Common genera of large fungi. Appendix 7

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53a (11d) Persistent superior ring (except for S. aeruginosa which has almost no ring, but a viscous yellow to bright green cap) Stropharia

A725-30; Ar374-80; Ba206-7; Bo32; L208, 201-2; M180-3; Mc262-6; P196; S129, 316

53b (11d) Thin stem, conic cap, moist-tacky-viscid; with to without ring; never cespitose; on dung, grass or humus Psilocybe

A719-25; Ar368-76; Ba204; L209; M180, 183-5; Mc274; P197; S136, 323

53c (11d) Convex cap, sometimes with low knob, occasionally with thickened stem; on wood Naematatoloma

A708-10; Ar381-4; L213-5; M180, 185-9; Mc268-70; S321

54 (1B). Mushrooms with pores, fleshy and not perennial – family Boletaceae. – Superficial resemblance to gilled mushrooms, but with spore-bearing surface (hymenium) arranged on fine or coarse pores, sometimes in loose radial rows (boletoid arrangement).

A562-95; Ar488-545; L239-48, 255; M241-72;

54a (1B) Cap and stalk conspicuously covered with coarse, dry black/brown scales; spores umber brown to blackish brown. Pores angular. Wooly ring(s) on the stalk. Flesh bruising reddish, then black. Strobilomyces

A580-1; Ar543; Ba159; L240; M242; Mc112-3; P244

54b (1B) If cap and stem have scales, then spores not brown/black 55

55a (54b) Tubes not consistently vertical, rather contorted and may be closed. Mostly in the western regions Gastroboletus turbinatus

Ar544-5; M242-3; Mc349

55b (54b) Tubes straight and open 56

56a (55b) Tubes radially arranged in rows, with arrangement most noticeable near the stalk 57

56b (55b) Tubes not radial; mouths most often round to angular, cap dry 58

56c (55b) Tubes not radial; mouths most often round to angular, cap viscid Suillus

A581-90; Ar491-506; Ba170-7; Bo58-62; L250-6; M247-56; Mc113-20; P245; S28-31, 196

57a (56a) Mouths of tubes uneven; yellow; strong radial pattern resembling gills with cross-gills; 2 5mm broad, and shallow; cap brown and dry Gyrodon merulioides

A565; Ar490; Ba177; M244

57b (56a) Mouths of tubes even; tubes long 59

58a (56b) Mouths of tubes white, then pink with age; spore print pink; bruises brown; stem with netlike ridges; taste extremely bitter Tylopilus

A590-5; Ar532-5; L241; M244-5; Mc121-4; P240;

58b (56b) Mouths of tubes may be white, but not turning pink with age; not bruising brown; stalk may or may not have netlike ridges; taste mild to bitter 60

59a (57b) Cap dry to moist; pores have strong radial arrangement; spores wine red to reddish brown Fuscoboletinus

A574-5, 583; Ar505-7; Ba172; Bo58; M245-7; Mc109; P262; S33, 202

59b (457b) Cap usually viscid to slimy; if dry then pores radially arranged; spores cinnamon or olive brown or brown Suillus

A581-90; Ar491-506; Ba170-7; Bo58-62; M247-56; Mc113-20; P245; S28-31, 196

60a (58b) Stalk with conspicuous dark brown to black hairy tufts at maturity Leccinum

A577-8; Ar536-42; Ba166-7; Bo23, 58, 60, 93; L257-8; M256-9; Mc111-2; P238; S32, 201

60b (58b) Stalk never with dark brown to black hairy tufts 61

61a (60b) Spore print yellow; spores white to pale yellow; stalk not having netlike ridges Gyroporus

A576; Ar510; Ba165; L247; M259-60; Mc110; P236

61b (60b) Cap dry; tubes fine to coarse but not radially arranged; spore print olive brown to yellow brown Boletus

A565-74; Ar511-31; Ba159-77; Bo56; L239-48, 255; M260-72; Mc102-8; P217, S28-9, 195
62 (1C) Fungi with spore-bearing teeth – Hydnaceae - sometimes with a appearance similar to gilled mushrooms, or like a bracket fungus – a variable group.

A426-37; Ar611-30; Ba122; M282-8;

62a (1C) Cap absent; fruit body covered with long, white, hanging teeth 63

62b (1C) Mushroom-like appearance, with cap present; stem central, off centre, or lacking 66

63a (62a) Oval fleshy mass with long spines but no branches 64

63b (62a) Multiple branches with long spines 65

64a (63a) White; on wounds of living hardwoods Hericium coralloides

A429; Ar614; Ba122; Bo64, 93-5; M283; Mc91; P279; S173, 370

64b (63a) Yellowish; on wounds of living hardwoods Hericium weirii

Ar614; M382; S173, 370

65a (63b) Teeth hanging only from branch tips Hericium coralloides

A429; Ar614; M283; Mc91; P279

65b (63b) Teeth along the branch Hericium ramosum

Ar615; Bo64, 93-5; Mc92; P279

66a (62b) Mushroom shaped, only on pine cones, cap small and stem off centre

Auriscalpium vulgare

A426; Ar629; Ba127; Bo64; M284-5; Mc87; S173, 369

66b (62b) Never on cones; cap large; stem central or lacking 67

67a (66b) Stalk present and central 68

67b (66b) Stalk absent, shelf-like fungus on living trees 70

68a (67a) Flesh very tough, not breaking easily Hydnellum

A431-4; Ar622-9; Ba124-6; Bo64; M286; Mc92-7; P274; S171, 366

68b (67a) Flesh brittle and easily broken, with colour zones 69

69a (68b) Cap dry, orange, hairless; taste mild Dentinum

A428; Ar616-9; M286; S368

69b (68b) Cap with scales, brown to red-brown; taste bitter Hydnum

A434; Ar611-20; Ba123; Bo64, 66; M286; Mc88, 93-9; P273; S173, 368

70a (68b) Woody conk on conifer Echinodontium

A429; Ar612-3; M284; P279

70b (68b) With multiple fleshy, overlapping shelves Steccherimun

A428, 436-7; Ar612; Ba128; M284; Mc99;
71 (1D) Chantarelles. These basidiomycetes resemble classic mushrooms, with a cap that may be deeply depressed in the centre giving a funnel-like shape. Spores are borne on the outisde/underside of the funnel, which may be smooth or have broad gill-like ridges.

