Chapter I, Part 1 the problem: is it the same church? Vatican 2 can be described as a turning point in the history of the Catholic Church. Prior to this event the Church considered herself a 'perfect society' in no need of change




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FOOTNOTES to CHAPTER IX Part 1-2

(1) Taken from the Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum. This oath was taken by 'popes' John XXIII and Paul VI. It was subsequently allowed to fall into oblivion.

(2) Die Gebete nach der hl. Messe, Theol. prakt. Quartalschrit, 87, 1934. Some time around 1934 this prayer was shortened by the elimination of the following phrase: 'These most crafty enemies have filled and inebriated with gall and bitterness the Church, the spouse of the immaculate Lamb, and have laid impious hands on her most sacred possessions. In the Holy Place itself, where has been set up the See of the most holy Peter and the Chair of Truth for the light of the world, they have raised the throne of their abominable impiety, with the iniquitous design that when the Paster has been struck, the sheep may be scattered.' The full prayer is available in the Moto Proprio of Leo XIII, September 25, 1888 and in Raccoltas published before 1934. I have been unable to determine who was responsible for the deletion. The post-Conciliar Church has eliminated the Leonine prayers completely.

(3) Modernism can be characterized by the acceptance of the 'nominalist' philosophical principle that all knowledge is experiential; by a belief in the concepts of 'progress' and 'evolution' as applied to all realms of knowledge, including dogma; by a determination to bring the teaching of the Church into line with contemporary patterns of thinking, and by the belief that truth itself is derived from an inner awareness which man experiences - vital immanence - and hence always relative to the individual. These ideas are inimical to those of a divine Revelation and nature of 'fallen' man. See also, 'The Sin of Liberalism', The Roman Catholic, Vol. V., March 1983, and The Chapter in this book entitled 'The Road to Hell is paved with Good Intentions.'

(4) Space does not allow for an in detail study of this period. Mary Martinez has covered the period in a series of articles in The Roman Catholic. Other sources are Adrian Dansette, The Religious History of Modern France, Freiberg: Herder, 1961; Jean-Marie Domenach and Robert de Montvalon, The Catholic Avant-Garde, N.Y., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967 Emile Poulat, La Crise Moderniste and Integrisme et Catholicisme Integral, Paris: Casterman, 1962 and 1969.

(5) 'After me, the flood'. He vouchsafed his 'dying words' to Cardinal Giuseppe Siri: 'Depositum custodi, depositum custodi.' Peter Hebblethwaite, Pope John XXIII, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985.

(6) Cardinal Bea, a secret modernist and rabid ecumenist under John XXIII, was his confessor. One can imagine the subtle influence this man wielded under such circumstances. (There were no heretical aspects to the changes in the rites for Holy Week.)

(7) To take the name of John XXIII was itself revolutionary. This man (died, 1419) is described in The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) as 'utterly worldly minded, ambitious, crafty, unscrupulous, immoral, a good soldier, but no churchman.' Peter Hebblewaithe describes him as a 'pirate who massacred and perjured his way into the papacy' (John XXIII, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985). He was forced to resign from the papacy by the Council of Pisa and subsequently became an 'antipope'. No subsequent Pope would take the name of John because of his nefarious actions, much less of John XXIII.

(8) Robert Blair Kaiser, Pope, Council and World, N.Y.: Macmillan, 1963. M. Trevor, Pope John, N.Y. Doubleday, 1967 notes that some see John XXIII's activities as being 'Machiavellian,' but then tries to assure us that this was only in appearance and not actually the case. Avro Manhattan (The Vatican Moscow Alliance, N.Y.: Ralston-Pilate 1977) calls him a 'determined revolutionary' and a 'socialist Pope.' In fact, almost every text dealing with this period of the history of the Church refers to John XXIII as a 'revolutionary'.

(9) Msgr. Albert Giovannetti, We Have a Pope, Maryland: Newman, 1959. Others say the family were sharecroppers, but all admit they had lived in the same town for hundreds of years.

