Contents part 1: Introduction




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Rating: 5b


Schneier FR. Clinical practice. Social anxiety disorder. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1029-36.
PMID: 16957148
Rating: 5c

Schnitzer TJ, Ferraro A, Hunsche E, Kong SX. A comprehensive review of clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of drugs for the treatment of low back pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004 Jul;28(1):72-95.


Available evidence supported the effectiveness of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in acute and chronic LBP, of muscle relaxants in acute LBP, and of antidepressants in chronic LBP; safety results were heterogeneous.
PMID: 15223086
Rating: 1b

Scholmerich J. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus selective COX-2 inhibitors in the upper gastrointestinal tract. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 1:S67-71.


Considering the current controversy regarding cardiovascular events, there is no major reason to prefer coxibs to conventional NSAID plus PPI in patients needing long-term treatment.
PMID: 16785832
Rating: 5c

Schonstein E, Kenny D, Keating J, Koes B, Herbert RD. Physical conditioning programs for workers with back and neck pain: a cochrane systematic review. Spine. 2003 Oct 1;28(19):E391-5


CONCLUSION: Physical conditioning programs that incorporate a cognitive-behavioral approach reduce the number of sick days for workers with chronic back pain when compared to usual care.
PMID: 14520051
Rating: 1b

Schultz IZ, Crook J, Berkowitz J, Milner R, Meloche GR, Lewis ML. A Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention with High-risk Back-injured Workers-A Pilot Study. J Occup Rehabil. 2008 Jun;18(2):140-51. Epub 2008 Apr 11.


Conclusion: Multimodal Early Intervention in the workers' compensation case management context is likely effective for workers with sub-acute back pain who are at high risk of occupational disability.
PMID: 18404361
Rating: 3b

Schürmann M, Gradl G, Wizgal I, Tutic M, Moser C, Azad S, Beyer A. Clinical and physiologic evaluation of stellate ganglion blockade for complex regional pain syndrome type I. Clin J Pain. 2001;17:94-100.


PMID: 11289093
Rating: 4c

Schürmann M, Zaspel J, Löhr P, Wizgall I, Tutic M, Manthey N, Steinborn M, Gradl G. Imaging in early posttraumatic complex regional pain syndrome: a comparison of diagnostic methods. Clin J Pain. 2007;23:449-57.
PMID: 17515744
Rating: 4b

Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR, Paylor T, Reichenberger E, Perreault M. Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Pain. 2009 Dec 15;147(1-3):107-15.


The results of this study warrant a larger randomized placebo controlled trial using higher doses of ketamine and a longer follow-up period.
PMID: 19783371
Rating: 2c

See S, Ginzburg R. Skeletal muscle relaxants. Pharmacotherapy. 2008; 28:207-13.



Therefore, the choice of a skeletal muscle relaxant should be based on its adverse-effect profile, tolerability, and cost.


PMID: 18225966


Rating 5c


See S, Ginzburg R. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Aug 1;78(3):365-70.
The most commonly prescribed antispasmodic agents are carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone, and methocarbamol. Despite their popularity, skeletal muscle relaxants should not be the primary drug class of choice for musculoskeletal conditions.
PMID: 18711953
Rating: 5b
Sengupta K, Alluri KV, Satish AR, Mishra S, Golakoti T, Sarma KV, Dey D, Raychaudhuri SP. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin(R) for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008 Jul 30;10(4):R85. [Epub ahead of print]
CONCLUSION: 5-Loxin(R) reduces pain and improves physical functioning significantly in OA patients; and it is safe for human consumption.
PMID: 18667054
Rating: 2c
An enriched extract of the 'Indian Frankincense' herb Boswellia serrata has been proven to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis. The same authors have previously tested the safety of their remedy in animal experiments. They say that, "In this study, the compound was shown to have no major adverse effects in our osteoarthritis patients. It is safe for human consumption and even for long-term use".

Serpell MG; Neuropathic pain study group. Gabapentin in neuropathic pain syndromes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2002;99:557-66.
This study shows that gabapentin reduces pain and improves some quality-of-life measures in patients with a wide range of neuropathic pain syndromes.
PMID: 12406532
Rating: 2b

Severeijns R; Vlaeyen JW; van den Hout MA; Weber WE. Pain catastrophizing predicts pain intensity, disability, and psychological distress independent of the level of physical impairment. Clinical Journal of Pain. 01-Jun-2001; 17(2): 165-72.


