Common Name: Gillman's pawwort (Edwards 2003)
Scientific Name: Lophozia gillmanii (Aust.) Schust.
Division: Marchantiophyta (incorrectly called Hepatophyta in U.S. government taxon databases (e.g., ITIS 2008); see Stotler and Crandall-Stotler 2008)
Taxonomic note: In some works this is treated as Leiocolea gillmannii (Aust.) Evans (Smith 1990).
Technical Description: "Usually procumbent, 2–3 cm long and 2–3 mm wide, in the lower parts red brown to almost black, in the upper part greenish yellow to yellowish brown; rhizoids numerous, colorless or brownish. Leaves closely overlapping; oblique to almost longitudinally inserted, erect to horizontally spreading, generally only slightly asymmetrical, not very decurrent, more or less broadly ovate, sometimes rectangular on young shoots, bilobed to 0.25 the length of the leaf, sinus narrow and obtuse, lobes acute, sometimes pointed or obtuse and rounded, generally of equal size. Marginal cells 25–36 µm, towards the base larger, 35–40 X 35–50 µm, mostly with large trigones; cuticle striate-papillose, surface ornamentation most conspicuous towards the base of the leaf. Underleaves small, consistently present, 2–4 cells wide at the base and gradually narrowing upwards, seldom with basal teeth. Paroicous, female bracts transversely inserted, frequently with narrow, gibbous sinus and long, pointed lobes. Perianth short and wide, cylindrical or clavate, not plicate, abruptly constricted to a rather long, ciliate beak. Gemmae absent." (from Arnell 1981, with slight modification)
Distinctive characters: Liverworts with bilobed leaves and consistent presence of small underleaves, absence of gemmae, paroicous fertile shoots, and perianths with a relatively long beak. The strongly striate-papillose leaf cells stand out as a distinctive character of sterile plants but identifying sterile plants must be done with great caution.
Similar species: Other species of Lophozia with bilobed leaves are dioicous, lack underleaves on all shoots, have gemmae, or have a beakless perianth. "Attempts to determine non-fertile material as L. gillmannii are to be discouraged because this species is so variable in size, leaf shape, and cell size."... "Generally it is usual for inflorescences to develop more frequently on monoicous than on dioicous species so that non-fertile populations are more likely to be referable to dioicous species." (Paton 1999)
Life History: Published studies of life history traits in this species have not been located. The plants are perennial and should be recognizable at all times of the year. Plants like this species, which grow at high elevations where snow lies late, generally above 1500 m (5000 ft), may have a short growing season that coincides with late summer and fall. The lack of gemmae in this species indicates dispersal is primarily by spores.
Range, Distribution, and Abundance: Widespread around the northern hemisphere in boreal and montane regions, in western North America south to Tulare County, California (Doyle and Stotler 2006). In Oregon found with certainty only at Goodrich Lake, Baker County and Haiku Meadow, Grant County. Frye and Clark (1935) report it from Oregon without specimen citation, as does Schuster (1969); Hong (1978) lists this in Oregon based on the Frye and Clark report.
ORNHIC listed in Baker County (does not include newly discovered site in Grant County).
BLM: Suspected in Salem, Burns, and Vale (Oregon) Districts.
USFS: Documented in Umatilla and Wallowa-Whitman National Forest. Suspected by Mt. Hood, Umpqua, Deschutes, Fremont-Winema, and Malheur National Forests.
Habitat Associations: Found on peaty soil, usually associated with cliffs or ledges. It is an obligate calciphile (Schuster 1969); in Baker County the locality is on the limestone of the southern end of Elkhorn Ridge. The Umatilla National Forest site is located in a small wet subalpine meadow and surrounding forest edge and granite cirque at approximately 6500’.
Threats: Trail building or similar disturbance might damage populations in the montane habitats where this species occurs. The Baker County site is in the Baker City Watershed and off limits to the public.
Conservation Considerations: As exploration continues in likely habitats new populations of this species are likely to be discovered. Monitor and manage sites to prevent damage to the habitat.
Conservation Rankings and Status:
Global: G5; Oregon: S1
ORNHIC List 3
Washington: Not ranked
BLM/USFS Strategic Species in Oregon
Other pertinent information:
Surveys and Survey Protocol: Search on peaty cliff ledges in boreal-alpine habitats.
Key to Identification of the Species: Christy and Wagner 1996; Doyle and Stotler 2006.
Preparer: David H. Wagner
Edited by: Rob Huff
Date Completed: January, 2009
Revision by: Rob Huff, March 2009
(Revision only includes documentation regarding the newly discovered site on the Umatilla National Forest).
Updated in May 2009 by Candace Fallon (Update added Attachment 1, Photos, to the Species Fact Sheet).
Arnell, S. 1981. Illustrated Moss Flora of Fennoscandia. I. Hepaticae. 2nd. Edition. Swedish Natural Science Research Council.
Christy, J.A. & D.H. Wagner. 1996. Guide for the identification of rare, threatened or sensitive bryophytes in the range of the northern spotted owl, western Washington, western Oregon and northwestern California. USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon-Washington State Office, Portland. 222 pp.
Doyle, W. T. & R.E. Stotler. 2006. Contributions toward a bryoflora of California III. Keys and annotated species catalogue for liverworts and hornworts. Madroño 53: 89-197.
Edwards, S.R. 2003. English Names for British Bryophytes. Third Edition. British Bryological Society Special Volume No. 5.
ITIS. 2008. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (official government database of scientific names)
Accessed August 2008.
Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center. 2007. Rare, threatened and endangered species of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University. Portland. 100 pp.
Paton, J.A. 1999. The liverwort flora of the British Isles. Harley Books, Colchester, U.K. 626 pp.
Schuster, R.M. 1969. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America. Volume II. Columbia University Press, New York.
Stotler, R.E. and B. Crandall-Stotler. 2008. Correct author citations for some upper rank names of liverworts (Marchantiophyta). Taxon 57: 289-292.
Attachment 1 – Photos
All photos by Dr. David Wagner, under contract with the Oregon/Washington Bureau of Land Management.
Basal cells with oil-bodies