Countries visited during the voyage of h. M. S beagle bound the world




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x CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII. CHAPTER XVII. Valparaiso—Excursion to the Foot of the Andes Galapagos Archipelago—The whole group vol. —.Structure of the Land-Ascend the Bell of came—Number of craters—Leafless bushes— Quillota—Shattered Masses of Greenstone— £olony at Charles Island—James Islands-Immense Vallevs—Mines—State of Miners Salt-lake in. crater—Natural History of the —Santiago—Hot-baths of Cauquenes—Gold- group—Ornithology, curious fmches-Rep-mines—Grinding-mills—Perforated Stones tiles—Great tortoises, habits of—Marine li-—Habits of the Puma-El Turco and Tapa- fard» f^s on sea-weed—Terrestrial lizard, colo—Humming-birds 252 burrowing habits, herbivorous-Importance of reptiles in the Archipelago—Fish, shells, CHAPTER XIII. insects — Botany—American type of organi-~ .. „ , . . tj . -n • zation—Differences in the species or races on Clnloe —General Aspect-Boat Excursion-- different islands-Tameness of the birds-Jauve Indians-Oastro-ramelox-Ascend ^ f an acquired instinct, 372 San Pedro—Chonos Archipelago—Peninsula ' x»^r>T> v-^ttt of Tres Montes — Granitic Range— Boat- CHAFlliJi XV 111. wrecked Sailors—Low's Harbour—Wild Po- Pass through the Low Archipelago—Tahiti— tato — Formation of Peat — Myopotamus, Aspect—Vegetation on the Mountains—View Otter and Mice—Cheucau and Barking-bird of Eimeo—Excursion into the Interior—Pro-—Opetiorhynchus—Singular Character of Or- found Ravines—Succession of Waterfalls— nithology—Petrels 273 Number of wild useful Plants—Temperance of the Inhabitants—Their moral state—Par-CHAPTER XIV. liament convened—New Zealand—Bay of San Cailos, Chiloe-Osorno in eruption, con- Islands-Hippahs—Excursion to Waimate— temporaneously with Aconcagua and Cose- Missionary ^stabhshment-English ^eeds guina—Hide to Cucao—Impenetrable forests $™ ru.n wild—Waioimo-Funeral of a New —Valdivia-Indians-Eartfiquake-Concep- ¿ealand Woman—Sail for Australia 402 cion—Great earthquake—Rocks fissured— CHAPTER XIX. Appearance of the former towns-Thesea Sydney—Excursion to Bathurst-Aspect of the black and boiimg-Direction of the -vibra- Woods-Party of Natives-Gradual extinctions-Stones twisted round-Great Wave— tion of the Aborigines—Infection generated Permanent elevation of the land—Area of b associated men in health—Blue Moun-volcamc phenomena—Die connexion be- tains—View of the grand gulf-like Valleys— tween the eleyatory and^eruptive forces- Tlaeir origin and formation-Bathurst, gene-Cause of earthquakes-Slow elevation of ral civility of the lower orders-State of So-Mountain-chains 291 ciety—Van Diemen's Land—Hobart Town CHAPTER XV —Aborigines all banished—Mount Wellington—King George's Sound—Cheerless aspect Valparaiso—Portillo pass—Sagacity of mules— of the Country—Bald Head, calcareous casts Mountain torrents—Mines, how discovered of branches of trees—Party of Natives—Leave —Proofs of the gradual elevation of the Cor- Australia 431 dillera—Effect of snow on rocks —Geological CHAPTER XX. structure of the two main ranges—Their dis- rr ,. T., , o. , * „ , tinct origin and upheaval-Great subsidence K^lm- «land-Singular appearance-Scanty —Red snow-Winds—Pinnacles of snow- Flora-Transport of Seeds-Birds and Insects