Publication Type: Case Control Study, 211 cases
PMID: 11444718

Shariatmadari ME. Letter: Orphenadrine dependence. Br Med J. 1975;3:486.


This was a case report of orphenadrine dependence.


Rating: 11b


Sharma A, Williams K, Raja SN. Advances in treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: recent insights on a perplexing disease. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006;19:566-72.
SUMMARY: Enhanced insight into the pathophysiology of chronic regional pain syndrome has modified current clinical practice and the focus of research. Certain 'standard' therapeutic options for chronic regional pain syndrome have failed the test of time while others have prevailed.
PMID: 16960493
Rating: 5c

Shell W, Bullias D, Charuvastra E, May LA, Silver DS. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of an Amino Acid Preparation on Timing and Quality of Sleep. Am J Ther. 2009 May 15. [Epub ahead of print]
An amino acid preparation containing both GABA and 5-hydroxytryptophan reduced time to fall asleep, decreased sleep latency, increased the duration of sleep, and improved quality of sleep.
PMID: 19417589
Rating: 2c
Conflict of interest. There were only 18 patients total. No description was given for the actual sleep disorder. This can't be applied overall to any patients because no diagnoses are given.
Sherman RA, Karstetter KW, Damiano M, Evans CB. Stability of temperature asymmetries in reflex sympathetic dystrophy over time and changes in pain. Clin J Pain. 1994;10:71-7.
PMID: 8193447
Rating: 4c

Shi S, Klotz U. Proton pump inhibitors: an update of their clinical use and pharmacokinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;64(10):935-51.
PMID: 18679668
Rating: 1a
Sibille KT, Langaee T, Burkley B, Gong Y, Glover TL, King C, Riley JL 3rd, Leeuwenburgh C, Staud R, Bradley LA, Fillingim RB. Chronic pain, perceived stress, and cellular aging: an exploratory study. Mol Pain. 2012 Feb 12;8:12.
The chronic pain/high stress group had significantly shorter telomere length compared to the no pain/low stress group.
PMID: 22325162
Rating: 3c

Siddall, P., et al. The efficacy of Intrathecal Morphine and Clonidine in the Treatment of Pain After Spinal Cord Injury. Anesh. Analg, 2000; Number 91:1493-8.
Rating: 2b
Quality: Intermediate. Total Rating: 7.5. Comment: 15 patients were divided into research groups. Found that intrathecal clonidine alone did not perform better than placebo. [CA DWC]

Sigtermans MJ, van Hilten JJ, Bauer MC, Arbous MS, Marinus J, Sarton EY, Dahan A. Ketamine produces effective and long-term pain relief in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1. Pain. 2009 Oct;145(3):304-11.
In conclusion, in a population of mostly chronic CRPS-1 patients with severe pain at baseline, a multiple day ketamine infusion resulted in significant pain relief without functional improvement.
PMID: 19604642
Rating: 2b

Sindrup SH, Otto M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS. Antidepressants in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jun;96(6):399-409.
In conclusion, antidepressants represent useful tools in neuropathic pain treatment and must still be considered as first line treatments of neuropathic pain.
PMID: 15910402
Rating: 5a

Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action. Pain. 1999 Dec;83(3):389-400.


In central pain, NNT was 2.5 for tricyclics and 3. 4 for carbamazepine, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mexiletine and dextromethorphan were inactive.
PMID: 10568846
Rating: 1b

Singh HP, Davis TR. The effect of short-term dependency and immobility on skin temperature and colour in the hand. J Hand Surg Br. 2006;31:611-5.


PMID: 17034912
Rating: 4c

Singh G, Willen SN, Boswell MV, Janata JW, Chelimsky TC. The value of interdisciplinary pain management in complex regional pain syndrome type I: a prospective outcome study. Pain Physician. 2004;7:203-9.


PMID: 16868593
Rating: 4c

Skouen JS, Grasdal AL, Haldorsen EM, Ursin H. Relative cost-effectiveness of extensive and light multidisciplinary treatment programs versus treatment as usual for patients with chronic low back pain on long-term sick leave: randomized controlled study. Spine. 2002 May 1;27(9):901-9; discussion 909-10.