A387-98; Ar662-8; M224-32; S165

71a (1D) Fruiting body yellow-orange-red, at least on the gills 72

71b (1D) Fruiting body purple-lilac-grey-blackish 82

72a (71a) Fruiting body all the same colour; cap hairless or nearly so 73

72b (71a) Fruiting body of two colours, small or recurved scales on the cap 77

73a (72a) Fruiting body reddish to orange Cantharellus cinnabarius

A387; Ar664; Ba250-1; M226; Mc82; P214; S165, 358

73b (72a) Fruiting body light orange, yellow, or creamy white 74

74a (73b) Fruiting body 8-25mm wide Cantharellus minor or Cantharellus tubaeformis

A391-2; Bo51, 54; M228; Mc84; P214

74b (73b) Fruiting body larger 75

75a (74b) Fruiting body thin with short discontinuous ridges or largely smooth, yellow to orange Craterellus cantharellus

A391; Ba190, 248; M226; Mc85; S168, 359

75b (74b) Fruiting body fleshy with well formed gill ridges 76

76a (75b) Fruiting body white with light orange tint Cantharellus subalbidus

A392; Ar662; M225

76b (75b) Fruiting body orange Cantharellus cibarius

A387; Ar659, 662; Bo54, 57; M228; Mc81; P214

77a (72b) Cap funnel to trumpet shaped with large recurved scales 78

77b (72b) Cap convex to somewhat depressed in centre, with small scales (squamules) 80

78a (77a) Fruiting body 3-7cm wide, fruiting in spring Gomphus bonarii

A397; Ar661-2; Ba249; Bo54; M226

78b (77a) Fruiting body 5-15cm wide, fruiting in fall 79

79a (78b) Spores on low blunt ridges, buff to yellow Gomphus floccosus

A396; Ar661; M228; Mc86

79b (78b) Spores on pore like surface, deep yellow Gomphus kauffmanii

A397; Ar660, 662; M226

80a (77b) Gills contorted and wrinkled, nearly absent, orange Cantharellus tubaeformis, Cantharellus lutescens

A392, 394; Ar662, 665; Bo51, 54; M228; Mc83, 84

80b (77b) Gills blunt but well formed 81

81a (80b) Cap dark brown, stem yellow Cantharellus infundibuliformis

A393; Ar665

81b (80b) Cap yellowish brown, stem greyish-orange Cantharellus tubaeformis

A391-2; Bo51, 54; M228; Mc84

82a (71b) Never cespitose, in deep moss; cap 12-45mm wide Cantharellus umbonatus

A741; M230

82b (71b) In cespitose clusters on ground; larger caps 83

83a (82b) Gills absent (smooth hymenium); cap 20-60mm wide; very thin flesh; ashy grey to blackish Craterellus cornucopioides

A395; Ar666; M230; Mc85

83b (82b) Gills present, thick, fleshy, purple 84

84a (83b) Deep purple, strongly warted, 1-5cm wide Polyozellus multiplex

A397; Ar658, 668; Ba248; M231; Mc77; Craterellus multiplex P214

84b (83b) Light purplish to purplish brown, wrinkled, 3-10 cm wide Gomphus clavatus

A396; Ar661; Ba258; Bo54; M231; Mc86

85 (1E) Polypores (Mushroom-like and bracket fungi) – tough or woody (unlike boletes) on dead or dying trees (although these may be underground), often perennial and some species can be very large; spore bearing surface with pores. Some polypores grow on soil or duff.

A439 492; Ar549-611; Ba134, 144-7; M272-281

85a (1E) Spore bearing surface composed of free tubes Fistulina hepatica

A440, 455, 457; Ar552-4; M273-4; Mc129; P261

85b (1E) Spore bearing surface composed of pores (united tubes) 86

86a (85b) Fruiting body forms large, woody, perennial conks, hoofshaped or shelflike; when cut in half, each layer of tubes reflects a year's growth 87

86b (85b) Not hoofshaped or shelflike, or not perennial, or not with layers of tubes 92

87a (86a) Upper surface smooth and shiny, shelflike fruiting body 88

87b (86a) Upper surface rough, uneven, not shiny, hooflike or shelflike 89

88a (87a) Upper surface grey to brown; pores bruising when scratched Ganoderma applanatum

Ar576; Ba139; Bo72; M273-4; Mc127; S180, 377

88b (87a) Upper surface red to brown with white flesh Ganoderma tsugae

Ar575, 578; M274; P263

88c (87a) Upper surface orange red with light brown flesh Ganoderma lucidum

Ar577; M273

89a (87b) Upper surface smooth 90

89b (87b) Upper surface rough and cracked 91

90a (88a) Upper surface dull grey-brown to grey; hoof shaped Fomes fomentarius

Ar575, 581; Ba141; Bo72; M273; P264; S179, 374

90b (88a) Upper surface brown, shelflike or nearly flat; white pores Fomes annosus

Ar579; M273, 276

91a (88b) Upper surface rough and brown, on conifers Fomes pini or Fomes pinicola

Ar579; M273, 276

91b (88b) Upper surface cracked, on hardwoods Fomes rimosus or Fomes igniarius


92a (86b) With a stem, single or several caps, can be large 93

92b (86b) Convex cap without a stem 96

93a (92a) With a short lateral stem; pores angular to hexagonal Favolus alveolaris and Polyporus squamosus

Ar563; 556, 561; Ba144; M273, 277; Mc129; P269; S176

93b (92a) Central well-developed stem with one to several caps 94

94a (93a) Single cap from a central stem 95

94b (93a) Multiple caps from a central stem 96

95a (94a) Cap tan; stem with a black foot; on hardwood Polyporus elegans

Ar562; M273; P256; S175-7, 371

95b (94a) Cap dark brown with a hairy margin, stem yellow brown, 1-2mm pores Polyporus arcularis

Ar563; M273, 278

95c (94a) Cap dark brown with a smooth margin; pores <1mm Polyporus brumalis

Ar555, 563; M273

96a (94b) Sulphur yellow or bright orange, hairless cap with light margin; on ground or wood Polyporus sulphureus

Ar573; M273, 278; P260 (Laetiporus sulphureus)

96b (94b) Multiple grey-brown caps on short white stems; white pore; on ground near wood Polyporus frondosus