Dry and clear atmosphere-Electricity7 ^ms, a£? ñow,mg ? f ~ 5 3 ? Pampas-Zoology of the opposite sides of the df+d Coral-Stones transported m tiie roots Andes - Locusta - Great bugs-Mendoza- ®f tr,ees .7" Gr^\ Cr^ "", Sti,ngin5 Corals -Uspallata Pass-Silicified trees buried as Coral-eating Iish-Coral Formations- La-tíiey grew-Incas Bridge-Badness of the pon Islams or Atolls-Depth at which reel-passes exaggerated - Cumbre - Casuchas- building Cora s can live-Vast Areas inter-Valparaiso 313 spersed with low Coral Islands—Subsidence ^ ' of their foundations—Barrier Reefs—Fring CHAPTER XVI. ing Reefs—Conversion of Fringing Reefs into „ . , A., ^.^i, ., Barrier Reefs, and into Atolls—Evidence of Coast-road t0> Coquimbo—Great loads earned changes in Level—Breaches in Barrier Reefs by the miners—Coquimbo—Earthquake- —Maldiva Atolls; their peculiar structure— Step-formed terraces—Absence of recent de- Dead and submerged Reefs—Areas of subsi-posits-Contemporaneousness of the Tertiary denceand elevation—Distribution^Voléanos formations-Excursion up the valiey-Road -Subsidence slow, and vast in amount 452 to Guaseo—Deserts—Valley of CopiapóRain and earthquakes—Hydrophobia—The CHAPTER XXI. Despoblado—Indian Ruins—Probable change Mauritius, beautiful appearance of—Great cra-of climate—River-bed arched by an eartn- teriform ring of Mountains—Hindoos—St quake—Cold gales of wind—Noises from a Helena—History of the changes in the vepe-hill — Iquique — Salt alluvium —■ Nitrate of tation—Cause of the extinction of land-shells soda—Lima—Unhealthy country-—Ruins of —Ascension—Variation in the imported rats Callao, overthrown by an earthquake—Recent —Volcanic Bombs—Beds of infusoria—Bahia subsidence—Elevated shells on San Lorenzo, —Brazil—Splendour of tropical scenery—Per-their decomposition—Plain with embedded nambuco—Singular Reef—Slavery-^rReturn shells and fragments of pottery—Antiquity to England—Retrospect on our voyage.. 483 of the Indian Race 337 Index 507

J 0 ü R N A I,

CHAPTER I.

Porto PrayaRibeira Grande—Atmospheric Dust with Infusoria—Habite of a Sea-slug and Cuttle-fish—St. Paul's Bocks, non-volcanic—Singular incrustations—Insects the first Colonists of Islands—Fernando Noronha —Bahia—Burnished Rocks—Habits of a Diodon—Pelagic Confervee and Infusoria—Causes of discoloured Sea.

ST. JAGO—CAPE DE VERB ISLANDS.

After having been twice driven back by heavy south-western gales, Her Majesty's ship Beagle, a ten-gun brig, under the command of Captain. Fitz Roy, R.N., sailed from Devonport on the 27th of December, 1831. The object of the expedition was to complete the survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, commenced under Captain King in 1826.to 1830—to survey the shores of Chile, Peru, and of some islands in the Pacific—and to carry a chain of chronometrical measurements round the World. On the 6th of January we reached Teneriffe, but were prevented landing, by fears of our bringing the cholera: the next morning we saw the sun rise behind the rugged outline of the Grand Canary island, and suddenly illumine the Peak of Teneriffe, whilst the lower parts were veiled in fleecy clouds. This was the first of many delightful days never to be forgotten. On the 16th of January, 1832, we anchored at Porto Praya, in St. Jago, the chief island of the Cape de Verd archipelago.

The neighbourhood of Porto Praya, viewed from the sea5 wears a desolate aspect. The volcanic fires of a past age, and the scorching heat of a tropical sun, have in most places rendered the soil unfit for vegetation. The country rises in successive

2 ST. JAGO—CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS, [chap. i.

steps of table-land, interspersed with some truncate conical hills, and the horizon is bounded by an irregular chain of more lofty mountains. The scene, as beheld through the hazy atmosphere of this climate, is one of great interest; if, indeed, a person, fresh from sea, and who has just walked, for the first time, in a grove of cocoa-nut il'ee?j can /be a judge of anything but his own happiness. The island would generally be considered as very uninteresting; but to any one accustomed only to an English landscape, the novel aspect of an utterly sterile land possesses a grandeur which more vegetation might spoil. A single green leaf can scarcely be discovered over wide tracts of the lava plains ; yet flocks of goats, together with a few cows, contrive to exist. It rains very seldom, but during a short portion of the year heavy torrents fall, and immediately afterwards a light vegetation springs out of every crevice. This soon withers; and upon such naturally formed hay the animals live. It had not now rained for an entire year. When the island was discovered, the immediate neighbourhood of Porto Praya was clothed with trees,* the reckless destruction of which has caused here, as at St. Helena, and at some of the Canary islands, almost entire sterility. The broad, flat-bottomed valleys, many of which serve during a few days only in the season as watercourses, are clothed with thickets of leafless bushes. Few living creatures inhabit these valleys. The commonest bird is a kingfisher (Dacelo Iagoensis), which tamely sits on the branches of the castor-oil plant, and thence darts on grasshoppers and lizards. It is brightly coloured, but not so beautiful as the European species: in its flight, manners, and place of habitation, which is generally in the driest valley, there is also a wide difference.