RESULTS: In men significantly better results for full return to work were found for the light multidisciplinary treatment compared with treatment as usual, but no differences were found between extensive multidisciplinary treatment and treatment as usual. No significant differences between any of the two multidisciplinary treatment programs and the controls were found for women.
PMID: 11979157
Rating: 2b

Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D. Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain. 2008 Feb;9(2):164-73.


As nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated, it may be a useful adjunct for pain management in fibromyalgia.
PMID: 17974490
Rating: 2c
Future studies with a longer duration of treatment and a stable dose are still needed, they add. The medication's costs — $4000 a year in Canada — may be prohibitive to some patients, they observe. When interpreting the study results, it is important to note that the study drug was costly, the study was done in a small number of patients, and there was a high dropout rate, Dr. Kissel said. In addition, the dropout patients were not included in an intention-to-treat analysis, which would have resulted in a lower improvement rate.

Smeets RJ, Vlaeyen JW, Hidding A, Kester AD, van der Heijden GJ, van Geel AC, Knottnerus JA. Active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Cognitive-behavioral, physical, or both? First direct post-treatment results from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006 Jan 20;7(1):5.


CONCLUSIONS: All three active treatments were effective in comparison to no treatment, but no clinically relevant differences between the combined and the single component treatments were found.
PMID: 16426449
Rating: 2a

Smith DE, Landry MJ. Benzodiazepine dependency discontinuation: focus on the chemical dependency detoxification setting and benzodiazepine-polydrug abuse. J Psychiatr Res. 1990;24:145-56


PMID: 1980693
Rating: 5b

Smith PC, Schmidt SM, Allensworth-Davies D, Saitz R. A single-question screening test for drug use in primary care. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jul 12;170(13):1155-60.


PMID: 20625025
Rating: 3b

Smith MJ, Cobia DJ, Wang L, Alpert KI, J Cronenwett W, B Goldman M, Mamah D, Barch DM, Breiter HC, Csernansky JG. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects. Schizophr Bull. 2013 Dec 15.


PMID: 24342821
Rating: 3b

Solak O, Turna A, Pekcolaklar A, Metin M, Sayar A, Solak O, Gurses A. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for the treatment of postthoracotomy pain: a randomized prospective study. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Apr;55(3):182-5.


CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that TENS provided a better pain relief and comfort compared to PCA from the fourth postoperative day onwards, and this pain-reducing effect continued for at least two months postoperatively.
PMID: 17410506
Rating: 2c

Solomon DH, Schneeweiss S, Glynn RJ, Kiyota Y, Levin R, Mogun H, Avorn J, Relationship between selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and acute myocardial infarction in older adults, Circulation. 2004 May 4;109(17):2068-73. Epub 2004 Apr 19.


CONCLUSIONS: In this study, current rofecoxib use was associated with an elevated relative risk of AMI compared with celecoxib use and no NSAID use. Dosages of rofecoxib >25 mg were associated with a higher risk than dosages < or =25 mg. The risk was elevated in the first 90 days of use but not thereafter.
PMID: 15096449
Rating: 4a

Sommer HM. The Patient in Jeopardy: How the Low Back Pain Patient Becomes Disabled. Occupational Medicine 1998;(13)1:23-31.
Dr. Sommer divides the low back pain episode into four stages that can lead to patient disablement.
Publication Type: Review
PMID: 11444718

Soomro GM, Altman D, Rajagopal S, Oakley-Browne M. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus placebo for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD001765.


CONCLUSIONS: SSRIs are more effective than placebo for OCD, at least in the short-term, although there are differences between the adverse effects of individual SSRI drugs. The longer term efficacy and tolerability of different SSRI drugs for OCD has yet to be established.
PMID: 18253995
Rating: 1c
Spence SH, Sharpe L, Newton-John T, Champion D. Effect of EMG biofeedback compared to applied relaxation training with chronic, upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Pain. 1995 Nov;63(2):199-206.
The strongest short-term treatment benefits were shown by patients receiving applied relaxation training on measures of pain, distress, interference in daily living, depression and anxiety. By 6-month follow-up, differences between treatment groups were no longer evident.
PMID: 8628585
Rating: 2c

Spruce MC, Potter J, Coppini DV. The pathogenesis and management of painful diabetic neuropathy: a review. Diabet Med. 2003 Feb;20(2):88-98.


Emerging theories suggest that early dysaesthesia associated with painful neuropathy may act as a marker for the development of the 'at risk' foot, allowing preventative clinical strategies to be undertaken.
PMID: 12581259
Rating: 5c

Staal JB, de Bie R, de Vet HC, Hildebrandt J, Nelemans P. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(3):CD001824.