Ar565; M273, 278

97a (92b) Pores lilac to purplish, usually densely overlapping, on hardwood Polyporus pargamenous


97b (92b) Pores lilac to purplish, usually densely overlapping, on conifer logs and stumps

Polyporus abietinus


97c (92b) Pores not purplish or pores sulphur yellow (see Polyporus sulphureus) 98

98a (97c) Pores very large (1-3mm) and irregular, or with a gill-like arrangement 99

98b (97c) Pores round, pure white or smoky grey 100

99a (98a) Cap very hairy, rusty red to yellow brown Lenzites saepiaria

Ar586, 590; Ba143; Bo72; M280; Mc128; P268; S179, 375

99b (98a) Cap ash grey with fine short hairs; pores large (1-3mm) and irregular Daedalea quercina

Ar586-9, 596; Ba143; M280; Mc125; P268

100a (98b) Cap velvety with multicoloured bands; pores minute and white; in dense overlapping clusters on hardwood Polyporus versicolor

Ar594; M281

100b (98b) Cap hairy, yellow- to grey-brown; pores white Polyporus hirsutus

Ar 560-1; M273

100c (98b) Cap velvety, smoky grey; pores grey Polyporus adustus

101(1F) Puffballs, earthstars, and bird's nest fungi – these basidiomycetes are distinctive fungi that typically are easy to identify to the broad group. Puffballs and earthstars are closely related in the order Lycoperdales; bird's nest fungi are in the order Nidulariales.

101a (1F) Puffballs 102

101b (1F) Earthstars 123

101c (1F) Bird's nest fungi 127
102 (87a) Puffballs – rounded fruiting bodies that become dry at maturity, releasing spores through cracks or a hole (ostiole) that develops as the puffball grows. With or without a stalk to support the fruiting body

102a (87a) Round to pear shaped, powdery surface at maturity; without a stalk (true puffballs) 103

102b (87a) Round to pear shaped on a distinctive stalk (stalked puffballs) 115

102c (87a) Resembling a puffball or an immature mushroom that never opens; may be brittle or tough at maturity but never powdery (false puffballs) 120
103 (102a) True puffballs Lycoperdales, Basidiomycetes. These do not have a stem, and usually are round to pear-shaped. The outer peridium does not recurve to form rays like an earthstar. All true puffballs have powdery glebas (spore masses) at maturity, which range from yellow to black.

Ar677-715; M298-310

103a (102a) Young puffball cut in half has firm dark purplish spore mass (gleba); skin is often thick 104

103b (102a) Young puffball cut in half has firm white spore mass (gleba); skin is usually thin 107

104a (103a) Fruit body 3-6 cm across, outer skin splitting into lobes but never curving back 105

104b (103a) Fruit body 4-14 cm across, outer skin splitting and curving back like an earthstar 106

105a (104a) Outer skin covered with warts Scleroderma aurantium

Ar708; Ba92; M300-1; P284; (S. citrinum) P285; S163, 356

105b (104a) Outer skin smooth Scleroderma bovista

Ar708, 710

106a (104b) Outer skin cracked and roughened Scleroderma geaster

Ar710; M300; Mc363

106b (104b) Outer skin smooth Scleroderma flavidum

Ar710; Mc362

107a (103b) Round, oval or flattened oval; >10 cm across; if pear shaped then > 8cm across 108

107b (103b) Round, < 6cm across 109

107c (103b) Pear shaped or nearly so, with a sterile base; < 7cm across 113

108a (107a) Puffball 10-20 cm across; surface cracked to form irregular scales Calvatia lepidophora

Ba93-4; Mc353

108b (107a) Puffball 20-50 cm across; surface very smooth Calvatia gigantea

Ar678-82; M302; Mc353; S155-7, 348

108c (107a) Puffball 20-50 cm across; surface sculptured and cracked Calvatia booniana

Ar684; Ba94; M302; Mc353

108d (107a) Puffball 8-15 cm across; outer skin with pyramid-shaped warts Calvatia sculpta

Ar684; Ba94; M303; Mc353; P282

109a (107b) Puffball 3-5 cm across 110

109b (107b) Puffball 8-25 mm across 112

110a (109a) Round, with paper thin outer skin; light and easily detatched Bovista pila

Ar697; Ba94; M304; Mc351; S155, 346

110b (109a) Round to oval, thicker skin, remaining attached 111

111a (110b) Chalky white surface with pointed grey-tipped warts, no odour Calvatia subcretacea

Ar688-9; M304Mc352-3;

111b (110b) smoky grey, smooth, disagreeable odour Calvatia fumosa

Ar688; M306; Mc352

112a (109b) Chalky white with small pure white warts outer skin soon begins to crack and fall away Lycoperdon candidum

Ar695; Ba88-90; Bo71; M306; S153-5, 344

112b (109b) Dull white, smooth, outer wall persistent; pore in old age Lycoperdon pusillum

Ar698; M306; Mc356

113a (107c) Outer skin light brown, smooth or with a few hairs, in clusters on wood Lycoperdon pyriforme

Ar691; M308; Mc356; P283

113b (107c) Outer skin with fine hairy spines, usually not on wood 114

114a (99b) Outer skin dull white with pointed spines that break off Lycoperdon perlatum

Ar693; Bo71, 78; M308; Mc355; P283

114b (113b) Outer skin light to bark brown with 3-6mm long whitish coarse hairs Lycoperdon echinatum

Ar694; M308; Mc354; P283

114c (113b) Outer skin white to dingy brown with short (1mm) separated hairs Lycoperdon umbrinum

Ar691, 694; M308; Mc355

115 (102b) Stalked Puffballs Tulostomatales. This group is united by having a stalk which can be dry, gelatinous, or woody. Most are mycorrhizal.

