Cold strat. (days)




Дата канвертавання19.04.2016
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Appendix 2. Overview of applied stratification (strat.) and germination methods.


Species

Cold strat. (days)

Germ. temp

(° C)


Comment

Alopecurus borealis

27

20

Covering structure removed. Seeds look empty

Arabis alpina

27

20

Seeds were overgrown by green algae

Arenaria pseudofrigida

27

20




Arnica angustifolia

27

20

Pappus removed. The majority of seeds may be without developed embryo

Betula nana var. tundrarum

27

20




Bistorta vivipara

27

20




Braya glabella ssp. purpurascens

27

20/10




Carex fuliginosa ssp. misandra

80

20/10




Carex glacialis

80

20/10

Uncertain if seeds were fully ripe

Carex krausei

56

20/10




Carex lachenalii

80

20/10




Carex marina ssp. pseudolagopina

80

20/10

The majority of seeds may be without developed embryo

Carex maritima

80

20/10




Carex nardina ssp. hepburnii

79

20/10




Carex rupestris

79

20/10




Carex subspathacea

79

20/10




Carex ursina

79

20/10




Cassiope tetragona ssp. tetragona

30

20

Seeds attacked by fungi

Cerastium arcticum

26

20/10




Chrysosplenium tetrandrum

26

10

Surface sterilized with bleach prior to stratification. Low germination during first germination period. 2nd freezing and cold stratification followed by 2nd germination period. Technical problems caused temperature variation between -10 ° and 31° C

Cochlearia groenlandica

26

10

2nd stratification for 38 days and 2nd germination at 20/10° C

Coptidium lapponicum

0

20/10

Seeds very small and may have been partly unripe. Warm stratification at 10° C for 10 weeks, then cold stratification at 1° C for 10 weeks, then germination at 20/10° C. Treated with bleach day 6 of warm stratification due to mould

Coptidium pallasii

0

20/10

Uncertain if seeds were 100 % ripe. Same stratification as above. Treated with bleach day 6 of warm stratification due to mould

Deschampsia alpina

0

20




Draba alpina

26

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba arctica ssp. arctica

26

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba glabella

26

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba lactea

26

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba nivalis

26

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba rupestris (syn. D norvegica)

28

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Draba subcapitata

28

20

Rubbed with sandpaper

Dryas octopetala

26

20/10

Pappus removed

Dupontia fisheri morph “psilosantha”

29

20

Seeds look empty

Empetrum nigrum

0

20/10

10 weeks warm stratification at 20° C followed by 10 weeks cold stratification at 1° C

Erigeron humilis

29

20

Pappus removed

Eriophorum scheuchzeri ssp. arcticum

26

10

Pappus removed

Euphrasia wettsteinii

26

10

Germination first at 10 ° C for 4 weeks, then 20 ° C for 12 weeks. 2nd cold stratification at 1° C for 6 weeks followed by germination at 10 ° C.

Festuca baffinensis

26

20

Removed covering structure. Hard to see if the seeds contain embryo

Festuca brachyphylla

28

20

Removed covering structure

Festuca edlundiae

28

20

Removed covering structure. Some empty seeds

Festuca viviparoidea ssp. viviparoidea

0

20




Hierochloë alpina

28

20

Remove covering structure

Honckenya peploides ssp. diffusa

28

20/10

After 11 weeks germination, a 2nd cold stratification of 6 weeks at 1° C was done followed by new germination at 20/10° C

Juncus albescens

28

20




Juncus biglumis

28

20/10




Koenigia islandica

78

20




Luzula confusa

28

20




Luzula nivalis

28

20




Luzula wahlenbergii

28

10




Mertensia maritima ssp. tenella

37

20

The seeds may have been unripe

Micranthes foliolosa

0

20




Micranthes hieracifolia ssp. hieracifolia

37

20/10

The seeds may have been unripe. After 14 weeks of germination, seeds were given a 2nd cold stratification at 1° C for 5 weeks followed by germination at 20/10° C

Micranthes nivalis

37

20




Minuartia rossii

28

20

After 6 weeks of where only one seed germinated, the seeds were moved to 10° C, which enhanced germination.

Minuartia rubella

28

20




Oxyria digyna

28

20




Papaver dahlianum




20

3 weeks of warm stratification at 20° C followed by cold stratification at 1° C for 17 weeks. Germination at 20° C, but agar dried out.

Pedicularis dasyantha var. dasyantha

139

20/10

Seeds were forgotten at cold stratification, but still looked ok.

Pedicularis hirsuta

139

20/10

Seeds were forgotten at cold stratification, but still looked ok.

Petasites frigidus ssp. frigidus

28

20

Seeds may have been unripe

Phippsia algida

28

20

Remove covering structure. After a germination period of 11 weeks, a 2nd stratification period of 5 weeks at 1° C. 2nd germination first at 10° C for 2 weeks, than 20/10° C.

Phippsia concinna

28

20

Covering structure removed. Seeds looked empty

Poa abbreviata ssp. abbreviata

28

20/10

Covering structure removed. Seeds looked empty

Poa alpina var. vivipara

0

20




Poa arctica ssp. arctica seminiferous type

28

20/10

Removed covering structure. Uncertain if seeds were ripe, but the germination % indicate they were

Poa pratensis ssp. alpigena viviparous type

0

20

Covering structure removed

Potentilla hyparctica ssp. hyparctica

28

20

Pappus removed

Potentilla pulchella

28

20

Pappus removed

Puccinellia vahliana

28

20/10

Some seeds looked empty

Ranunculus hyperboreus ssp. arnelli

0

20/10

Some seeds may have been unripe

Ranunculus nivalis

0

20/10

Some seeds may have been unripe

Ranunculus pygmaeus

0

20/10




Ranunculus wilanderi

135

20/10

Seed lot divided into assumed ripe and assumed unripe seeds, and germination percentages refer to the assumed ripe ones only. After 5 weeks of no germination at 20/10° C, the seeds were moved to 10° C, after which a few seeds germinated indicating that the species needs warm stratification

Sagina nivalis

37

20/10




Salix polaris

37

20




Saxifraga cernua

0

20




Saxifraga cespitosa ssp. cespitosa

37

20




Saxifraga hirculus ssp. compacta

37

20/10

Seeds seams empty/bad

Saxifraga oppositifolia ssp. oppositifolia

37

20




Saxifraga rivularis ssp. rivularis

37

20




Saxifraga svalbardensis

0

20




Silene acaulis ssp. acaulis

0

20




Silene involucrata ssp. furcata

0

20




Silene uralensis ssp. arctica

0

20

Moved to 20/10° C after 4 weeks which increased germination

Stellaria humifusa

35

20




Taraxacum arcticum agg.

35

20

2 flower heads collected

Trisetum spicatum ssp. spicatum

35

20





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