RESULTS: 18 trials (1179 participants) were included in this updated review. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of injection therapy in subacute and chronic low-back pain.
PMID: 18646078
Rating: 1b

Stacey BR, Dworkin RH, Murphy K, Sharma U, Emir B, Griesing T. Pregabalin in the Treatment of Refractory Neuropathic Pain: Results of a 15-Month Open-Label Trial. Pain Med. 2008 Mar 11.
Conclusions. These results suggest that pregabalin may be beneficial in patients with neuropathic pain who have had an unsatisfactory response to treatment with other medications.
PMID: 18346060
Rating: 4c

Stanos S, Houle TT. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary management of chronic pain. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006 May;17(2):435-50, vii.


Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary pain management programs incorporate a biopsychosocial model in assessing and treating pain and result in pain reduction, improved quality of life, and psychosocial functioning.
Rating: 5c

Stanton-Hicks M, Janig W, Hassenbusch S, Haddox JD, Boas R, Wilson P. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy. Pain. 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33.
The term sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) was also evaluated and considered to be a variable phenomenon associated with a variety of disorders, including CRPS types I and II.
PMID: 8577483
Rating: 5a

Stanton-Hicks M. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. In: Warfield CA, Bajwa JH. Principles and Practice of Pain Medicine. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2004.
Rating 9a

State of Colorado Department of Labor and Employment, Division of Workers’ Compensation. Colorado Rule XVII, Exhibit 7, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Medical Treatment Guideline. 01/01/06
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS Types I and II) describes painful syndromes, which were formerly referred to as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia.
Publication Type: State Treatment Guideline
Rating: 7a
Staiger TO, Gaster B, Sullivan MD, Deyo RA, Systematic review of antidepressants in the treatment of chronic low back pain, Spine. 2003 Nov 15;28(22):2540-5
CONCLUSIONS: Based on a small number of studies, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants appear to produce moderate symptom reductions for patients with chronic low back pain. This benefit appears to be independent of depression status. SSRIs do not appear to be beneficial for patients with chronic low back pain. There is conflicting evidence whether antidepressants improve functional status of patients with chronic low back pain.
PMID: 14624092
Rating: 1b

Stanton-Hicks M. Complex regional pain syndrome: manifestations and the role of neurostimulation in its management. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006 Apr;31(4 Suppl):S20-4.


If no response to conventional treatment (e.g., pharmacotherapy) is noted within 12-16 weeks, a more interventional technique such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) should be used.
PMID: 16647591
Rating: 5b

Stegmann JU, Weber H, Steup A, Okamoto A, Upmalis D, Daniels S. The efficacy and tolerability of multiple-dose tapentadol immediate release for the relief of acute pain following orthopedic (bunionectomy) surgery. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print]


CONCLUSIONS: The study results suggest improved gastrointestinal tolerability of tapentadol IR 50 mg compared with oxycodone at a dose showing comparable efficacy.
PMID: 18851776
Rating: 2b

Stein DJ, Bandelow B, Hollander E, Nutt DJ, Okasha A, Pollack MH, Swinson RP, Zohar J; World Council of Anxiety. WCA Recommendations for the long-term treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectr. 2003 Aug;8(8 Suppl 1):31-9.


Only SSRIs have been proven effective and safe in long-term randomized controlled trials. Current guidelines from the Expert Consensus Panel for PTSD recommend treatment of chronic PTSD for a minimum of 12-24 months.
PMID: 14767396
Rating: 5a

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Everett ED, Dellinger P, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan EL, Montoya JG, Wade JC; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15;41(10):1373-406.


PMID: 16231249
Rating: 6b
Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Morganstein D, Lipton R, Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce, JAMA. 2003 Nov 12;290(18):2443-54.
The study concluded, “Pain is an inordinately common and disabling condition in the US workforce. Most of the pain-related lost productive time occurs while employees are at work and is in the form of reduced performance.”
PMID: 14612481

Rating: 4b


Stuckey SJ, Jacobs A, Goldfarb J. EMG biofeedback training, relaxation training, and placebo for the relief of chronic back pain. Percept Mot Skills. 1986 Dec;63(3):1023-36.
Relaxation-trained subjects showed significant change on eight of the 14 possible comparisons for each treatment condition. EMG biofeedback training showed significant favorable results in only one condition; the placebo condition showed no significant results. Relaxation training gave better results in reducing EMG and pain, and in increasing relaxation and activity than either EMG biofeedback alone or a placebo condition.
PMID: 2949196
Rating: 2c

Sullivan MD, Edlund MJ, Zhang L, Unützer J, Wells KB. Association between mental health disorders, problem drug use, and regular prescription opioid use. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2087-93.


