Comments: (1) Ideally, I would prefer to keep the genus in a fairly extended sense with inclusion of both




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47.13  Silene L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 416. [RE]

S Melandrium Roehl. (1812), Deutschl. Fl., ed. 2, 2: 37.

Comments:

(1) Ideally, I would prefer to keep the genus in a fairly extended sense with inclusion of both Gastrolychnis and Melandrium. There are now cladistic reasons for considering it even wider, including Lychnis s. lat. There really seem to be no alternatives, either an extensive lumping or an even more extensive splitting as the remaining Silene will become distinctly paraphyletic if Lychnis s. lat. and Gastrolychnis are kept as separate genera. However, due to lack of some relevant names and to a strong Russian tradition, Gastrolychnis is still kept separate in this draft version. (Elven)

(2) A subgeneric classification is impractical in arctic Silene (except Gastrolychnis) as the 10-11 species fall into eight sections. I propose that we rather make a comment, as here, under the genus: Sect. Sclerocalycinae (Boiss.) Schischk. (species 1), sect. Graminifoliae Chowdhuri (species 2-3), sect. Otites Otth (species 4), sect. Inflatae (Boiss.) Chowdhuri (species 5-6), sect. Spergulifoliae Boiss. (species 7), sect. Nanosilene Otth (species 8), sect. Rupifraga Otth (species 9), sect. Elisanthe (Fenzl) Fenzl (species 10), sect. ??? (species 11). (Elven)

(3) Two ruderal species sometimes reported from the Arctic, both of sect. Elisanthe, are not included in this draft version:



Silene noctiflora L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 419; type: Linnaean Herbarium, Stockholm 183.17 (S) lectotype, selected by Jonsell & Jarvis (1994, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 159); 2n=24 (2x), Lövkvist & Hultgård (1999 Sweden); reported from RUS, ALA, CAN, and GRL, but most probably to be excluded from the list as totally casual. (Elven)

Silene latifolia Poir. (1789), Voy. Barb. 2: 165; type: Lamarck Herbarium 59.17 (P LA) lectotype, selected by Talavera & Muños Garmendia (1989, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 453); subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet (1982), Willdenowia 12: 189; basionym: Lychnis alba Mill. (1768), Gard. Dict., ed. 8, 4; synonyms: Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke (1858), Fl. Deutschl., ed. 4, 55; S. alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause in Sturm (1901), Deutschl. Fl., ed. 2, 5: 98; described from Britain; 2n=24 (2x), Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous non-arctic counts (as Melandrium dioicum subsp. dioicum [sic!]); reported from RUS, SIB, CAN, and GRL, very dubious as to status in the Arctic, most probably only casual and to be excluded from the list. (Elven)
47.13.1  Silene tatarica (L.) Pers. (1805), Syn. Pl. 1: 497.

B Cucubalus tataricus L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 415.

S

T Linnaean herbarium 582.15 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Jonsell & Jarvis (1994, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 156).



2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Cited as non-Finnish count(s) by Hämet-Ahti et al. (1998, Retkeilykasvio).

G RUS

Comments:


47.13.2  Silene paucifolia Ledeb. (1842), Fl. Ross. 1: 306.

S

T [Hab. in Sibiriae arcticae arenosis ad oceanum glacialem (Pallas in herb. Willd.), ***]



2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Zhukova et al. (1973 Sib); Löve & Löve in Löve (1975c); Zhukova (1982 Sib).

G RUS SIB

Comments:


47.13.3  Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (1842), Fl. Ross. 1: 306.

S S. graminifolia auct., non Otth in DC. (1824, Prodr. 1: 368). ??

T [Hab. in Sibiriae (Tilesius).]

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Zhukova (1966 Sib); Zhukova & Tikhonova (1971 Chuk); Zhukova (1982 E Chuk).

G SIB RFE

Comments:
47.13.4  Silene polaris Kleopow in Kom. (1936), Fl. URSS 6: 890.

S S. otites (L.) Wibel [(1799, Prim. Fl. Werth. 241)] subsp. polaris (Kleopow) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1961), Bot. Not. 114: 52.

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve in Löve (1975c).

G SIB?

Comments:



(1) Why shouldn't this be considered a subspecies of S. otites? Does it reach the Arctic? (Elven)

WARNING 1! Might be reduced to a subspecies of S. otites.

WARNING 2! Might be excluded as non-arctic.
The Silene vulgaris aggregate (S. uniflora, S. vulgaris)

Comments:

(1) To merge S. uniflora with S. vulgaris, as a subspecies, is not consistent with current morphological and genetic evidence. (Elven)
47.13.5  Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (1869), Fl. N. Mitt.-Deutschland, ed. 9, 64.

B Behen vulgaris Moench (1794), Methodus 709.

S

T Linnaean herbarium 582.4 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Aeschimann & Bocquet (1983, Candollea 38: 204).



2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous non-arctic counts.

G NOR* RUS*

Comments: Subsp. vulgaris in the Arctic.

(1) The species occurs as introduced and stable in the Arctic. (Elven)
47.13.6  Silene uniflora Roth (1794), Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 10: 46.

S S. maritima With. (1796), Bot. Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3, 2: 414; S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. maritima (With.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1961), Bot. Not. 114: 52.

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts (as S. vulgaris subsp. maritima), a few as arctic.

G ICE NOR RUS

Comments: Subsp. uniflora in the Arctic.

(1) The entity that reaches the Arctic in N Norway and on the Murman coast is clearly subsp. uniflora. The Icelandic plants differ from the other NW European ones and have been described as S. maritima With. subsp. islandica Á. Löve & D. Löve (1956), Acta Horti Gothob. 20: 183. Their status is still insufficiently known but they are worthy of a note and perhaps inclusion in synonymy. (Elven)
47.13.7  Silene repens Patrin in Pers. (1805), Syn. Pl. 1: 500.

