Classification of the mammals




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CLASSIFICATION OF THE MAMMALS
Living members of the Class Mammalia are divided into three infraclasses, 26 orders, 133 families, 1135 genera, and 4629 species (Wilson and Reeder, 1993). Since then 10 to 12 new species have been added annually. Family names end in -idae. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of genera and species respectively in a taxon.
Class MAMMALIA

Infraclass ORNITHODELPHIA

Order MONOTREMATA (3, 3)

Tachyglossidae (2,2) Echidnas

Ornithorhynchidae (1, 1) Duck-billed platypus

Infraclass METATHERIA (82, 251)

Order DIDELPHIMORPHIA

Didelphidae (15, 63) New World Opossums

PAUCITUBERCULATA

Caenolestidae (3, 5) Shrew or rat opossums

MICROBIOTHERIA

Microbiotheriidae (1, 1) Monito del monte

DASYUROMORPHIA

Dasyuridae (15, 61) Marsupial mice; Tasmanian devil

Myrmecobiidae (1, 1) Numbat

Thylacinidae (1,1) Tasmanian wolf

NOTORYCTEMORPHIA

Notoryctidae (1, 2) Marsupial moles

SYNDACTYLA

Order PERAMELEMORPHIA

Peramelidae (3, 8) Bandicoots and bilbies

Peroryctidae (4, 11) New Guinea bandicoots

DIPROTODONTIA (38, 117)

Phascolarctidae (1, 1) Koala

Vombatidae (2, 3) Wombats

Phalangeridae (6, 18) Cuscuses, brushtail possums

Potoroidae (5, 9) Potoroos, bettongs

Macropodidae (11, 54) Kangaroos, wallabies, walaroos, pademelons

Burramyidae (2, 5) Pygmy possums

Pseudocheiridae (5, 14) Ringtailed possums

Petauridae (3, 15) Striped possums, wrist-ringed gliders

Tarsipedidae (1, 1) Honey possum

Acrobatidae (2, 2) Feathertail glider, possum

Infraclass EUTHERIA (1055, 4450)

Order XENARTHRA

Bradypodidae (1, 3) Three-toed sloths

Megalonychidae (1, 2) Two-toed sloths

Choloepinae

Dasypodidae (8, 20) Armadillos

Myrmecophagidae (3, 4) True anteaters


PHOLIDOTA

Manidae (1, 7) Pangolins


INSECTIVORA (66, 428)

Solenodontidae (1, 2) Solenodons

Nesophontidae (1, 8) Nesophontids

Tenrecidae (10, 24) Tenrecs

Chrysochloridae (7, 18) Golden moles

Erinaceidae (7, 21) Hedgehogs, gymnures

Soricidae (23, 312) Shrews

Talpidae (17, 42) Moles and desmans


ARCHONTA

Order SCANDENTIA

Tupaiidae (5, 19) Tree shrews
DERMOPTERA

Cynocephalidae (1, 2) Colugos


CHIROPTERA (177, 925)

Macrochiroptera

Pteropodidae (42, 166) Old World fruit bats

Microchiroptera

Rhinopomatidae (1, 3) Mouse-tailed bats

Craseonycteridae (1, 1) Kitti's hog-nosed bat

Emballonuridae (13, 47) Sac-winged or sheath-tailed bats

Nycteridae (1, 12) Slit-faced bats

Megadermatidae (4, 5) False vampire bats

Rhinolophidae (10, 130) Horseshoe bats

Noctilionidae (1, 2) Fishing bats

Mormoopidae (2, 8) Leaf-chinned bats

Phyllostomidae (49, 141) New World leaf-nosed bats Natalidae (1, 5) Funnel-eared bats

Furipteridae (2, 2) Smoky bats

Thyropteridae (1, 2) Disk-winged bats

Myzopodidae (1, 1) Sucker-footed bat

Vespertilionidae (35, 318) Common bats

Mystacinidae (1, 2) Short-tailed bats

Molossidae (12, 80) Free-tailed bats
PRIMATES (60, 223)