CONCLUSIONS: Common mental health disorders and problem drug use are associated with initiation and use of prescribed opioids in the general population. Attention to psychiatric disorders is important when considering opioid therapy.
PMID: 17060538
Rating 3a

Sullivan MD, Edlund MJ, Steffick D, Unützer J. Regular use of prescribed opioids: association with common psychiatric disorders. Pain. 2005;119:95-103.


Depressive, anxiety and drug abuse disorders are associated with increased use of regular opioids in the general population. Depressive and anxiety disorders are more common and more strongly associated with prescribed opioid use than drug abuse disorders.
PMID: 16298066
Rating: 3a

Sullivan MJ, Ward LC, Tripp D, French DJ, Adams H, Stanish WD. Secondary prevention of work disability: community-based psychosocial intervention for musculoskeletal disorders. J Occup Rehabil. 2005 Sep;15(3):377-92.


RESULTS: In the current sample, 63.7% of participants returned to work within 4 weeks of treatment termination.
PMID: 16119228
Rating: 4b

Sullivan MJ, Adams H, Rhodenizer T, Stanish WD. A psychosocial risk factor--targeted intervention for the prevention of chronic pain and disability following whiplash injury. Phys Ther. 2006 Jan;86(1):8-18.


PMID: 16386058
Rating: 2b

Sullivan MJ, Adams H. Psychosocial treatment techniques to augment the impact of physiotherapy interventions for low back pain. Physiother Can. 2010 Summer;62(3):180-9. doi: 10.3138/physio.62.3.180.


PMID: 21629595
Rating: 3b

Sundaraj SR, Johnstone C, Noore F, Wynn P, Castro M. Spinal cord stimulation: a seven-year audit. J Clin Neurosci. 2005 Apr;12(3):264-70.


CONCLUSION: SCS is an effective treatment in the control of chronic neuropathic pain, particularly in combination with comprehensive medical management within a multidisciplinary pain management centre.
PMID: 15851079
Rating: Taricco, M., et al. Pharmacological interventions for spasticity following spinal cord injury: results of a Cochrane systematic review. Eura Medicophys. 2006; Volume 42: 5-15.
Rating: 1c
Quality: N/A. Total Rating: N/A. Comment: Does not meet inclusion criteria for evidence-based review. [CA DWC]

Tarner IH, Englbrecht M, Schneider M, van der Heijde DM, Müller-Ladner U. The role of corticosteroids for pain relief in persistent pain of inflammatory arthritis: a systematic literature review. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2012 Sep;90:17-20. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.120337.


PMID: 22942324
Rating: 1b

Tassone DM, Boyce E, Guyer J, Nuzum D. Pregabalin: a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid analogue in the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial-onset seizures, and anxiety disorders. Clin Ther. 2007:29:26-48.


CONCLUSIONS: Pregabalin appears to be an effective therapy in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and adults with refractory partial-onset seizures.
PMID: 17379045
Rating: 5a

Taylor WD, Doraiswamy PM. A Systematic Review of Antidepressant Placebo-Controlled Trials for Geriatric Depression: Limitations of Current Data and Directions for the Future, Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Sep 1


Large placebo response rates, lack of controlled head to head comparisons, and other methodological design differences make crosstrial comparisons difficult.
PMID: 15340391

Rating: 1b

Taylor RS, Buyten JP, Buchser E. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: A systematic review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness literature and assessment of prognostic factors. Eur J Pain. 2006 Feb;10(2):91-101.

CONCLUSIONS: SCS appears to be an effective therapy in the management of patients with CRPS type I (Level A evidence) and type II (Level D evidence). Moreover, there is evidence to demonstrate that SCS is a cost-effective treatment for CRPS type I.