Ar715-724; M310-3

115a (102b) Club shaped fruit body, stalk not separated from spore sac, gleba with numerous chambers Pisolithus tinctorius

Ar711-3; M311; Mc366; P285; S163, 357

115b (102b) Spherical to oval spore sac on a cylindrical stalk; gleba powdery and homogeneous 116

116a (115b) Stalk covered with a thick gelatinous layer that may have chambers 117

116b (115b) Stalk thick or woody but never gelatinous 118

117a (116a) Spore sac red, at first covered with a thick red gelatinous layer (common name is apt: the slimy stalked puffball) Calostoma cinnabaria

Ar718; M312; Mc344; P285

117b (116a) Spore sac yellow, stalk long, gelatinous layer very thin Calostoma lutescens

Ar716, 718; M311; Mc343

117c (116a) Stalk short, spore sac naked Calostoma ravenelii

Ar716, 719; M311; Mc344

118a (116b) Stalk >10 cm long, in desert regions 119

118b (116b) Stalk 1.5-6 cm long, tough to woody, widely distributed Tulostoma simulans

Ar720; Ba91; M312; Mc364; P284; S163, 355

119a (118a) Stalk 20-40 cm long, 6-15 mm wide, volva simple Battarrea phalloides

Ar717; M313; Mc363; S163, 355

119b (118a) Stalk 10-45 cm long, 20-40 mm wide, volva with several layers Battarrea laciniata

Ar718; M311

120 (101b) False puffballs. Outwardly similar to a puffball, but spore mass never powdery.

120a (101b) Fruit body 1-5 cm wide, cross section shows only tiny chambers; rounded rubbery white to yellow peridium is stained red Rhizopogon rubescens

Ar754; Bo88-9; M314; Mc349; P287

120b (101b) Gleba with branched, buff-coloured flesh, or fruiting body on a stalk 121

121a (120b) Fruiting body pear shaped, greenish yellow, dry; gleba has branched, sterile buff flesh Truncocolumella citrina

Ar752; M314; Mc349

121b (120b) Fruiting body with an obvious stem 122

122a (121b) Fruiting body stalk 15-30 cm long and narrow cylindric cap 6-10cm tall; in desert Podaxis pistillaris

Ar724-5; M315; Mc365; S152, 343

122b (121b) Stalk no more than 25 mm long; on conifer wood near snowbanks; cap yellow brown and viscid, rounded Nivatogastrium nubigenum

Ar735; M315

122c (121b) On earth, especially in flowerbeds and nursries; cap dingy white, hairy

Endoptychum agaricoides

Ar731; M316; P281; S152, 342
123 (101b) Earthstars are a distinctive group of fungi related to puffballs, that have an outer and an inner wall. The outer wall splits at maturity (forming rays) to expose the inner wall, but may close up under some conditions. The inner wall surrounds the spore sac (gleba) and may develop a pore (ostiole) at maturity. Ar699-706; M295-8

123a (101b) Rays open when wet, close around the spore sac when dry. Spore sac hairy Astraeus hygrometricus

Ar700, 705; Ba91; M296; Mc358; P284

123b (101b) Rays remain open, inner spore sac smooth 124

124a (123b) Spore sac with many ostioles Myriostoma coliforme

Ar704; M296

124b (123b) Spore sac with one hole (ostiole) at the top 125

125a (124b) Inner spore sac on a short stalk Geastrum coronatum

Ar702; Ba95-6; Bo76; M296; S158, 349

125b (124b) Inner spore sac not on a stalk 126

126a (125b) Spore sac in an 'bowl' when the rays open; inner surface of the bowl cracked

Geastrum triplex

Ar703; Ba95-6; Bo76; M296; Mc361; P286

126b (125b) Spore sac exposed but not on a stalk; inner surface of the ray smooth Geastrum saccatum

Ar703; Ba95-6; Bo76; M298; Mc361; P286

127 (101c) Bird's nest fungi are a distinctive group with tiny (4-15 mm wide) fruiting bodies most of which remarkably resemble their common name; commonly on sticks or woody debris. There are several genera, including the most common ones described here. Ar778 81

127a (101c) Fruiting body 10-15 mm wide and high; cinnamon to grey brown; membranous covering over the top later revealing a striped inner wall; "eggs" (peridioles) white Cyathus striatus

A828; Ar779-80; Ba97-8; M294; Mc367; P288; S161, 353

127b (101c) As for Cyathus, but inner walls not striate; peridioles nearly white Crucibilum vulgare

A828; Ar779; Ba97; M294; Mc366; P288; S161, 354

127c (101c) Fruiting body 3-10 mm wide and 5-20mm high, with a flaring mouth. "Eggs" grey to light brown, embedded in a gel. Nidula candida

A829; Ar780; Mc368; P288; S161, 354

127d (101c) Fruiting body 1.5 mm and spherical, yellow orange to whitish at maturity. The single "egg" is shot off by a ballistic mechanism given sufficient moisture Sphaerobolus stellatus

A830; Ar781; Ba98; P288
128 (1G) Ascomycetes is a large group of typically small fungi, seldom more than 5 cm in the largest dimension, and often microscopic. Fruiting bodies are typically delicate, but may also be tough or leathery, particularly when dry. Ar782-887; M324-46

128a (1G) Resembling a mushroom with a 'stem' and 'cap', both of which may have an uneven (pitted) surface, but the stem hollow and the cap never having gills, pores or teeth 129

128b (1G) Resembling a cup 139

128c (1G) Resembling a tongue(s) or finger(s) growing from soil or litter 145
129 (128a) Morels and false morels Morels are delicious and highly prized edible fungi, but the superficially similar false morels are generally poisonous. Typically morels resemble pine cones on stalks, fruit in springtime particularly in a forest the years first following a fire; false morels fruit spring and autumn. Ar784-816; M324-335

129a (128a) Head and stem continuous, hollow; head ridged or pitted (true morel) 130

129b (114a) Head or cap attached at the top of the stalk, not hollow; head wrinkled or smooth or saddled shaped, but not ridged or pitted except on the stem (false morel) 133

130 (129a) True Morels A326-9; Ar784-96; M324-6

130a (129a) Head light to dark brown, ridged, bell-shaped; recessed at attachment to stem; stem long and thin Morchella hybrid and Morchella semilibera

A328; Ar791; Ba72-3; M324-6; Mc40; P303; S181, 391

130b (129a) Head clearly attached directly to the stem 131

131a (130b) Conical head with radial black ridges between brown pits Morchella angustipes

Ba72-3; M324-6; Mc37

131b (130b) Ridges and pits brown or white 132

132a (131b) Ridges and pits both yellow brown; pits not radially arranged Morchella esculenta

A327; Ar787; Ba72-3; Bo78, 93-4; M324-6; Mc39; P301

132b (131b) Ridges white, pits deep brown; pits not radially arranged Morchella deliciosa and (smaller with conical cap) Morchella conica