Strepsirhini

Cheirogaleidae (4, 7) Dwarf and mouse lemurs

Lemuridae (4, 10) Lemurs

Megaladapidae (1, 7) Sportive lemurs

Indridae (3, 5) Indrid lemurs, sifakas

Daubentoniidae (1, 1) Aye-aye

Loridae (4, 6) Lorises, potto

Galagonidae (4, 11) Bushbabies, galagos

Haplorhini

Tarsiidae (1, 5) Tarsiers

Callitrichidae (4, 26) Marmosets, tamarins

Cebidae (11, 58) New World monkeys

Cercopithecidae (18, 81) Old World monkeys

Hylobatidae (1, 11) Gibbons, siamang

Hominidae (4, 5) Gorilla, chimpanzees, orangutan, humans


Order CARNIVORA (129, 271)

Caniformia

Canidae (13, 33) Wolves, coyote, foxes, jackals

Procyonidae (6, 18) Raccoon, kinkajou, red panda

Mustelidae (25, 65) Weasels, skunks, otters

Ursidae (6, 19) Bears, panda

Odobenidae (1, 1) Walrus

Otariidae (7, 14) Sea lions

Phocidae (10, 19) Seals

Feliformia

Felidae (18, 36) Lion, bobcat, cheetah, puma

Herpestidae (18, 37) Mongooses

Hyaenidae (4, 4) Hyenas, aardwolf

Viverridae (20, 34) Civets, genets
UNGULATA

Order ARTIODACTYLA (81, 220)

Suiformes

Suidae (5, 16) Pigs, warthogs

Tayassuidae (3, 3) Peccaries

Hippopotamidae (2, 2) Hippopotamuses

Tylopoda

Camelidae (3, 6) Camels, llamas, vicuna

Ruminantia

Tragulidae (3, 4) Chevrotains

Giraffidae (2, 2) Giraffe, okapi

Moschidae (1, 4) Musk deer

Cervidae (16, 42) Deer, elk, moose

Antilocapridae (1, 1) Pronghorn antelope

Bovidae (45, 137) Antelope, sheep, goats, buffalo, bison, cattle
CETACEA

Mysticeti

Balaenidae (2, 3) Bowhead and right whales

Balaenopteridae (2, 6) Rorquals

Eschrichtiidae (1, 1) Gray whale

Neobalaenidae (1, 1) Pigmy right whale

Odontoceti

Delphinidae (17, 32) Dolphins

Monodontidae (2, 2) Narwhal, beluga

Phocoenidae (4, 6) Porpoises

Physeteridae (2, 3) Sperm whales

Platanistidae (4, 5) River dolphins

Ziphiidae (6, 19) Beaked whales
TUBULIDENTATA

Orycteropodidae (1, 1) Aardvark


PERISSODACTYLA

Equidae (1, 9) Horses, asses, zebras

Tapiridae (1, 4) Tapirs

Rhinocerotidae (4, 5) Rhinoceroses


HYRACOIDEA

Procaviidae (3, 11) Hyraxes


SIRENIA

Dugongidae (1, 1) Dugong, †Stellar seacow

Trichechidae (1, 3) Manatees
PROBOSCIDEA

Elephantidae (2, 2) Elephants


GLIRES

Order RODENTIA (443, 2015)

