Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle: Lime




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
Памер175.45 Kb.
Appendix 1 Scientific names and synonyms, preferred common name of the Citrus spp. cited in the text
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle -> Citrus × aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle: Lime
SYNONYM(S) Citrus acida Roxb., Citrus aurantium L. ssp. aurantiifolia Guillaumin, Citrus excelsa Wester, Citrus hystrix DC. ssp. acida (Roxb.) Engl., Citrus javanica Blume, Citrus lima Lunan, Citrus limetta auct., non Risso, Citrus limetta Risso var. aromatica Wester, Citrus limonellus Hassk., Citrus medica L. ssp. acida (Roxb.) Engl., Citrus medica L. var. acida Hook.f., Citrus notissima Blanco, Citrus spinosissima Meyer, Limonia acidissima Houtt., Limonia aurantiifolia Christm.
Citrus aurantium L. -> Citrus × aurantium L.: Sour orange

SYNONYM(S): Citrus amara Link, Citrus aurantium L. ssp. amara (L.) Engl., Citrus aurantium L. ssp. aurantium, Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl., Citrus bigarradia Loisel., Citrus florida Salisb., Citrus vulgaris Risso


Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. -> Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. f.: Lemon

SYNONYM(S): Citrus medica L. ssp. limon L., Citrus limonum Risso, Citrus limonum Risso. var. vulgaris Risso. & Poit., Citrus medica L. ssp. limonum (Risso). Wight et Amott. var. vulgaris Engl., Citrus medica L. var. limon L., Citrus medica L. var. limonum Hook. f., Citrus medica L. var. limonum Risso., Limon vulgaris Mill.


Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. = Citrus maxima (Burm.) Osbeck: Pomelo

SYNONYM(S): Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus decumana Murr. non L., Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. grandis, Aurantium maximum Burm., Citrus aurantium L. var. grandis L., Citrus decumana L. nom. illeg.


Citrus medica L.: Citron

SYNONYM(S): Citrus aurantium L. var. medica Wight & Arnott, Citrus cedra Link, Citrus cedratus Raf., Citrus crassa Hassk., Citrus fragrans Salisb., Citrus medica L. var. cedrata Risso, Citrus medica L. var. medica, Citrus odorata Roussel, Citrus tuberose Mill.


Citrus x paradisi Macfad.: Common grapefruit

SYNONYM(S): Citrus paradisi Macf., Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. racemosa (Roem.) B. C. Stone, Citrus decumana L.


Citrus reticulata Blanco: Common mandarin

SYNONYM(S): Sinocitrus reticulata (Blanco) Tseng, Citrus nobilis Andrews, non Lour. nom. illeg.


Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck = Citrus × sinensis (L.) Osbeck: Sweet orange

SYNONYM(S): Citrus aurantium L. var. sinensis L., Aurantium sinense (L.) Mill., Citrus aurantium L. ssp. sinensis (L.) P. Fourn., Citrus aurantium L. Sweet Orange Group, Citrus macracantha Hassk.


Source: MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE

http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au

Appendix 2 List of the archaeobotanical occurrences of Citrus spp. (seeds, wood and pollen)

Species

Dating

Localization

Site

Nature/number of the remains

Preservation

References

Citrus x limon

1900 – 1400 B.C.

India (Punjab)

Sanghol

seeds

not indicated

Saraswat and Chanchala 1997

Citrus sp.

1400 – 1300 B.C.

India (Karnataka)

Sanganakallu

wood charcoal




Asouti and Fuller 2008

Citrus sp.

1200 B.C.

Cyprus

Hala Sultan Tekke

seed

mineralised?

Hjelmqvist 1979

Citrus sp.

896-657 cal B.C.

Italy (Campania)

Cumes

pollen grain ()




Coubray et al. 2010

Citrus sp.

575-565 B.C.

Italy (Sardinia)

Monte Siraï

chemical residues




Garnier forthcoming

Citrus sp.

4th C. B.C.

Tunisia

Carthago

pollen grain




Van Zeist et al. 2001

cf. C. medica

1st C. A.D.

Egypt

Quseir al Qadim

seed (1)

dessicated

Van der Veen 2011

cf. C. medica

3rd C. A.D.

Egypt

Quseir al Qadim

seeds (7)

dessicated

Van der Veen 2011

Citrus sp.

1st C. A.D.