(10) Peter Hebblewaithe, Pope John XXIII, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985.

(11) Loisy was excommunicated as a Modernist, and Duschene's texts on the History of the Church were placed on the Index.

(12) Cardinal Rampolla's Freemasonic connections are documented by Msgr. Albert Giovannetti. Cardinal Rampolla was almost elected to the papacy in 1903, but the Austrian government, aware of his Freemasonic connections, exercised their veto and prevented this.

(13) The Bishop of Bergamo is described as a 'complete modernist' by E. Poulat, Integrisme et Catholicism Integral, Paris: Casterman, 1969. The Modernist atmosphere in which Roncalli received his early education is also documented in Giancarlo Zizola's The Utopia of Pope John XXIII, N.Y.: Orbis, 1978. His modernist connections during his early days as a priest are documented by Peter Habblethwaite, Pope John XIII, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985.

(14) Peter Hebblethwaite tells us repeatedly that 'he paid his pound of flesh' to the repressive forces prevailing in Rome under Pius X.

(15) Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925 was the originator of 'The Science of the Spirit known as Anthroposophy' and was a member of the 'illuminati'. Mary Martinez, 'Pius XII and the Jews,' The Roman Catholic, Vol V, March 1983.

(16) Giancarlo Zizola, op. cit.

(17) Giancarlo Zizola, op. cit.

(18) Giancarlo Zizola, op.cit.

(19) Most of the French hierarchy had cooperated with the Vichy government of Petain. To understand the politics of post-war France the reader is referred to Sisley Huddleston's France - The Tragic Years, London: Holborn, 1958.

(20) Giancarlo Zizola, op. cit.

(21) Sources for this information are available in a publication entitled L'Abonimation de la Desolation (Le Mystere d'Iniquite) by Professeur Gabriel Chabot and Commandant Rouchette available from Commandant Rouchette (retired from the French Surite) at B.P. 151, 16105 Cognac Cedex, France.

(22) McGregor-Hastie, Paul VI, quoted by Hutton Gibson, Paul VI's Legacy: Catholicism?, Cochin, India: Leo Panakal, 1979.

(23) It is interesting to note that almost everyone accused of Americanism or Modernism has admitted the existence of such heresies, but denied that they were guilty of holding them.

(24) Paul Johnson, Pope John XXIII, Little Brown and Co., p. 144. To quote this author further: 'If we take Mater et Magistra and Pacem in Terris together, they effectively demolish most of the internationalist, social, economic and political teachings of the Popes for the previous hundred years with the one exception of Leo XIII's Rerum Novarum.'

(25) It is of interest that on another occasion when John XXIII was comparing himself to previous popes he stated 'There come to mind the names of Urban, Clement, and Leo, too? Leo, no, that's not my stuff.' op. cit. No.9. Henri Fesquet informs us that his antipathy to the ideas of Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, the redoubtable Secretary of the Holy Office, was 'well known.' (op.cit.)

(26) Quoted by Giancarlo Zizola, op. Cit.

(27) That is, to blend the Church's stance with that of the Modern world. According to Zizola, 'At the height of the crusading anti-Communist period, Jacques Maritain called on Catholics to open their eyes, to discover a Christianity of action under form at times heretical, and even of rebellion which almost seemed like denial, in the depths of conscience and secular existence. 'It was not given to believers faithful to Catholic dogma... but to atheistic Communists to abolish in Russia the absolutism of private profit. This last process would have been less vitiated by the force of error and would have occasioned fewer catastrophes had it been performed by Christians. The effort to deliver labor and man from the dominion of money is an outgrowth of the currents released in the world by the preaching of the Gospel, such as the effort to abolish servitude and the effort to bring about the recognition of the rights of the human person.'' (op. cit.) Maritain was to become a dominant influence on Paul VI who wrote the introduction to the Italian translation of his True Humanism. As several scholars have pointed out, Maritain was a modernist.

