Contents part 1: Introduction



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PMID: 15109501

Rating: 5c


A review discussing the potential role of immobilization in CRPS.

Jensen TS, Backonja MM, Hernández Jiménez S, Tesfaye S, Valensi P, Ziegler D. New perspectives on the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2006;3:108-19.


Addition of an opioid agonist may be required in the event of inadequate pain control. Irrespective of which treatment is offered, only about one third of patients are likely to achieve more than 50% pain relief.

PMID: 17058631


Rating: 5b

Jensen MP, Ehde DM, Gertz KJ, Stoelb BL, Dillworth TM, Hirsh AT, Molton IR, Kraft GH. Effects of self-hypnosis training and cognitive restructuring on daily pain intensity and catastrophizing in individuals with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2011 Jan;59(1):45-63.


The findings supported the greater beneficial effects of HYP, relative to CR, on average pain intensity. The CR-HYP treatment appeared to have beneficial effects greater than the effects of CR and HYP alone.
PMID: 21104484
Rating: 2c

Jick H, Kaye JA, Jick SS. Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors. JAMA. 2004 Jul 21;292(3):338-43.


“The risk of suicidal behavior after starting antidepressant treatment is similar among users of amitriptyline, fluoxetine, and paroxetine compared with the risk among users of dothiepin.”
PMID: 15265848
Rating: 4a

Johnsen SP, Larsson H, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK, Norgard B, Friis S, Sorensen HT. Risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction among users of rofecoxib, celecoxib, and other NSAIDs: a population-based case-control study. Arch Intern Med. 2005 May 9;165(9):978-84.


CONCLUSIONS: Current and new users of all classes of nonaspirin NSAIDs had elevated relative risk estimates for MI.
PMID: 15883235
Rating: 4a

Johnson M, Martinson M. Efficacy of electrical nerve stimulation for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain. 2007 Jul;130(1-2):157-65. Epub 2007 Mar 23.


PMID: 17383095
Rating: 1c
This meta-analysis came to the conclusion that electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) provided a significant decrease in chronic pain. ENS of most types was applied to any anatomic location of chronic musculoskeletal pain (back, knee, hip, neck) for any length of treatment. Of the 38 studies used in the analysis, 35 favored ENS over placebo. All locations were included as “mechanism, rather than anatomic location of pain, is likely to be a critical factor for therapy.” This study was funded by Empi, Inc. and performed by an independent contractor, Princeton Reimbursement Group. This group provides consulting services to medical technology companies to address reimbursement issues.

Jordan KD, Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ. Should extended disability be an exclusion criterion for tertiary rehabilitation? Socioeconomic outcomes of early versus late functional restoration in compensation spinal disorders. Spine. 1998 Oct 1;23(19):2110-6; discussion 2117.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early tertiary nonoperative care, once patients with chronic spinal disorders are identified as having potentially high-cost chronic pain and disability, is efficacious in achieving goals of better work return and work retention.


PMID: 9794056
Rating: 3a

Kahan M, Srivastava A, Wilson L, Gourlay D, Midmer D. Misuse of and dependence on opioids: study of chronic pain patients. Can Fam Physician. 2006;52:1081-7.




PMID: 17279218
Rating 5b

Kapczinski F, Lima MS, Souza JS, Schmitt R. Antidepressants for generalized anxiety disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD003592.


CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence suggests that antidepressants are superior to placebo in treating GAD.
PMID: 12804478
Rating: 1c

Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, Roine R, Jauhiainen M, Hurri H, Koes B. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for neck and shoulder pain among working age adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD002194.


CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there appears to be little scientific evidence for the effectiveness of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation compared with other rehabilitation facilities for neck and shoulder pain.
PMID: 12804428
Rating: 1c
Katz J, Pennella-Vaughan J, Hetzel RD, Kanazi GE, Dworkin RH. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion sustained release in chronic low back pain. J Pain. 2005 Oct;6(10):656-61.
Antidepressant medications that have both noradrenergic and serotonergic effects appear to have greater efficacy in patients with chronic low back pain than those with only serotonergic activity. We studied bupropion because it inhibits the reuptake of both norepinephrine and dopamine, but found no evidence of efficacy in patients with non-neuropathic chronic low back pain.
PMID: 16202958
Rating: 2c

Keefe FJ, Block AR, Williams RB Jr, Surwit RS. Behavioral treatment of chronic low back pain: clinical outcome and individual differences in pain relief. Pain. 1981 Oct;11(2):221-31.


PMID: 6459557
Rating: 4b

Keel PJ, Wittig R, Deutschmann R, Diethelm U, Knüsel O, Löschmann C, Matathia R, Rudolf T, Spring H. Effectiveness of in-patient rehabilitation for sub-chronic and chronic low back pain by an integrative group treatment program (Swiss Multicentre Study). Scand J Rehabil Med. 1998 Dec;30(4):211-9.


The main conclusion is that an integrated approach promoting self control and behaviour change through educational measures achieves better long-term results than the traditional individual physiotherapy approach.
PMID: 9825385
Rating: 3b

Keitel W, Frerick H, Kuhn U, Schmidt U, Kuhlmann M, Bredehorst A. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001 Nov;51(11):896-903.