Egypt

Quseir al Qadim

seed (3)

dessicated

Van der Veen 2011

Citrus sp.

3rd C. A.D.

Egypt

Quseir al Qadim

seed (1)

dessicated

Van der Veen 2011

C. cf. medica

2nd C. A.D.

Egypt

Mons Porphyrites

seeds (11)

dessicated

Van der Veen and Tabinor 2007

C. medica

2nd C. A.D.

Egypt

Mons Claudianus

seeds and fruit (1)

dessicated

Van der Veen 2001; Van der Veen and Hamilton-Dyer 1998

C. medica

3rd 4th C. A.D.

Egypt

Kellis, Dakhleh

seeds

not indicated

Thanheiser et al. 2002

C. x limon or C. medica.

Roman time

Italy (Campania)

Lake Averno

pollen grains (6)




Grüger et al. 2002

Citrus sp.

-

Italy (Campania)

Pompeii

pollen grains (-)




Mariotti Lippi 2000

Citrus sp.

-

Italy (Campania)

Oplontis

wood




Hueber cited by Jashemski et al. 2002, 102

Citrus sp.

1st half 2nd C. B.C.

Italy (Campania)

Pompeii

seed (1)

mineralised

Ciaraldi 2007

Citrus sp.

2nd half 2nd C. B.C.

Italy (Campania)

Pompeii

seed (1)

mineralised

Ciaraldi 2007

New discoveries



















C. sp. medica

3rd-2nd C. B.C.

Italy (Campania)

Pompeii

seed (5)

mineralised

Fiorentino and Marinò 2008

Citrus sp.

3rd-2nd C. B.C.

Italy (Campania)

Pompeii

seed (1)

carbonized

Fiorentino and Marinò 2008

C. cf. x limon

120 B.C. - 90 A.D.

Italy (Latium)

Rome

seeds (13), rind frag. (1)

uncharred

Celant (in this paper)

References
Asouti E, Fuller DQ (2008) Trees and Woodlands of South India. Archaeological Perspectives. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California

Ciaraldi M (2007) People and plants in ancient Pompeii: a new approach to urbanism from the microscope room. The use of plant resources at Pompeii and in the Pompeian area from the 6th century BC to AD 79. Specialist Studies on Italy 12, Accordia Research Institute, London

Coubray S, Zech-Matterne V, Mazurier A (2010) The earliest remains of a Citrus fruit from a western Mediterranean archaeological context? A microtomographic-based re-assessment. Comptes-rendus Palevol 9, 2010-6/7:277-282

Fiorentino G, Marinò G (2008) Analisi archeobotaniche preliminari al Tempio di Venere di Pompei. In: Guzzo PG, Guidobaldi MP (eds) Nuove ricerche archeologiche nell’area vesuviana (scavi 2003-2006). Atti del Convegno Internazionale, Roma 1-3 febbraio 2007. L’Erma di Bretschneider, Roma

Grüger E, Thulin B, Müller J, Schneider J, Alefs J, Welter-Schultes FW (2002) Environmental changes in and around Lake Avernus in Greek and Roman times: A study of the plant and animal remains preserved in the lake’s sediment. In: Jashemski W, Meyer FG (eds) The natural history of Pompeii. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 240-273

Hjelmqvist H (1979) Some economics plants and weeds from the Bronze Age of Cyprus, Stud. Mediterranean Archaeol 45-5:110-113

Jashemski W, Meyer FG, Ricciardi M (2002) Plants: evidence from wall paintings, mosaics, sculpture, plant remains, graffiti, inscriptions, and Ancient Authors. In: Jashemski W, Meyer FG (eds) The natural history of Pompeii. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 80-180

Mariotti Lippi M (2000) The garden of the “Casa delle Nozze di Ercole ed Ebe” in Pompeii (Italy: Palynological investigations. Plant Biosyst 134:205-211

Saraswat KS, Chanchala S (1997) Palaeobotanical and pollen analytical investigations. Indian Archaeology 1992-93 – a review, pp 1-287

Thanheiser U, Walter J, Hope CA (2002) Roman agriculture and gardening in Egypt as seen from Kellis. In: Hope CA, Bowen GE (eds) Dakhleh Oasis Project: preliminary report on the 1994-1995 to 1998-1999 field seasons. Dakhleh Oasis Project monogr 11, Oxford, pp 299-310