S S. repens Patrin subsp. purpurata (Greene) C.L. Hitchc. & Maguire (1947), Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 13: 21 [basionym: S. purpurata Greene (1892), Pittonia 2: 229].

T [Described from Siberia: "prope lacum Baikal".]

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Zhukova & Petrovsky (1972 NE As Wrangel I.); Löve & Löve in Löve (1975c); Zhukova (1980 S Chuk).

G RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN

Comments:

(1) The arguments by Hultén (1968, Ark. Bot.) for not to recognize a subsp. purpurata on the American side are convincing and are followed here. (Elven)


47.13.8  Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. (1762), Enum. Stirp. Vindob. 242.

B Cucubalus acaulis L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 415.

S S. acaulis (L.) Jacq. subsp. arctica Á. Löve & D. Löve (1965), Univ. Colorado Stud., ser. biol., 17: 21; S. acaulis (L.) Jacq. subsp. subacaulescens (F.N. Williams) C.L. Hitchc. & Maguire (1947), Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 13: ***.

T Linnaean herbarium 583.61 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Talavera & Muños Garmendia (1989, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 445).

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, many as arctic and including all the three tentative races (subspp. acaulis, arctica and subacaulescens).

G ICE NOR RUS RFE ALA CAN GRL

Comments:

(1) The 'exscapa' plants might be worth a note, at least. The 'exscapa' name refers to an European endemic, acc. to Flora Europaea, and is probably inapplicable in the Arctic. The correct name for the arctic-alpine Pacific plants might be subsp. arctica, or subsp. subacaulescens for the pedunculate ones. Genetic evidence so far does not justify recognition of several taxa. (Elven)
[00]  Silene rupestris L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 421.

S Glima rupestris (L.) *** (2000), ***.

T Linnaean herbarium 583.50 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Talavera & Muños Garmendia (1989, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 445).

2n= 24 (2x).

2nD Jonsell (in prep., Flora Nordica 2, Norw, Finl, Sweden).

G NOR?


Comments:

(1) Occurs near the arctic boundary, at least in N Norway. Might be included as a border case. (Elven)



WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic.
47.13.9  Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. (1811), Man. Herb. Suisse 145.

B Lychnis dioica L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 437.

S Melandrium dioicum (L.) Coss. & Germ. (1845), Syn. Anal. Fl. Paris 28; Melandrium rubrum (Weigel) Garcke (1858), nom. illegit., Fl. N. Mitt.-Deutschland, ed. 4, 55; S. dioica (L.) Clairv. subsp. lapponica (Simmons) Tolm. & Kozh. (1971), Fl. Arct. URSS 6: 101 [basionym: Melandrium rubrum (Weigel) Garcke subsp. lapponicum Simmons (1907), Ark. Bot. 6: 6].

T Linnaean herbarium 602.6 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Talavera & Muños Garmendia (1989, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 45: 453).

2n= 24 (2x)

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous non-arctic counts (as Melandrium dioicum (L.) Coss. & Germ. subsp. rubrum (Weig.) D. Löve).

G NOR RUS

Comments:

(1) The 'lapponicum' plants may merit a comment but not formal entry as an entity. (Elven)

(2) I propose to treat this species as a Melandrium. (Yurtsev)


47.13.10  Silene menziesii Hook. (1833), Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 90.

S

T [Described from NW America: Straits of Juan de Fuca, Slave River.]



Comments:
47.13.10.1  Silene menziesii Hook. subsp. williamsii (Britt.) Hultén (1968), Fl. Alaska 443.

B S. williamsii Britt. (1901), Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 2, 6: 168.

S

T Yukon District: Dawson, 14.07.1899, leg. Williams (US, NY) ***.



2n=

2nD


G ALA?

Comments:

(1) A border case in the Porcupine River valley on the Alaska/Yukon border. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be excluded as non-arctic.

47.14  Gypsophila L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 406. [RE]
47.14.1  Gypsophila uralensis Less. (1834), Linnaea 9: 172.

S

2n= 34 (2x).



2nD Zhukova (unpubl.).

G RUS


Comments:

(1) Flora Europaea and Index Kewensis give the authority above. Yurtsev in Tolmachev (1971, Fl. Arct. URSS 6) cites: Less. (1831), Linnaea 6: 172. (Elven)


47.14.2  Gypsophila sambukii Schischk. in Kom. (1936), Fl. SSSR 6: 763, 892.

S

2n= (1) 34 (2x). (2) 68 (4x).



2nD (1) Krogulevich (1971 Sib); Yurtsev & Zhukova (1982 Sib). (2) Zhukova (1982 Sib); Krogulevicz (1976 Taimyr). All counts from non-arctic plants.

G SIB


Comments:

47.15  Dianthus L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 409. [RE]
47.15.1  Dianthus repens Willd. (1799), Sp. Pl. 2, 1: 681.

S

T [Described from Siberia.]



2n= (1) 30 (2x). (2) 60 (4x).

2nD (1) Johnson & Packer (1968 Ala); Zhukova (1980 S Chuk). (2) Zhukova (1966 W Chuk); Zhukova & Petrovsky (1975, 1976, 1980 W Chuk); Krogulevicz (1976 Taimyr); Zhukova et al. (1977 NE Sib).

G RUS SIB RFE ALA CAN

Comments:


47.15.2  Dianthus superbus L. (1755), Fl. Suec., ed. 2, 146.

S

T Linnaean herbarium 581.21 (LINN) lectotype, selected by Jonsell & Jarvis (1994, Nord. J. Bot. 14: 157).



2n= 30 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list numerous counts, some as arctic.



G NOR RUS SIB

Comments:


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