Contents part 1: Introduction

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Winkelmuller M, Winkelmuller W. Long-term effects of continuous intrathecal opioid treatment in chronic pain of nonmalignant etiology. J Neurosurg. 1996 Sep;85(3):458-67.
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Zambito A, Bianchini D, Gatti D, Viapiana O, Rossini M, Adami S. Interferential and horizontal therapies in chronic low back pain: a randomized, double blind, clinical study. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Sep-Oct;24(5):534-9.
Zambito A, Bianchini D, Gatti D, Rossini M, Adami S, Viapiana O. Interferential and horizontal therapies in chronic low back pain due to multiple vertebral fractures: a randomized, double blind, clinical study. Osteoporos Int. 2007 Nov;18(11):1541-5. Epub 2007 Jul 4.
BlueCross BlueShield. Surgery Section - Spinal Cord Stimulation for Treatment of Pain. Policy No: 45, Effective Date: 07/06/2004
Cole AJ, Herring SA, eds. The low back pain handbook. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus; 2003: page 362.
Deer T, Kapural L, Sitzman T. AAPM 2009: Specialists Endorse Intrathecal Pain Therapies but Urge Caution. American Academy of Pain Medicine 25th Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii. Plenary session 112. Presented January 28, 2009.
Forouzanfar T, Kemler MA, Weber WE, Kessels AG, Van Kleef M, Spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome: cervical and lumbar devices are comparably effective, Br J Anaesth. 2004 Jan 22

Furlan AD, Sandoval JAS, Mailis A. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain (Protocol for a Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2004. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Kemler MA, Furnee CA, Economic evaluation of spinal cord stimulation for chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Neurology. 2002 Oct 22;59(8):1203-9
Kemler MA, Barendse GA, van Kleef M, de Vet HC, Rijks CP, Furnee CA, van den Wildenberg FA. Spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Aug 31;343(9):618-24.
Kemler MA, De Vet HC, Barendse GA, Van Den Wildenberg FA, Van Kleef M. The effect of spinal cord stimulation in patients with chronic reflex sympathetic dystrophy: two years' follow-up of the randomized controlled trial. Ann Neurol. 2004 Jan;55(1):13-8.
Kemler MA, de Vet HC, Barendse GA, van den Wildenberg FA, van Kleef M. Effect of spinal cord stimulation for chronic complex regional pain syndrome Type I: five-year final follow-up of patients in a randomized controlled trial. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb;108(2):292-8.
Kumar K, Malik S, Demeria D, Treatment of chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation versus alternative therapies: cost-effectiveness analysis, Neurosurgery. 2002 Jul;51(1):106-15; discussion 115-6.
Mailis-Gagnon A, Furlan A, Sandoval J, Taylor R, Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;3:CD003783
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Prager J. Four decades of neuromodulation. Program and abstracts of the American Academy of Pain Medicine 23rd Annual Meeting; February 7-10, 2007; New Orleans, Louisiana.
Stanton-Hicks M. Complex regional pain syndrome: manifestations and the role of neurostimulation in its management. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006 Apr;31(4 Suppl):S20-4.
Sundaraj SR, Johnstone C, Noore F, Wynn P, Castro M. Spinal cord stimulation: a seven-year audit. J Clin Neurosci. 2005 Apr;12(3):264-70.
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Abejón D, Garcia-del-Valle S, Fuentes ML, Gómez-Arnau JI, Reig E, van Zundert J. Pulsed radiofrequency in lumbar radicular pain: clinical effects in various etiological groups. Pain Pract. 2007 Mar;7(1):21-6.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 54 consecutive patients. RESULTS: A decrease in the NRS score was observed in patients with HD (P < 0.05) and SS (P < 0.001), but not in those with FBSS.
PMID: 17305674

Rating: 4c

"this option does not appear to be an ideal modality of treatment for LRP because neurodestructive methods for the treatment of neuropathic pain are in principle generally considered inappropriate.... Authors noted this is a small retrospective study and prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm the findings before adding pulsed radiofrequency to the armamentarium for lumbar radicular pain treatment.

Ackerman WE, Zhang JM. Efficacy of stellate ganglion blockade for the management of type 1 complex regional pain syndrome. South Med J. 2006 Oct;99(10):1084-8.

Pain Medicine Consultants PA, Little Rock, AR, USA.

METHODS: 25 subjects. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control hand, the skin perfusion in the CRPS I affected hand was greater in group I and decreased in groups II and III. DISCUSSION: The results of our study demonstrate that an inverse relationship exists between hand perfusion and the duration of symptoms of CRPS I. On the other hand, a positive correlation exists between SGB efficacy and how soon SGB therapy is initiated. A duration of symptoms greater than 16 weeks before the initial SGB and/or a decrease in skin perfusion of 22% between the normal and affected hands adversely affects the efficacy of SGB therapy.
PMID: 17100029
Rating: 4c

Adams H, Ellis T, Stanish WD, Sullivan MJ. Psychosocial factors related to return to work following rehabilitation of whiplash injuries. J Occup Rehabil. 2007 Jun;17(2):305-15.

PMID: 17486435
Rating: 3b

Aetna Clinical Policy Bulletins. Chronic Pain Programs Number 0237. Reviewed: May 5, 2006.

Aetna considers a screening examination medically necessary for members who are being considered for admission into a chronic pain program.
Rating: 8b
Aetna Clinical Policy Bulletins. Electrical Stimulation for Pain. Number 0011. February 22, 2005. Updated 2007.
Aetna considers transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators (TENS) medically necessary durable medical equipment (DME) when used as an adjunct or as an alternative to the use of drugs in the treatment of acute post-operative pain in the first 30 days after surgery, or chronic, intractable pain not responsive to other methods of treatment.

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