PMID: 16310712

Rating: 1c


Tembe DV, Dhavale A, Desai H, Mane DN, Raut SK, Dhingra G, Sardesai U, Saoji S, Rohra M, Shinde VG, Padsalge M, Paliwal A, Abbasi K, Devnani P, Papinwar S, Phadke S, Mehta H, Bhailume V. Armodafinil versus Modafinil in Patients of Excessive Sleepiness Associated with Shift Work Sleep Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Multicentric Clinical Trial. Neurol Res Int. 2011;2011:514351.
The study did not demonstrate any difference in efficacy and safety of armodafinil and modafinil.
PMID: 21766023
Rating: 2b

Terkelsen AJ, Bach FW, Jensen TS. Experimental forearm immobilization in humans induces cold and mechanical hyperalgesia. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:297-307.
PMID: 18648239
Rating: 5c

Thiese MS, Hughes M, Biggs J. Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Mar 28;14:117. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-117.


PMID: 23537462
Rating: 5b

Thompson JC, Dunbar E, Laye RR. Treatment challenges and complications with ziconotide monotherapy in established pump patients. Pain Physician. 2006 Apr;9(2):147-52.


This report describes challenges associated with the decision to convert established pump patients from intrathecal opioid therapy to Ziconotide monotherapy. Inadequate analgesia, adverse medication effects, and opioid withdrawal symptoms can precipitate a stressful situation that may be perceived as dangerous or threatening by patients who are predisposed to anxiety. Screening patients for psychiatric disorders, anxiety-proneness and/or vulnerability to stress should be considered to reduce the risk of treatment complications. A multimodal approach is strongly advocated, including rapid responses of treating physicians and nurses along with strong psychological support.
PMID: 16703976
Rating: 4c

Ticknor CB, Pharmacologic considerations in treating depression: a patient-centered approach. J Manag Care Pharm. 2004 Mar;10(2 Suppl):S8-15.


Pain and depression are both regulated by serotonin and norepinephine, and several studies suggest that using dual-action antidepressants may be helpful in patients who have an element of pain to their disorder.
PMID: 15046545
Rating: 5b

Tofferi JK, Jackson JL, O'Malley PG, Treatment of fibromyalgia with cyclobenzaprine: A meta-analysis, Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Feb 15;51(1):9-13.


Cyclobenzaprine-treated patients were 3 times as likely to report overall improvement and to report moderate reductions in individual symptoms, particularly sleep.
PMID: 14872449
Rating: 1c

Tomas-Carus P, Häkkinen A, Gusi N, Leal A, Häkkinen K, Ortega-Alonso A. Aquatic training and detraining on fitness and quality of life in fibromyalgia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jul;39(7):1044-50.


The present water exercise protocol improved some components of HRQOL, balance, and stair climbing in females with fibromyalgia, but regular exercise and higher intensities may be required to preserve most of these gains.
PMID: 17596770
Rating: 2b

Toth PP, Urtis J. Commonly used muscle relaxant therapies for acute low back pain: a review of carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, and metaxalone. Clin Ther. 2004;26:1355-67.


Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride has the most recent and largest clinical trials demonstrating its benefit, but carisoprodol and metaxalone also appear to be effective. However, carisoprodol's usefulness is mitigated by its potential for abuse.
PMID: 15530999
Ranking: 5a

Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Welch V, Hochberg MC, Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD002946.


PMID: 11279782
Rating: 1b

Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Judd MG, Catton M, Hochberg MC, Wells G. Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 ;(1):CD004257.


CONCLUSIONS: The evidence to date suggests that NSAIDs are superior to acetaminophen for improving knee and hip pain in people with OA. The size of the treatment effect was modest, and the median trial duration was only six weeks, therefore, additional considerations need to be factored in when making the decision between using acetaminophen or NSAIDs. In OA subjects with moderate-to-severe levels of pain, NSAIDs appear to be more effective than acetaminophen.
PMID: 16437479
Rating: 1c

Towheed TE. Pennsaid therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol. 2006 Mar;33(3):567-73.


