (1991) Nederlandsee oecologische Flora. Wilde Planten. – IVN VARA.

Often A (1997) Senecio inaequidens DC. and Solidago rugosa Mill. found as ruderals in Oslo. Blyttia, 55(3), 141-144.


Kaligaric M (1992) [Vegetation of Karst landscapes.] Proteus, 54, 224-230 (in Slovenian)

Pavletic Z & Trinajstic I (1994) Senecio inaequidens DC. – [Adventive species of Slovenian flora]. Hladnikia, 3, 13-16. (in Slovenian)

Bolós O, Vigo J, Masalles RM & Ninot JM (1990) Flora manual dels paďsos Catalans. – Cončixer la natura 9. Editorial Pňrtic s. a., Barcelona.

Polatschek A (1984) Senecio inaequidens DC. - neu für Österreich und Spanien. - Verhandlungen des Zooligischen und Botanischen Gesellschaft, Wien, 122, 93-95.

Ljungstrand E (2000) Rapport fran Botaniska Föreningens i Göteborg ruderatexkusion i Göteborgstrakten lördagen den 30 september 2000.

Lauber K & Wagner G (1998) Flora Helvetica. 2. Auflage. - Verlag Paul Haupt, Bern - Stuttgart - Wien, 1614 pp.

Mayor JP (1996) Un nouveau séneçon menaces nos vignobles! [A new Senecio menaces our vineyards!] - Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 28(2), 99-101.
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United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland

Clive AS (1992) New flora of the British Isles. - University Press, Cambridge, 1226 pp.

Lousley J E (1961) A census list of wool aliens found in Britain, 1946-1960. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles, 4, 221-247.
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