Sciurognathi

Aplodontidae (1, 1) Mountain beaver

Sciuridae (50, 273) Squirrels, marmots

Castoridae (1, 2) Beavers

Geomyidae (5, 35) Pocket gophers

Hetromyidae (6, 59) Pocket mice, kangaroo rats

Dipodidae (15, 51) Jerboas, birch mice, jumping mice

Muridae (281, 1326) Rats and mice

Anomaluridae (3, 7) scaly-tailed squirrels

Pedetidae (1, 1) Springhaas

Ctenodactylidae (4, 5) Gundis

Myoxidae (8, 26) Doormice

Hystricognathi

Bathyergidae (5, 12) Mole rats

Hystricidae (3, 11) Old World porcupines

Petromuridae (1, 1) Dassie rat

Thryonomyidae (1, 2) Cane rats

Erethizontidae (4, 12) New World Porcupines

Chinchillidae (3, 6) Chinchillas, viscachias

Dinomyidae (1, 1) Paracana

Caviidae (5, 14) Cavies, guinea pigs, Patagonian hare

Hydrochaeridae (1, 1) Capybara

Dasyproctidae (2, 13) Agoutis, acouchis

Agoutidae (1, 2) Pacas

Ctenomyidae (1, 38) Tuco-tucos

Octodontidae (6, 9) Viscacha rats, coruro

Abrocomidae (1, 3) Chinchilla rats

Echimyidae (16, 71) Spiny rats

Capromyidae (4, 12) Hutias

Myocastoridae (1, 1) Nutria


LAGOMORPHA

Ochotonidae (2, 26) Pikas

Leporidae (11, 54) Rabbits, hares
MACROSCELIDEA

Macroscelididae (4, 15) Elephant shrews




A MOLECULAR VIEW OF EUTHERIAN CLASSIFICATION
Infraclass Eutheria
Group I: Atlantogenata

Order Xenarthra: sloths and anteaters (Neotropica) and armadillos (Neotropica and Nearctica).

Superorder Afrotheria

Order Afrosoricida

Family Tenrecidae: tenrecs (Madagascar) and otter-shrews (West and Central Africa).

Family Chrysochloridae: golden moles (Africa south of the Sahara).

Order Macroscelidea: elephant shrews (Africa).

Order Tubulidentata: aardvark (Africa south of the Sahara).

Order Hyracoidea: hyraxes, dassies (Africa, Arabia).

Order Proboscidea: elephants (Africa, Southeast Asia).

Order Sirenia

Family Dugongidae: dugong (East Africa, Red Sea, North Australia).

Family Trichechidae: manatees (tropical Atlantic coasts and adjacent rivers).
Group II Euarchontoglires

Superorder Euarchonta

Order Scandentia: tree shrews (Southeast Asia).

Order Primates: lemurs, bushbabies, monkeys, apes (cosmopolitan).

Order Dermoptera: flying lemurs or colugos (Southeast Asia).

Superorder Glires

Order Lagomorpha: pikas, rabbits, hares (Eurasia, Africa, Americas).

Order Rodentia: rodents (cosmopolitan)


Group III: Laurasiatheria

Superorder Laurasiatheria

Order Insectivora (Lipotyphla)

Family Solenodontidae: solenodons (Cuba, Hispaniola).

Family Erinaceidae: hedgehogs, moonrats (Eurasia, Africa).

Family Soricidae: shrews (Eurasia, Africa, North America to northern South America).

Family Talpidae: moles, shrew-moles, desmans (Eurasia, North America).

Order Chiroptera: bats (cosmopolitan)

Order Pholidota: pangolins, scaly anteaters (Africa, South Asia).

Order Carnivora: carnivorans (cosmopolitan)

Order Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates

Family Equidae: horses, zebras, donkeys (Africa, West and Central Asia).

Family Tapiridae: tapirs (Central and South America, Southeast Asia).

Family Rhinocerotidae: rhinoceroses (Africa, Southeast Asia).

Order Cetartiodactyla

including the previous orders Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) and Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including pigs, hippopotamus, camels, giraffe, deer, antelope, cattle, sheep, goats).


The Atlantogenata is an ancient southern hemisphere radiation that includes the South American Xenarthra and the mainly African Afrotheria. Atlantogenata reflects the hypothesis that the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, which caused the break up of Gondwana, isolated one branch of this lineage in South America and another in Africa during the Cretaceous. The Laurasiatheria is named because of its largely northern hemisphere origin and distribution. The Order Cetartiodactyla is based on molecular evidence that hippopotamuses are more closely related to whales than they are to other artiodactyls.




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