A326-7; Ar789; Ba72-3; M324-6; Mc38;

133 (129b) False Morels A329-39; Ar796-816; M327-35

133a (129) Fruiting in spring (summer in the mountains) 134

133b (129b) Fruiting in summer or autumn 137

134a (133a) Cap bell shaped, brittle, smooth or wrinkled; stem smooth and evenly thick 135

134b (133a) Cap cuplike, lobed, saddle-shaped, stem ribbed 136

135a (134a) Cap smooth, tan coloured Verpa conica

A329; Ar794; Ba74; Bo80; M327-8; Mc43; P303; S181, 380

135b (134a) Can deeply wrinkled, skirtlike Verpa bohemica

A329; Ar793; Bo80; M327-8; Mc42; P302

136a (134b) Fruiting near or under melting snowbanks; yellow in KOH Gyromitra gigas

A338; Ar800; Ba73, 76; M327-8; Mc52; P302; S183, 382

136b (134b) Stem robust (2-5 cm thick, 5-12 cm long), deeply ribbed, with red stains; cap brown 8 20 cm broad, lobed but not wrinkled, brittle Gyromitra californica

Ar804; Ba73, 76; M328-30; Mc49;

136c (134b) Cap saddle shaped and wrinkled, brown or red-broad, 2-8cm; stem equal, 1-2cm thick, smooth, pale Gyromitra esculenta

A336; Ba73, 76; Bo33, 80; M332; Mc51; P302

136d (134b) Cap massive (5-20cm wide) and extremely wrinkled, red brown; stem white and often with red stains Gyromitra caroliniana

A336; Ar 800, 802; Ba73, 76; M328, 331; Mc50

137a (133b) Stem short, ribbed, white, head cup shaped and brown Paxina acetabulum (also called Helvella acetabula)

A332-3; Ar807; Ba75-7; Bo82; M333; Mc43; S185, 383

137b (133b) Stem long (4-10cm), ribbed with white indentations and reddish brown ridges

Helvella lacunosa

A334; Ar815; Ba75-7; M335; Mc45; P304

137c (133b) Stem nearly smooth 138

138a (137c) Stem 5-10cm long, 3-10mm wide, white; head saddle shaped and pinkish

Helvella elastica

A334; Ar813; Ba75-7; Bo82; M335; Mc45

138b (137c) Stem 6-8 cm long, 5-15mm wide, pinkish; head saddle shaped and reddish brown Gyromitra infula

A339; Ar802; Ba73, 76; Bo82; M335; Mc53; P303

139 (138b) Cup fungi, order Pezizales, are typically thin and brittle, brightly coloured, and grow directly on the ground with the exception of Urnula (see 129a)

139a (138b) Cup bright orange-yellow, with or without blue stains 140

139b (114b) Cup another colour 141

140a (139a) Cup orange-peach with no stains Aleuria aurantia

A349; Ba53; M336; Mc59; P306; S187, 388

140b (139a) Cup orange-yellow with conspicuous blue stains Caloscypha fulgens

A349; Ba55; M 336; Mc59; P306

141a (139b) Cup scarlet inside, lighter outside Sarcoscypha coccinea

A343-4; Ba55; Bo88; M336; Mc33; P305

141b (139b) Cup another colour 142

142a (141b) Cup folded vertically, shaped like a rabbit's ear, 2-6cm high, red-brown Otidia smithii

A351-2; Ba65; Bo75; 84; M336; Mc61; P307; S186, 387

142b (141b) Cup shaped, or flattened or urn-shaped 143

143a (142b) Deep grey cup, darker inside, 3-4.5 cm wide; on a stalk 3-4 cm long Urnula craterium

A342; Ba64; M338; Mc36; S189, 390

143b (142b) Flattened or cup-shaped cup 144

144a (143b) A deep cup 4-12 cm wide, partially buried in the ground, pinkish; margin splitting to resemble rays, but unlike Geastrum, lacking a gleba Sarcosphaera coronaria

A346-7; M338; Mc58; P307; S186, 387

144b (143b) Deep brown cup shaped cup, 3-10 cm wide Peziza badia

A331-5, 337-8; 485; Ba61-2; Bo84; M338; P305; S186, 384

144c (143b) Cup flattened, disk-like, sometimes with margin turned under, 3-10 cm wide; brown disk with whitish beneath; especially associated with conifers Discina perlata

A330-1, 396; Ba63; Bo80; M340; Mc47; P304

145 (128c) Earth Tongues (Ascomycetes, Helotiales) These resemble their common name, usually a flattened fruiting body, sometimes without a distinct stalk. This order and similar looking species are discussed in A356-66; Ar865-78; M341-5; H

145a (128c) Fruiting body with cap and stalk, cap convex; abrupt margin with sterile tissue below Leotia and Ludonia

Ar872; Ba67; Mc33; P308

145b (128c) Fruiting body lacking a distinct margin between sterile and fertile tissue 146

146a (145b) Fruiting body gelatinous or rubbery, variously shaped but not club-like; pink to red, purple, brown, black, on wood Bulgaria and allies

Ar875; Ba57; H2-164; P310

146b (145b) Fruiting body cup-like or disk-like, with or without a stalk Ciboria and allies

Ar877; H1-60

146c (145b) Entire fruiting body black or brown or light brown Geoglossum, Microglossum, Spathularia, Trichoglossum

Ar866-8; Ba89; H1-198, 1-220, 2-214; Mc29, 32; P309; S189, 392

147 (1H) Coral fungi are basidiomycetes and their fruiting bodies are finger or club shaped, erect, typically brittle or tough, and can be large and brightly coloured. Fruit bodies can be single or branched, and the branches can be cylindrical or flattened A398-414; M232-40

147a (1H) Single cylindrical fruit bodies 148

147a (1H) Many-branched fruit bodies 150

148a (147a) Fruit bodies cylindrical in cross section with sharply pointed tips; brittle; clustered but not branched; white or tending to violet Clavaria zollingeri

A402; Ba111-2; Bo68; M232; Mc71; P291; S167, 361

148b (147a) Not violet or different shape 149

149a (148b) Wide club with flattened top sometimes slightly depressed in the centre, cylindrical in cross-section; bright orange-yellow, 6-15 cm tall Clavariadelphus truncatus

