Contents part 1: Introduction




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PMID: 17126045
Rating: 4c

Gourlay GK, Cherry DA, Onley MM, Tordoff SG, Conn DA, Hood GM, Plummer JL. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of twenty-four-hourly Kapanol compared to twelve-hourly MS Contin in the treatment of severe cancer pain. Pain. 1997;69:295-302.


PMID: 9085304
Rating: 1c

Grabow TS, Guarino Ah, Raja SN. Complex regional pain syndromes: Diagnosis and treatment. In: Benzon HT, Raja SN, Molloy RE, Liu SS, Fishman SM. Essentials of Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia. 2nd ed. Elisevier, 2005.


Rating: 9a

Gradl G, Steinborn M, Wizgall I, Mittlmeier T, Schürmann M. Acute CRPS I (morbus sudeck) following distal radial fractures--methods for early diagnosis. Zentralbl Chir. 2003 Dec;128(12):1020-6.


PMID: 14750063
Rating: 4b

Graff-Radford SB. Myofascial pain: diagnosis and management. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2004 Dec;8(6):463-7.


The therapy for myofascial pain requires enhancing central inhibition through pharmacology or behavioral techniques and simultaneously reducing peripheral inputs through physical therapies including exercises and trigger point-specific therapy.
PMID: 15509460
Rating: 5b

Gras-Miralles B, Cremonini F. A critical appraisal of lubiprostone in the treatment of chronic constipation in the elderly. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:191-200. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S30729.
PMID: 23439964
Rating: 5b

Grøndahl JR, Rosvold EO. Hypnosis as a treatment of chronic widespread pain in general practice: a randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008 Sep 18;9:124.
CONCLUSION: The study indicates that hypnosis treatment may have a positive effect on pain and quality of life for patients with chronic muscular pain. Considering the limited number of patients, more studies should be conducted to confirm the results.
PMID: 18801190
Rating: 2c

Gross DP, Battie MC. Predicting timely recovery and recurrence following multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with compensated low back pain. Spine. 2005 Jan 15;30(2):235-40.
RESULTS: The number of preadmission healthcare visits was the most robust predictor of all recovery outcomes. Recurrence rates were 18% in 1999 and 22% in 2000. A higher number of preadmission healthcare visits and more previous back-related claims were associated with higher risk of recurrence.
PMID: 15644763
Rating: 3b

Guay DR. Oxcarbazepine, topiramate, zonisamide, and levetiracetam: potential use in neuropathic pain. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;1(1):18-37.


CONCLUSIONS: The ultimate role of these agents in the therapeutic armamentarium against pain requires further research and experience. In the interim, these 4 agents should be used to treat neuropathic pain in the elderly only when carbamazepine, gabapentin, or lamotrigine cannot be used or when the response to the aforementioned agents is suboptimal.
PMID: 15555463
Rating: 1b

Guillaume D, Van Havenbergh A, Vloeberghs M, Vidal J, Roeste G. A clinical study of intrathecal baclofen using a programmable pump for intractable spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:2165-71.


CONCLUSIONS: ITB therapy using a programmable pump is clinically effective and well tolerated, despite a seemingly high level of adverse events, in patients with intractable spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin and may offer improvements in pain relief and function.
PMID: 16271565
Rating: 3b

Gürol Z, Hekimoğlu S, Demirdamar R, Sumnu M. Percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen. I. In vitro release and percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen from different ointment bases. Pharm Acta Helv. 1996;71:205-12.


Since the efficacy of an ointment depends on the type of ointment base and the concentration of the drug, four different bases (white petrolatum, cold cream, hydrophilic ointment and Carbopol 940 gel) were used at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10% concentrations of KP to evaluate the effect of ointment base and concentration.
PMID: 8818309
Rating: 4b

Gusi N, Tomas-Carus P. Cost-utility of an 8-month aquatic training for women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008 Feb 22;10(1):R24.


CONCLUSIONS: The addition of an aquatic exercise programme to the usual care for fibromyalgia in women, is cost-effective in terms of both health care costs and societal costs.
PMID: 18294367
Rating: 2c

Guzman J, Esmail R, Karjalainen K. et al. Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation for Chronic Low Back Pain: Systematic Review. BMJ 2001;322:1511-1516.
CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed trials provide evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration reduces pain and improves function in patients with chronic low back pain.
Publication Type: Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis
Rating: 1b

Guzmán J, Esmail R, Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, Irvin E, Bombardier C. Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD000963


CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed trials provide evidence that intensive multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation with a functional restoration approach improves pain and function. Less intensive interventions did not show improvements in clinically relevant outcomes.
PMID: 11869581
Rating: This review has been withdrawn.

Haddad RM, Kennedy CC, Caples SM, Tracz MJ, Bolona ER, Sideras K, Uraga MV, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Testosterone and cardiovascular risk in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:29-39.


CONCLUSION: Currently available evidence weakly supports the inference that testosterone use in men is not associated with important cardiovascular effects.
PMID: 17285783
Rating: 1a

Halas CJ. Eszopiclone. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63:41-8.


Dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with severe hepatic disease and in those receiving concomitant potent cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 inhibitors. No dosage adjustment is required for patients with renal dysfunction.
PMID: 1637346
Rating: 5b

Haldorsen EM, Grasdal AL, Skouen JS, Risa AE, Kronholm K, Ursin H. Is there a right treatment for a particular patient group? Comparison of ordinary treatment, light multidisciplinary treatment, and extensive multidisciplinary treatment for long-term sick-listed employees with musculoskeletal pain. Pain. 2002 Jan;95(1-2):49-63.


A simple, standardized, screening instrument including only psychological and physiotherapeutic observations may be a useful clinical tool for allocating patients with musculoskeletal pain to the right level of treatment.
PMID: 11790467
Rating: 2a

Hale M, Upmalis D, Okamoto A, Lange C, Rauschkolb C. Tolerability of tapentadol immediate release in patients with lower back pain or osteoarthritis of the hip or knee over 90 days: a randomized, double-blind study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 May;25(5):1095-104.


CONCLUSION: During this 90-day study, tapentadol IR was associated with improved gastrointestinal tolerability compared with oxycodone IR while providing similar pain relief.
PMID: 19301989
Rating: 2b

Hall A, Maher C, Latimer J, Ferreira M. The effectiveness of Tai Chi for chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Jun 15;61(6):717-24.


CONCLUSION: These data suggest that Tai Chi has a small positive effect on pain and disability in people with arthritis.
PMID: 19479696
Rating: 1c

Halvorsen PA, Selmer R, Kristiansen IS. Different ways to describe the benefits of risk-reducing treatments: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jun 19;146(12):848-56.


CONCLUSIONS: Treatment effects expressed in terms of NNT yielded higher consent rates than did those expressed as equivalent postponements.
PMID: 17577004
Rating: 2a
The NNT is a useful and relatively simple tool for practicing evidence-based medicine. This calculation can be applied to intervention studies and reflects the number of additional patients who need to receive an intervention to prevent 1 additional outcome. In the current study, using NNT was superior to achieve participant consent vs explanations focused on the postponements of outcomes for either all patients treated or a small, select group of patients treated.

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