CONCLUSION: Pennsaid deserves further consideration when the existing treatment guidelines for OA of the knee are updated.
PMID: 16511925
Rating: 1b

Townsend CO, Bruce BK, Hooten WM, Rome JD. The role of mental health professionals in multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation programs. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Aug 25; [Epub ahead of print]


This article discusses the biopsychosocial approach to pain treatment.
PMID: 16937355
Rating: 5b
Townsend CO, Kerkvliet JL, Bruce BK, Rome JD, Hooten WM, Luedtke CA, Hodgson JE. A longitudinal study of the efficacy of a comprehensive pain rehabilitation program with opioid withdrawal: comparison of treatment outcomes based on opioid use status at admission. Pain. 2008;140:177-89.
Patients with longstanding CPRP on chronic opioid therapy, who choose to participate in interdisciplinary rehabilitation that incorporates opioid withdrawal, can experience significant and sustained improvement in pain severity and functioning.
PMID: 18804915
Rating: 3b

Tracz MJ, Sideras K, Bolona ER, Haddad RM, Kennedy CC, Uraga MV, Caples SM, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Testosterone use in men and its effects on bone health. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2011-6.


Intramuscular testosterone moderately increased lumbar bone density in men; the results on femoral neck bone density are inconclusive. Without bone fracture data, the available trials offer weak and indirect inferences about the clinical efficacy of testosterone on osteoporosis prevention and treatment in men.
PMID: 16720668
Rating: 1a

Tran de QH, Duong S, Bertini P, Finlayson RJ. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a review of the evidence. Can J Anaesth. 2010 Feb;57(2):149-66. doi: 10.1007/s12630-009-9237-0.


PMID: 20054678
Rating: 1c

Trevino ME. Grasso AR. ALO-KNT-301: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Efficacy Study of Morphine Sulfate Plus Naltrexone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules in Subjects with Moderate to Severe Chronic Pain Due to Osteoarthritis of theHip or Knee. Aug 13, 2009


The mean change in the weekly diary BPI average pain score from randomization baseline to the end of study was statistically significantly superior for those treated with Embeda compared to the placebo group.
Rating: 2b

Tulder MW van, Malmivaara A, Esmail R, Koes BW. Exercise therapy for low back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2002. Oxford: Update Software.
Conclusions: The evidence summarised in this systematic review does not indicate that specific exercises are effective for the treatment of acute low back pain. Exercises may be helpful for chronic low back pain patients to increase return to normal daily activities and work.
Publication Type: Meta-Analysis
Turk DC, Swanson KS, Gatchel RJ. Predicting opioid misuse by chronic pain patients: a systematic review and literature synthesis. Clin J Pain. 2008;24:497-508.
Strong predictors include a personal history of illicit drug and alcohol abuse.
PMID: 18574359
Rating: 1b

Turner MK, Hooten WM, Schmidt JE, Kerkvliet JL, Townsend CO, Bruce BK. Prevalence and clinical correlates of vitamin D inadequacy among patients with chronic pain. Pain Med. 2008 Nov;9(8):979-84.


The prevalence and clinical correlates identified in this pilot study provide the basis for the assertion that vitamin D inadequacy may represent an under-recognized source of nociception and impaired neuromuscular functioning among patients with chronic pain.
PMID: 18346069
Rating: 3a

Turturro MA, Paris PM, Larkin GL. Tramadol versus hydrocodone-acetaminophen in acute musculoskeletal pain: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Aug;32(2):139-43.

Tramadol provides inferior analgesia to hydrocodone-acetaminophen in ED patients with acute musculoskeletal pain.
PMID: 9701294
Rating: 2b

Tutak U, Doleys DM. Intrathecal infusion systems for treatment of chronic low back and leg pain of noncancer origin. South Med J. 1996 Mar;89(3):295-300.


These data support chronic spinal opiate therapy as an option for safe and long-term management of noncancer pain.
PMID: 8604459
Rating: 2c

Uher EM, Vacariu G, Schneider B, Fialka V. Comparison of manual lymph drainage with physical therapy in complex regional pain syndrome, type I. A comparative randomized controlled therapy study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2000 Feb 11;112(3):133-7.


The results indicate that, during the first 6 months of complex regional pain syndrome type I, manual lymph drainage provides no additional benefit when applied in conjunction with an intensive exercise program.
PMID: 10729965
Rating: 2c

Ung H, Brown JE, Johnson KA, Younger J, Hush J, Mackey S. Multivariate Classification of Structural MRI Data Detects Chronic Low Back Pain. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Dec 17.


Our findings suggest that cLBP is characterized by a pattern of GM changes that can have discriminative power and reflect relevant pathological brain morphology.
PMID: 23246778
Rating: 3b

United Health Care. Technology Assessment: Intrathecal Pump for Chronic Nonmalignant Pain. Number 2005T0060C, Approved By Medical Technology Assessment Committee 11/17/2005.