One day, two of the officers and myself rode to Ribeira Grande, a village a few miles eastward of Porto Praya. Until we reached the valley of St. Martin, the country presented its usual dull brown appearance; but here, a very small rill of water produces a most refreshing margin of luxuriant vegetation. In the course of an hour we arrived at Bibeira Grande, and were surprised at the sight of a large ruined fort and cathedral. This little town, before its harbour was filled up, was the principal

* I state this on the authority of Dr. E. Didfenbach, in his German translation of the first edition of this Journal.

1832.J RIBEIRA GRANDEST. DOMINGO. 3

place in the island: it now presents a melancholy, but very picturesque appearance. Having procured a black Padre for a guide, and a Spaniard who had served in the Peninsular war as an interpreter, we visited a collection of buildings, of which an ancient church formed the principal part. It is here the governors and captain-generals of the islands have been buried. Some of the tombstones recorded dates of the sixteenth century.* The heraldic ornaments were the only things in this retired place that reminded us of Europe. The church or. chapel formed one side of a quadrangle, in the middle of which a large clamp of bananas were growing. On another side was a hospital, containing about a dozen miserable-looking inmates.

We returned to the Venda to eat our dinners. A considerable number of men, women, and children, all as black as jet, collected to watch us. Our companions were extremely merry; and everything we said or did was followed by their hearty laughter. Before leaving the town we visited the cathedral. It does not appear so rich as the smaller church, but boasts of a little organ, which sent forth singularly inharmonious cries. We presented the black priest with a few shillings, and the Spaniard, patting him on the head, said, with much candour, he thought his colour made no great difference. We then returned, as fast as the ponies would go, to Porto Praya.

Another day we rode to the village of St. Domingo, situated near the centre of the island. On a small plain which we crossed, a few stunted acacias were growing; their tops had been bent by the steady trade-wind, in a singular manner—some of them even at right angles to their trunks. The direction of the branches was exactly -N.E. by 1ST., and S.W. by S., and these natural vanes must indicate the prevailing direction of the force of the trade-wind. The travelling had made so little impression on the barren soil, that we here missed our track, and took that to Fuentes. This we did not find out till we arrived there ; and we were afterwards glad of our mistake. Fuentes is a pretty village, with a small stream ; and everything appeared to prosper well, excepting, indeed, that which ought to do so most—its

* The Cape de Verd Islands were discovered in 1449. There was a tombstone of a bishop with the date of 1571; and a crest of a hand and. dagger, dated 1497.

4 ST. JAGO—CAPE DE VERD ISLANDS. [ciiaf. i.

inhabitants. The black children, completely naked, and looking very wretched, were carrying bundles of firewood half as big as their own bodies.

Near Fuentes we saw a large flock of guinea-fowl—probably fifty or sixty in number. They were extremely wary, and could not be approached. They avoided us, like partridges on a rainy -day in September, running with their heads cocked up ; and if pursued, they readily took to the wing.

The scenery of St. Domingo possesses a beauty totally unexpected, from the prevalent gloomy character of the rest of the island. The village is situated-at the bottom of a valley, bounded by lofty and jagged walls of stratified lava. The black rocks afford a most striking contrast with the bright green vegetation, which follows the banks of a little stream of clear water. It happened to be a grand feast-day, and the village was* full of people. On our return we overtook a party of about twenty young black girls, dressed in excellent taste; their black skins and snow-white linen being set off by coloured turbans and large shawls. As soon as we approached near, they suddenly all turned round, and covering the path with their shawls, sung with great energy a wild song, beating time with their hands upon their legs. We threw them some vintéms, which were received with screams of laughter, and we left them redoubling the noise of their song.
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