Coccidian oocysts as stress indicators in restocked Lepus europaeus from Western Europe




Дата канвертавання22.04.2016
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Coccidian oocysts as stress indicators in restocked Lepus europaeus from Western Europe.
Tizzani P¹, Molinar Min A¹, Silvestri E¹, Ferreira Andrade D¹,3, Carpignano M2, Bessone M¹, Peano A¹, Rossi L¹., Meneguz P.G¹. ¹ Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Torino. ²Comprensorio Alpino CN3 “Valli Maira e Grana”. 3Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto.
AIM: Between 2012 and 2013 faecal samples were collected from hares Lepus europaeus used for restocking operations in the hunting estate CACN3 “Valli Maira e Grana” (Piedmont – Italy). The samples came from free-living hares capture in the Czech Republic. The hare used for restocking operation can remain in cages till to one week; this is extremely stressful and can affect the sanitary status and post release survival. The sanitary status of a released species is a very important parameter that can affect the efficacy of restocking operations (J.M. Black, 1991, Bird Conservation International, 1: 329-334). Coccidian load in particular is an effective indicator of stress (K. Chroust,1984, Acta Vet. Brno, 53: 175-182). The aim of this study was to evaluate the welfare and survival probability of hare used in restocking operation through the evaluation of their parasite load with a special focus on coccidia oocysts.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: a total of 96 faecal samples were collected in winter 2012 (55) and winter 2013 (41). They were analysed in the Department of Veterinary Sciences (University of Turin). Standard laboratory techniques were used to recover, collect, store the parasites and both qualitative and quantitative copro microscopic examinations were carried out (MAFF, 1986, Manual of Veterinary Diagnostic Techniques, Ref Book 418). Parasites were identified by using a morphometric approach and through the use of dichotomous keys (N. Aoutil et al, 2005, Parasite, 12: 131-144).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Eggs of nematodes such as Trichuris sp. and Trichoistrongylus sp., as well as oocysts of Eimeria sp were found. Prevalence and abundance of the parasites are shown in table 1. Prevalence of whipworm and tricostrongilids coincide with those reported for wild populations in areas with similar environmental condition (P. Dubinský et al, 2010, Helminthologia, 47, 4: 219 – 225). On the contrary coccidia was found with prevalence and abundance significantly higher (K. Chroust, 1984, Acta Vet. Brno, 53: 175-182 ; D. Lukesova et al, 2012, Helminthologia, 49, 3: 159-163). We recognized 18 species of Coccidia: E. audubonii, E. cabareti, E. leporis leporis, E. l. brevis, E. europaea, E. deharroi deharroi, E. d. rotonda, E. macrosculpta, E. orbiculata, E. gresae, E. bainae, E. coquelinae, E. gantieri, E. nicolegerae, E. babatica, E. reiniai, E. stiedai, E. tailliezi.
CONCLUSION: coccidia are index of low immune competence of the host due to stress condition (H. G. Rödel et al, 2004, Oecologia, 140: 566–576). The level of parasitic loads features a strong alteration of healthy condition. This factor could jeopardize the post release survival of the hares (V. Alzaga et al, 2007, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62: 769–775).





Trichuris sp.

Trichostrongylu sp.

Eimeria sp.

Year

2012

2013

2012

2013

2012

2013

Prevalence

29%

39%

12%

43%

96%

100%

CI_L_95

17%

24%

3%

28%

91%

100%

CI_U_95

41%

54%

21%

58%

101%

100%

Intensity

927.9

471.9

191.4

205.6

77930.6

35402.4

Abundance

274.9

184.1

24.8

90.2

75044.2

35402.4


Table 1. Prevalence, Confidence Interval (CI), Intensity and Abundance of parasitic load in 2012 and 2013.


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