Van der Veen M (2001) The botanical evidence. In: Maxfield VA, Peacock D (eds) Mons Claudianus: survey and excavations 1987-1993, vol 2, The excavations, part I. Le Caire, Paris, pp 175-247

Van der Veen M (2011) Consumption, trade and innovation: exploring the botanical remains from the Roman and Islamic ports at Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt. Africa Magna Verlag, Frankfurt

Van der Veen M, Hamilton-Dyer S (1998) Life of luxury in the desert? The food and fodder supply to Mons Claudianus. J Roman Archaeol 11:101-116

Van der Veen M, Tabinor H (2007) Food, fodder and fuel at Mons Porphyrites: the botanical evidence. In: Maxfield VA, Peacock D (eds) Survey and excavation at Mons Porphyrites 1994-1998, vol 2, The excavations. Egypt Exploration Society, London, pp 83-142



Van Zeist W, Bottema S, Van der Veen M (2001) Diet and vegetation at ancient Carthage. The archaeobotanical evidence. Groningen Institute of Archaeology, Gro­ningen
Appendix 3 Measurements of 10 (5) modern seeds of the Citrus species mentioned in the text

10 modern seeds,uncharred (mm)













Citrus medica "Etrog"













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

10.1

5.0

3.6

MAX

10.1

5.5

3.8

10.0

4.8

3.4

MIN

9.1

4.8

3.2

9.7

4.9

3.3

AVERAGE

9.7

5.0

3.5

9.1

4.8

3.2













9.9

4.8

3.2













9.3

5.0

3.6













10.0

5.2

3.8













9.7

5.5

3.3













9.7

5.5

3.7













9.8

4.8

3.8


































Citrus medica "Diamante"













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

10.3

6.7

4.1

MAX

13.3

7.1

4.4

12.2

5.7

3.9

MIN

10.3

4.8

3.6

13.2

6.5

3.6

AVERAGE

11.8

6.4

3.9

12.7

6.9

4.2













10.3

4.8

3.6













11.5

6.5

3.9













10.3

6.8

4.0













12.4

7.1

3.6













13.3

6.5

4.4













12.2

6.7

4.2


































Citrus x limon "Frost Eureka"













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

9.6

5.1

4.0

MAX

11.2

6.9

5.1

10.6

6.2

5.1

MIN

8.4

4.5

3.0

10.3

6.2

4.7

AVERAGE

9.9

5.9

4.2

11.2

6.5

3.9













10.0

6.0

4.4













9.7

6.5

4.8













9.9

6.9

4.8













9.0

6.2

3.9













8.4

4.5

3.0













10.5

5.0

3.6


































Citrus x limon "Femminello"













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

8.8

5.4

3.7

MAX

12.9

7.5

5.4

10.6

7.2

4.1

MIN

8.8

4.6

2.9

11.6

5.9

3.5

AVERAGE

10.7

6.0

4.1

11.5

5.7

3.7













9.7

7.5

4.8













12.9

5.2

5.4













10.1

4.6

2.9













10.5

6.7

4.3













11.7

6.0

3.6













9.9

6.1

4.7





































Citrus reticulata













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

11.3

7.5

4.6

MAX

12.5

7.5

5.5

10.2

6.7

4.3

MIN

10.1

4.7

3.7

10.1

4.7

3.7

AVERAGE

10.9

6.6

4.6

12.5

7.0

4.6













10.3

6.5

5.5













10.2

6.2

4.6













12.3

7.0

5.0













10.3

6.5

5.2













10.9

6.9

4.0













10.8

7.5

5.0


































5 modern seeds (uncharred) (mm)













Citrus x aurantiifolia













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

9.8

4.5

4.4

MAX

10.5

5.8

4.4

10.5

5.8

3.4

MIN

9.1

4.5

3.2

10.2

5.1

4.4

AVERAGE

9.9

5.1

3.9

10.0

5.3

4.2













9.1

5.0

3.2


































Citrus x aurantium













Lenght

Breadth

Thickness




Lenght

Breadth

Thickness

11.9

5.8

3.7

MAX

12.6

7.5

6.5

12.6

7.5

4.4

MIN

11.2

5.0

3.7

11.8

6.0

6.5

AVERAGE

12.0

6.1

5.1

11.2

5.0

5.9













12.5

6.0

4.9














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