A404; Ba113; Bo68; M234; Mc72; P291; S166, 360

149b (148b) Club shaped but with a round wrinkled top; orange red; 7-30 cm tall Clavariadelphus pistillaris

A403; Ba113; Bo68; M234; MC73; P291

149c (148b) Club shaped to flattened, salmon coloured, 2-6 cm tall Clavariadelphus ligula

A403; Ba113; M234; MC73;

150a (149b) Branches delicate, without a fleshy base 151

150b (149b) Branches coarse and blunt or flattened 152

151a (150a) Branches irregular, thick, contorted, smoky or bluish grey; whitish just at the base; fruit body 2-10 cm high Clavulina cinerea

A403; Ba114; M234; P292; S167, 362

151b (150a) Branches irregular or equal; fruit body not smoky grey 153

152a (151b) Branches irregular, overall contorted; fine tipped, whitish Clavulina cristata

A402; Ba114; M237; P292

152b (151b) Branches even, sometimes dichotomous, overall orderly; white to dark cream Clavicorona pyxidata

A401; Ba116; Bo68; M237; MC73; P292

153a (150b) Robust fleshy white base with tapering salmon coloured branches; flesh bruises black Ramaria formosa

A408 (Ramaria spp A406-10; Ba116-9; Bo70); M238; Mc75-6; S167, 363

153b (150b) Robust fleshy white base with blunt branches that are white to tan, occasionally salmon pink to dark red Ramaria botrytis

A407; M238; Ramaria Ba116-9; Bo70; Mc75; P293-9

153c (150b) Coarse branches with broad flattened leaflike margins; cream colour Sparassis radicata

A411-2; Ba120; M238; Mc76; P290; S165, 360

154 (1I) Jelly fungi are heterobasidiomycetes in the order Tremellales. Fruiting bodies typically are small and brightly coloured, usually on wood. Their gelatinous flesh becomes tough and may be inconspicuous in dry weather. A379-86; M317-23

154a (1I) Irregular masses with no particular form, or tiny cups, always on wood 155

154b (1I) Stalks and clubs, sometimes spoon shaped or fan shaped, with teeth 157

155a (154a) Yellow cups 4-15mm wide, on wood in early spring; difficult to distinguish in the field from Peziza, see 130; check for asci vs basidia with cruciate septa) Guepiniopsis alpinus

A382; Ba105; M318; Mc65; P300

155b (154a) Jelly-like irregular masses of earlike lobes (yellow, orange, brown) 156

156a (155b) Yellow to orange; firm with a white base; collapses when dried Dacrymyces palmatus

A381; Ba102; Bo86; M319; Mc64; P300

156b (155b) Orange to golden yellow, horny when dried, base not white Tremella mesenterica

A385 (Tremella A384-5, 419; Ba102-4); Bo86; M320; Mc67; P300

156c (1455b) Fruit body 3-15 cm, ear shaped and lobed or wrinkled, tough and gelatinous; cinnamon brown Auricularia auricula

A380; Ba105; M320; Mc64; P299

156d (155b) Fruit body 2-6 cm, dark brown with brown warts Exidia glandulosa

A382-3; Ba106; Bo84; M321; Mc66

157a (154b) Cylindrical branches, ≤1 cm in diameter, resembling a robust coral fungus. Stalks pliant and viscous, typically pale yellow Calocera viscosa

A380-1; Ba103; Bo84; M321; Mc64

157b (154b) Not coral like, resembling an eccentric mushroom 158

158a (157b) Gelatinous and translucent, dull whitish, and often spoon shaped 1-3cm tall and wide, with small white teeth Pseudohydnum gelatinosum

A383; Ba107; Bo86; M322; Mc66; P300

158b (157b) Funnel or fan shaped without teeth; pink to rose-peach; firm gelatinous, on ground by conifers Phlogiotis helvelloides

A383; Ba107; Bo84; M323; Mc66; P300
159 (1J) Stinkhorns, basidiomycete order Phallales. These are distinctive fungi whose spore masses are borne in pits or on the tip of a 2-10cm tall stem in a smelly slime that is attractive to flies. Stinkhorns develop within an egg-like structure until the spores are fully mature, like the related groups puffballs and earth stars.

159a (1J) Spore slime exposed or borne aloft at maturity; fruiting body variously shaped, emergiung from an “egg” whose skin (peridium) forms a sack at the base 160

159b (1I) Peridium either remaining intact or rupturing to form irregular holes at the top; volva absent Hysterangium

A834; Ar762; Mc346

160a (159a) Fruiting body unbranched but sometimes with a lacy skirt or veil; spore slime coating the outer surface of the ‘head’ unless washed off or eaten by flies Phallaceae, 161

160b (159a) Fruiting body branched to form several arms (that may be fused at the tips) or as a latticework; spore slime on the inner surface (upper surface if unfolded) Clathraceae, 164

161 (160b) Phallaceae medium sized, foul smelling fruiting bodies on soil or rotten wood


161a (160b) Netlike skirt (indusium) prominent, hanging from the lower margin of the head 162

161b (160b) Skirt absent, spore slime on tip 163

162a (161a) Fruiting body and indusium 7-25 cm tall, white except for green spore slime, indusium forms a netted globe; tropical Dictyophora indusiata

Ar770; Ba99

162b (161a) Fruiting body 3-6cm tall, temperate Dictyophora duplicata

Ar770; Ba99; Mc347; P290

163a (161b) Fruiting body a single stalk with dark green slimy spores at tip, no distinct ‘head’ Mutinus caninus

Ar771; Ba100; Mc347; M. elegans P290; S159, 352

163b (161b) Fruiting body club shaped (2.5-5cm high, 1-3cm wide), whitish pink; with pits in top filled with a dark slimy spore mass Phallogaster saccatus

A834; Ar762; M290; Mc346

163c (161b) Head smooth, green, slimy Phallus ravenelii

Ar768; Ba99; Mc348

163d (161b) Head wrinkled, green, slimy Phallus impudicus

Ar768; Ba99; Mc348; Mc346; S159, 359
164 (160b) Clathraceae Fruiting body emerging from an ‘egg’ that contains a gelatinous layer. Head often chambered or latticed. Ar772

164a (160b) Fruiting body a stalk, with many chambers, seated in a volva (cup) Simblum sphaerocephalum and Clathrus columnatus

Simblum A833; M292; Clathrus A844; Ar772-6; M292; Mc345

164b (160abUpraised arms at apex, with green slime on each arm Lysurus borealis

Ar776-8; Ba100; M291; Mc345

164c (160b) Head regularly chambered and red Simblum sphaerocephalum

A833; M292; Mc346
165 (1K) Club shaped fungi – This is an artificial grouping of fruiting bodies with a similar basic morphology from a variety of groups (stinkhorns, dead mens' fingers, jelly fungi, club fungi). Note that in this section, the intent is to distinguish between these similar groups, and then typically the key leads you to the taxonomic group, usually earlier in the key.

