Contents part 1: Introduction


Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen in southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:150-7



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Hindsén M, Zimerson E, Bruze M. Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen in southern Sweden. Contact Dermatitis. 2006;54:150-7.

Photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen-containing topical preparations usually includes severe eczematous reactions.


PMID: 16524438
Rating: 5b

Hoffman EJ, Mathew SJ. Anxiety disorders: a comprehensive review of pharmacotherapies. Mt Sinai J Med. 2008; 75:248-62.


There is evidence from multiple randomized, placebo-controlled trials to support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line pharmacotherapy in these disorders.
PMID: 18704983
Rating: 1a

Holbrook AM, Crowther R, Lotter A, Cheng C, King D. Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of insomnia. CMAJ. 2000 Jan 25;162(2):225-33.


INTERPRETATION: The use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia is associated with an increase in sleep duration, but this is countered by a number of adverse effects.
Rating: 1a

Holzer A, Leitgeb U, Spacek A, Wenzl R, Herkner H, Kettner S. Auricular acupuncture for postoperative pain after gynecological surgery: a randomized controlled trail. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011 Mar;77(3):298-304.


PMID: 21441884
Rating: 2b

Homik JE, Suarez-Almazor M. An economic approach to health care. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Apr;18(2):203-18.


Given the unanswered questions that still exist, it seems reasonable to conclude that COX-2 inhibitors may be cost effective when used in patients at a high risk of GI complications.
PMID: 15121040
Rating: 5b

Honig LS, Kang MS, Schupf N, Lee JH, Mayeux R. Association of Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Repeat Length With Dementia and Mortality. Arch Neurol. 2012 Jul 23:1-8. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2012.1541.


Our findings suggest that shortened leukocyte TL is associated with risks for dementia and mortality and may therefore be a marker of biological aging.
PMID: 22825311
Rating: 3a

Hsu ES. Practical management of complex regional pain syndrome. Am J Ther. 2009;16:147-54.
PMID: 19300041
Rating: 5c

Hunt RH, Choquette D, Craig BN, De Angelis C, Habal F, Fulthorpe G, Stewart JI, Turpie AG, Davis P. Approach to managing musculoskeletal pain: acetaminophen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, or traditional NSAIDs? Can Fam Physician. 2007;53:1177-84.


Treatment should begin with an effective analgesic with the best safety profile at the lowest dose and escalate to higher doses and different analgesics as required. Acetaminophen is a safe medication that should be considered first-line therapy.
PMID: 17872814
Rating: 5b

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Assessment and management of chronic pain. Bloomington (MN). 2005 Nov.


The goals of treatment are an emphasis on improving function through the development of long =-term self-management skills including fitness and a healthy lifestyle.
Rating: 6a
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Assessment and management of chronic pain (2nd edition). Bloomington (MN). 2007 Mar.
Skeletal muscle relaxants were found to have limited evidence of effectiveness. They were thought to be useful for short-term management of muscle spasm and pain. Mixed evidence was found for long-term use.
Rating: 6a

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Assessment and management of chronic pain (4nd edition). Bloomington (MN). 2009.


The 4th edition of this guideline addresses evaluation and treatment of chronic pain with a strong emphasis on comprehensive care.
Rating: 6a

International Research Foundation for RSD/CRPS. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome. 3rd ed. Tampa (FL): International Research Foundation for RSD/CRPS; 2003. Retrieved July 2008.


No abstract available. A consensus guideline for diagnosis and treatment of CRPS.
Rating: 5b

Ipser JC, Kariuki CM, Stein DJ. Pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder: a systematic review. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008; 8:235-57.


Taken together, trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors provide the largest evidence base for agents that are both effective and well tolerated.
PMID: 18271710
Rating: 1a

Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Gianfrilli D, Greco EA, Bonifacio V, Aversa A, Isidori A, Fabbri A, Lenzi A. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Dec;63(6):601-2. Effects of testosterone on sexual function in men: results of a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63:381-94.


The evidence for a beneficial effect of T treatment on erectile function should be tempered with the caveats that the effect tends to decline over time, is progressively smaller with increasing baseline T levels, and long-term safety data are not available.
PMID: 16181230
Rating: 1a

Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Greco EA, Gianfrilli D, Bonifacio V, Isidori A, Lenzi A, Fabbri A. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63:280-93.


CONCLUSION: Our findings are sufficiently strong to justify further interventional studies focused on alternative targets of androgenic treatment carrying more stringent clinical implications, in particular the cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological systems.
PMID: 16117815
Rating: 1a
Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y. Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 Apr 25;307(16):1736-45. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.505.
Botulinum toxin A compared with placebo was associated with a small to modest benefit for chronic daily headaches and chronic migraines but was not associated with fewer episodic migraine or chronic tension-type headaches per month.
Rating: 1a
Jänig W, Baron R. Experimental approach to CRPS. Pain. 2004;108:3-7.




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