As in comparably positive randomised studies with capsaicin cream in patients with osteoarthritis or fibromyalgia it was shown that a capsicum plaster preparation can also be used to advantage in chronic non-specific back pain.
PMID: 11765591
Rating: 2b

Kemler MA, Barendse GA, van Kleef M, de Vet HC, Rijks CP, Furnee CA, van den Wildenberg FA, Spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy, N Engl J Med. 2000 Aug 31;343(9):618-24.


RESULTS: The proportion of patients with a score of 6 ("much improved") for the global perceived effect was much higher in the spinal cord stimulation group than in the control group (39 percent vs. 6 percent, P=0.01). There was no clinically important improvement in functional status. The health-related quality of life improved only in the 24 patients who actually underwent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator. Six of the 24 patients had complications that required additional procedures, including removal of the device in 1 patient.
PMID: 10965008
Rating: 2c

Kemler MA, Furnee CA, Economic evaluation of spinal cord stimulation for chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Neurology. 2002 Oct 22;59(8):1203-9


CONCLUSIONS: The authors found SCS to be both more effective and less expensive as compared with the standard treatment protocol for chronic RSD.
PMID: 12391348
Rating: 2c

Kemler MA, Barendse GA, van Kleef M, de Vet HC, Rijks CP, Furnee CA, van den Wildenberg FA. Spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Aug 31;343(9):618-24.


CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy, electrical stimulation of the spinal cord can reduce pain and improve the health-related quality of life.
PMID: 10965008
Rating: 2c

Kemler MA, De Vet HC, Barendse GA, Van Den Wildenberg FA, Van Kleef M. The effect of spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy: two years' follow-up of the randomized controlled trial. Ann Neurol. 2004 Jan;55(1):13-8.


After careful selection and successful test stimulation, spinal cord stimulation results in a long-term pain reduction and health-related quality of life improvement in chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
PMID: 14705107
Rating: 2b

Kemler MA, de Vet HC, Barendse GA, van den Wildenberg FA, van Kleef M. Effect of spinal cord stimulation for chronic complex regional pain syndrome Type I: five-year final follow-up of patients in a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb;108(2):292-8.


CONCLUSIONS: Despite the diminishing effectiveness of SCS over time, 95% of patients with an implant would repeat the treatment for the same result.
PMID: 18240925
Rating: 2b
The main analysis showed that change in pain intensity was not significantly different between the SCS plus phyisician therapy group and the phyisician therapy alone group (p=0.25)..

Kerns RD, Thorn BE, Dixon KE. Psychological treatments for persistent pain: An introduction. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Aug 25; [Epub ahead of print]


Psychological treatments for persistent pain have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives or adjuncts to more traditional methods for promoting optimal pain management.
PMID: 16937343
Rating: 5a

Khaliq W, Alam S, Puri N. Topical lidocaine for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007; 18:CD004846.


CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to recommend topical lidocaine as a first-line agent in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia with allodynia.
PMID: 17443559
Rating: 1c

Kienzler JL, Gold M, Nollevaux F. Systemic bioavailability of topical diclofenac sodium gel 1% versus oral diclofenac sodium in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;50:50-61.


Topical diclofenac did not inhibit platelet aggregation and inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 less than oral diclofenac.
PMID: 19841157
Rating: 2c
This study was sponsored by Novartis

Knotkova H, Pappagallo M. Adjuvant analgesics. Med Clin North Am. 2007;91:113-24.

Moderate to severe pain/functional impairment; pain with a score of >4 on the brief pain inventory. 1. Gabapentinoid (gabapentin, pregabalin)+/-Opioid/opioid rotation or 2. Antidepressant (TCA, duloxetine, venlafaxine)+/-Opioid/opioid rotation or 3. Gabapentinoid+antidepressant+Opioid/opioid rotation.
PMID: 17164107
Rating: 5b

Koke AJ, Schouten JS, Lamerichs-Geelen MJ, Lipsch JS, Waltje EM, van Kleef M, Patijn J. Pain reducing effect of three types of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with chronic pain: a randomized crossover trial. Pain. 2004;108:36-42.


We concluded that there were no differences in effectiveness for the three types of TENS used in this study.
PMID: 15109505
Rating: 2c

Kokkonen H, Söderström I, Rocklöv J, Hallmans G, Lejon K, Rantapää Dahlqvist S. Up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines predates the onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Feb;62(2):383-91.
CONCLUSION: Individuals in whom RA later developed had significantly increased levels of several cytokines.
PMID: 20112361
Rating: 4b

Kool J, Bachmann S, Oesch P, Knuesel O, Ambergen T, de Bie R, van den Brandt P. Function-centered rehabilitation increases work days in patients with nonacute nonspecific low back pain: 1-year results from a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Sep;88(9):1089-94.
CONCLUSIONS: FCT is more effective than PCT for increasing work days.
PMID: 17826451
Rating: 2b

Kool JP, Oesch PR, Bachmann S, Knuesel O, Dierkes JG, Russo M, de Bie RA, van den Brandt PA. Increasing days at work using function-centered rehabilitation in nonacute nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 May;86(5):857-64.
Function-centered rehabilitation increases the number of work days, self-efficacy, and lifting capacity in patients with nonacute nonspecific LBP.
PMID: 15895328
Rating: 2b



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