165a (1K) Erect cylindrical or club-shaped fungus, whose upper end may be tapered and covered with a smelly slime; stem relatively fragile and hollow; not branched. Stinkhorns 159

165b (1K) As in 130a, and with a small black head but without the stench Morchella 130

165c (1K) Robust cylindrical or club shaped fungus, not slimy or branched Clavariadelphus 149

165d (1K) Erect branched cylinders, 3-10cm tall, yellow Calocera 147

165e (1K) Tall (10-50cm) stem with a 2-3cm knob at the tip, or a dry mushroom-like cap (stalked puffball) Battarrea 119

165f (1K) Short stem bearing a 2-6cm tall erect, ear-shaped rolled cup, dark brown Otidia 142

165g (1K) Fingerlike, dull brown-black, 4-8 cm long, tough flesh Xylosphaera

Ar886; M343

165h (1K) Cylindrical club, reddish, 2-5 cm tall, growing from insect Cordyceps

Ar878-82; M344-5; Mc29; P312
166 (1L) Crust fungi (dry) These are low-growing basidiomycete fruiting bodies (typically on wood) whose spores are borne on pores or teeth. Some species are quite smooth and resemble paint, which can be cracked in a regular pattern.


166a (1L) Crustlike or with raised margins 167

166b (1L) Margins not raised 172

167a (166a) With pores or gills 168

167b (166a) With a netted pattern, or with teeth 169

169a (167a) With pores Polyporaceae

A414-26; Ar602-8

168b (167a) with gills, flesh brown Lenzites

Ar586-90; Ba143; Bo72; L294; Mc128; P268

168c (167a) With gills, flesh white Daedalea

Ar586-9; Ba143; L284; Mc125; P268

169a (167b) Netted (reticulate) pattern 170

169b (167b) With teeth 171

170a (168a) Gelatinous, orange, with radiating folds, white spores Merulius

A421; Ar605, 610-1; Ba152; L291; Mc79

170b (168a) Spongy, yellow brown radiating folds, brown spores Serpula

A415-6; Ar610-1

171a (168b) Grey to pink, gelatinous Pseudohydnum

A383; Ar671; Ba107; Bo86; L268; M322; Mc66; P300

171b (168b) Yellowish, fragile Steccherinum

Ar612; Ba128; L315; Mc99

172a (166b) Blackish 173

172b (166b) Orange, white, brown, or purplish 174

173a (172a) Unevenly crustlike Ustulina

A375; P311

173b (172a) Disklike or smooth Diatrype

174a (158b) Fruiting body orange Phlebia

Ar610; Ba152; P272

174b (158b) Fruiting body grey to olive brown, warty Coniophora

Ar605, 611;

174c (158b) Fruiting body brown, sometimes purple, smooth Stereum

Ar604-8; Ba154; L316-7; Mc80; P270

175 (1M) Key to subterranean fungi. Subterranean fungi include truffles (ascomycete,Tuber spp), which are highly prized for their aroma and flavour, and at least 92 other genera of ascomycete and basidiomycete that fruit underground and are dug up and dispersed by animals. Tuber fruiting bodies are solid, filled with hymenium and spores, whereas other subterranean fungi are related to other ascomycete and basidiomycete groups. Some apparently subterranean fungi are merely the young stage of a fruiting body, including the ‘eggs’ of stinkhorns and Amanita mushrooms. It is important to cut the open to determine this. Keys and descriptions of families and genera of truffles Ar844-65

175a (1M) Spores borne on basidia Hymenogastrales


175b (1M) Spores borne on asci 176

176a (161b) Fruiting body resembles an earthball, with a thick outer rind and a large inner cavity that fills with tissue, becomes divided by sterile bands of tissue, and then fills with black powdery spores Elaphomyces

A355; Ar862; Ba81-2;

176b (161b) Fruiting body warted, black to brown Balsamia and allies


176c (161b) Fruiting body strikingly lobed or brainlike; warted, white to yellow to grey; or also warted on the interior Genea and Genebea


176d (161b) Round to very lobed, hard and sometimes warted exterior; interior waxy with pockets of fertile tissue; marbeled appearance Tuber and Pachypholeus

Ar854-62; Bo89

177 (1N) Slime molds. These are not true fungi, but they are considered part of the ‘fungal union’ because they are saprotrophic, and they reproduce sexually by means of spores that have walls. These fruiting bodies are small and are found particularly in moist places. There are six orders and about 800 species. Detailed information in Stephenson and Stempen; A845-52;

177a (1N) Fruiting body of upright columns, white, yellow or pink, with spores borne externally on threadlike stalk. Common in temperature regions Ceratiomyxa

A845; Ba35

177b (1N) Spores borne internally and enclosed in the early stages of development by a peridium 178

178a (163b) Spore mass more or less brightly coloured, capillitium conspicuously sculptured Trichiales, 179

178b (163b) Spore mass purple brown to black, or violet to red-brown; capillitium not conspicuously sculptured; calcium carbonate in fruiting body Physarales, 180

178c (163b) Spore mass purple brown to black, or violet to red-brown; capillitium not conspicuously sculptured; no calcium carbonate Stemonitales, 181

178d (163b) True capillitium absent Liceales, 182

179a (164a) White plasmodium producing pink to red cottony club shaped masses on short stalks Arcyria denudata

A850; Ba40

179b (164a) White plasmodium producing yellow orange top on a thick stalk, opening to a fuzzy yellow cone Hemitrichia clavata

A850; Ba39, 41

179c (164a) White plasmodium producing a large pretzel-like network of thickened yellowish brown strands Hemitrichia serpula