An implantable infusion pump is covered when used to administer opioid drugs (e.g., morphine) intrathecally or epidurally for treatment of severe chronic intractable pain of malignant or nonmalignant origin in patients who have a life expectancy of at least 3 months, and who have proven unresponsive to less invasive medical.
Rating: 6b

van der Plas AA, van Rijn MA, Marinus J, Putter H, van Hilten JJ. Efficacy of intrathecal baclofen on different pain qualities in complex regional pain syndrome. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:211-5.


PMID: 23223108
Rating: 5c

van Eijs F, Stanton-Hicks M, Van Zundert J, Faber CG, Lubenow TR, Mekhail N, van Kleef M, Huygen F. Evidence-based interventional pain medicine according to clinical diagnoses. 16. Complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Pract. 2011;11:70-87.


PMID: 20807353
Rating: 5b

van Eijs F, Geurts J, van Kleef M, Faber CG, Perez RS, Kessels AG, Van Zundert J. Predictors of pain relieving response to sympathetic blockade in complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:113-21.


PMID: 22143169
Rating: 4b

van Geen JW, Edelaar MJ, Janssen M, van Eijk JT. The long-term effect of multidisciplinary back training: a systematic review. Spine. 2007;32:249-55


In the long-term, multidisciplinary back training has a positive effect on work participation in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.
PMID: 17224822
Rating: 1b

van Rijn MA, Munts AG, Marinus J, Voormolen JH, de Boer KS, Teepe-Twiss IM, van Dasselaar NT, Delhaas EM, van Hilten JJ. Intrathecal baclofen for dystonia of complex regional pain syndrome. Pain. 2009;143:41-7.


PMID: 19232828
Rating: 4c

van Tulder M, Koes B, Bouter L. Conservative Treatment of Acute and Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of the Most Common Interventions. Spine 1997; 22(18):2128-2156. (Includes Letter to the Editor and Response in Spine 1998; 23(11): 1288-1291, and Table A: Content of 12 Multidisciplinary Interventions for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain tested in 10 Randomised Controlled Trials.


The quality of the design, execution, and reporting of randomized controlled trials should be improved, to establish strong evidence for the effectiveness of the various therapeutic interventions for acute and chronic low back pain.
Publication Type: Meta-Analysis
PMID: 9322325

van Tulder MW, Scholten RJ, Koes BW, Deyo RA, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group, Spine. 2000 Oct 1;25(19):2501-13.


The evidence from the 51 trials included in this review suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective for short-term symptomatic relief in patients with acute low back pain. Furthermore, there does not seem to be a specific type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is clearly more effective than others.
PMID: 11013503
Rating: 1a

van Tulder MW, Koes B, Malmivaara A. Outcome of non-invasive treatment modalities on back pain: an evidence-based review. Eur Spine J. 2006 Jan;15 Suppl 1:S64-81.


Several treatments are also effective for short-term improvement of function in chronic LBP, namely COX2 inhibitors, back schools, progressive relaxation, exercise therapy, and multidisciplinary treatment.
PMID: 16320031
Rating: 1b

Varas-Lorenzo C, Riera-Guardia N, Calingaert B, Castellsague J, Pariente A, Scotti L, Sturkenboom M, Perez-Gutthann S. Stroke risk and NSAIDs: a systematic review of observational studies. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Oct 3. doi: 10.1002/pds.2227. [Epub ahead of print]


CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis supports an increased risk of ischemic stroke with the current use of rofecoxib and diclofenac.
PMID: 21971833
Rating: 1b

Varrassi G, Paladini A, Marinangeli F, Racz G. Neural modulation by blocks and infusions. Pain Pract. 2006;6:34-8.


The most common indication for nerve blocks, especially sympathetic blockade, is complex regional pain syndrome, in which success rates of up to 38% have been achieved, depending on the type of the block used.
PMID: 17309707
Rating: 5c

Veldhuizen JW, Verstappen FT, Vroemen JP, Kuipers H, Greep JM. Functional and morphological adaptations following four weeks of knee immobilization. Int J Sports Med. 1993;14:283-7.


PMID: 8365837
Rating: 3c

Veldman PH, Reynen HM, Arntz IE, Goris RJ. Signs and symptoms of reflex sympathetic dystrophy: prospective study of 829 patients. Lancet. 1993;342:1012-6.



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