A851; Ba39, 41

180a (164b) Whitish plasmodium; cortex composed of granular lime; bright white to yellow or reddish Fuligo septica

A845-6; Ba36

180b (164b) Brilliant yellow plasmodium, sporangium black, lobed, borne on a short stalk Physarum

A847; Ba39, 44

181a (164c) Sporangia erect, reddish stalks with a central columella, that occur as large tufts Stemonitis

A853; Ba43

181b (164c) White plasmodium producing a large tapioca-like mass that becomes cushion shaped and pinkish, finally crusty and brown-black Brefeldia

A852; Ba43

182a (164d) 0.5-3cm wide blob, soft and bright pink when young, later turning dry and brown; sometimes oozing pink “milk” Lycogala

Bo90; Ba45

182b (164d) Stalked sporangium, typically gregarious and nodding, with a prominent netlike peridium that persists at maturity Dictydium

A849; Ba44

References – major
Arora, D. 1985 Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley CA. ISBN 0-89815-169-4 (abbreviation: Ar)

Comprehensive keys, descriptions, photographs – an excellent and extremely comprehensive resource

Barron, G. 1999 Mushrooms of Ontario and Eastern Canada. Lone Pine, Edmonton AB ISBN 1 55105-199-0 (abbreviation: Ba)

Many fungal genera are found across North America. Field keys and macroscopic descriptions, and excellent pictures.

Bossenmaier, E. 1997 Mushrooms of the Boreal Forest. University Extension Press, U Saskatchewan. ISBN 0 88880 355-9 (abbreviation: Bo).

Good pictures and field descriptions to local Saskatchewan boreal forest fungi. Cross-referenced to other field guides, where Bossenmaier’s abbreviation is A=Arora, L=Lincoff Audobon guide

Hanlin, R. 1992 Illustrated Genera of the Ascomycetes, Volumes I and II., Hanlin, R. 1998 Combined keys to the illustrated genera of the Ascomycetes. APS Press. ISBN

0 89054 107 8, 0-89054-198-1, 089054-199-X, (abbreviation: H; x-y refers to volume and page number)

Lincoff, G.H. 1981 National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms. Alfred A. Knopf, NY. ISBN 0-394-51992-2. (abbreviation: A)

Excellent descriptions and comprehensive selection; includes lookalikes; pictorial key to major groups only; tendency to favour common names but includes scientific; scale indication; p857 has a table of distinctive features of many gilled mushrooms by spore colour.

Lincoff, G.H. (Editor) 1981 Simon and Schuster’s Guide to Mushrooms. Simon and Schuster, NY. ISBN 0-671-42849-7. (abbreviation: L).

Green pages are a pictorial key to the major groups, and a text key to major genera in each group. Photographs and descriptions of species in each genus. Spore colour, mushroom edibility, saprotroph vs mycorrhiza, are given as thumbnails, and details in text.

McKnight, K.H. and McKnight, V.B. 1987 Peterson Field Guide to Mushrooms. Houghton Mifflin, NY. ISBN 0-395-91090-0 (abbreviation: Mc)

Comprehensive text descriptions with diagrams of major species, using common and scientific names. No identification key. Text descriptions and drawings are separate; drawings indicate important field characters.

Miller, O.K. Jr 1972 Mushrooms of North America, E. P. Dutton, NY. ISBN 0-525-48317-9 (abbreviation: M)

Field keys throughout the book. Detailed text description of fruit bodies, growth habit, edibility. Photographs of most of the genera/species described in the text; illustrated glossary, p350

Phillips, R 1991 Mushrooms of North America. Little, Brown and Co., NY. ISBN 0 316 70613 2 (abbreviation: P)

Multiple pictures of each species described, usually several views including cut and/or bruised, with scale indication. Text description on same page as photograph.

Schalkwijk-Barendsen, H.M.E. 1991 Mushrooms of Northwest North America. Lone Pine, Edmonton AB. ISBN 1-22105-046-3 (abbreviation: S)

Focuses on species that grow in western Canada; drawings provide generalized images. Keys to genera p19-23, and brief descriptions of major genera; pictorial glossary p14 and 397; text glossary p399; colour illustrations p25-192; species descriptions p194 396; uses common name and scientific name

Stephenson, S.L. and Stempen, H. 1994. Myxomycetes, a Handbook of Slime Molds. Timber Press, Inc, Portland OR. ISBN 0-88192-439-3 (abbreviation: SS)

References – additional

Ainsworth, G. C., Sparrow, F. K., Sussman, A. S. 1973 The Fungi, and Advanced Treatise, Volumes IV-A and IV-B. Academic Press, NY. ISBN 0-12-045604-4 and 0-12-045844-3

Baier, J. 1991 Mushrooms and Toadstools. Aventium Press, Prague. ISBN 1-57215-133-1

Bigelow, H.E. 1974 Mushroom Pocket Field Guide. MacMillan Publ. NY. ISBN 0-02-510650-3

Castellano, M.A., Trappe, J.M., Maser, Z. Maser, C. 1989 Key to Spores of the Genera of Hygeous Fungi of North Temperate Forests. Mad River Press, Eureka CA.

ISBN 0-916422-77-1

Dennis, R.W.G. 1978. British Ascomycetes. J. Cramer. Vaduz, Switzerland I

SBN 3-7682-0552-5

Dennis, R.W.G. 1960 British Cup Fungi and their Allies, an Introduction to the Ascomycetes. London: The Ray Society

Ellis, M.B. and J.P. Ellis 1985 Microfungi on Land Plants, an Identification Handbook. London, Croom Helm, Publ. ISBN 0-7099-0950-0

Jordan, P. and Wheeler, S. 1995 The Ultimate Mushroom Book. Anness Press, London. ISBN 1-84309-038-4

Moser, M. 1978 Keys to Agarics and Boleti. 1983. Roger Phillips PressISBN 0-9508486-0-3

Singer, R. 1962. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. J Cramer, NY. ISBN 3-76820-143-0

Turner, N.J. and Szczawinski, A.F. 1991Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms of North America , Timber Press, Portland OR. ISBN 0-88192-312-5

Seaver, F.J. 1928 The North American Cup Fungi (Operculates). New York: Hafner

Seaver, F.J. 1951 The North American Cup Fungi (Inoperculates). New York: Hafner
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