(28) Henri Fesquet, The Drama of Vatican II, N.Y.: Random, 1967.

(29) Carlo Falconi, Pope John and the Ecumenical Council; .N.Y.: World Publ., 1964

(30) Giancarlo Zizola, op. cit.

(31) John XXIII's favorite author was Allesandro Manzoni from whom he also took the term Aggiornamento.

(32) Peter Hebblewaithe, op. cit. John XXIII attempted to give the impression that the idea of a Council was a 'divine inspiration', however, Hebblewaithe clearly shows that such was never the case.

(33) Ursula Oxfort accepts the idea that John XXIII had a sudden inspiration, and points out that such are frequently diabolical. However, it is clear from Hebblewaithe's book that there was nothing sudden nor inspirational involved (Ursula Oxfort, The Heresy of Pope John XXIII, available from her at 260 6th Ave., South, Lake Worth, Florida).

(34) He however praised Cardinal John Henry Newman, thus rehabilitating this individual who was considered to be a modernist, or at least, a quasi-modernist, and whose 'development of Christian doctrine' had been suspected of being nothing more then the endorsement of the 'evolution of Christian doctrine.'

(35) 'You will be more free,' as he said to Bea, 'and less bound by tradition if we keep you out of the normal Curial channels.'

(36) As one theologian put it, 'When those thirty or forty or fifty observers show up at the Council, they'll have a role that will be psychologically more important than the rest of the Fathers put together.' These Protestant and Communist 'observers' were royally entertained at Catholic expense. However, Paul Etoga, the traditional bishop of M'balmayo in the Cameroons arrived, he had to 'hitchhike' from Le Havre to Rome.

(37) Peter Hebblewaithe, op. Cit.

(38) Henri Fesquet, op. Cit.

(39) The Marxist Il Paese had this to say apropos Cardinal Lienart's intervention: 'The Devil has entered the Council.' (Henri Fesquet, op. cit.)

(40) Lawrence Elliott, I will be Called John, N.Y.: Dutton, 1973

(41) E.E.Y. Hales, Pope John and His Revolution, N.Y,: Doubleday, 1965.

(42) One of John XXIII's close aids described his attitude towards Marxism in these words: 'The Church is not a dam against communism. The Church cannot and should not be against anything. It should be positively for something.'

(43) Jean Madiran, 'The Vatican Moscow Agreement', Itinieres, No. 84, June 1964 and available in English in The Fatima Crusader, Issue 16, Sept-Oct, 1984 (Constable, N.Y.)

(44) He did qualify this by saying 'we are of course aware that some of the points in the declaration did not meet with the unqualified approval in some quarters, that there was justification for this...' However, he never clarified which these were or stated that 'some quarters' meant the Church.

(45) An excellent discussion of this topic is available in Father Denis Fahey's The Mystical Body of Christ in the Modern world, Dublin: Regina 1935. As Leo XIII said, 'About the 'Rights of Man' as they are called, the people have heard enough; it is time that they heard about the Rights of God' (Tametsi).

(46) The American Bishop' Pastoral The Challenge of Peace: God's Promise and Our Response (issued by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops) is a direct reflection of these views. This Pastoral encouraging unilateral disarmament on the part of the American nation, offended many Americans and Rome issued a statement that toned down its aggressive attitude. However, the so-called 'conflict' between the American bishops and Rome is a Sham. The New Jersey Catholic News (Kearny, N.J., No. 15, Spring 1984) tells us that when one bishop asked that the Pastoral request the laity to say a Rosary for the sake of peace, he was 'crushingly put down.'

(47) The true Church can never be subverted, for the Gates of Hell can never prevail against the truth. However, enormous sections of the Church, like branches cut from the vine, can be subverted.

(48) W. Keller, Diaspora, N.Y. Harcort, 1969. While no one denies that individual Catholics may have been guilty of lacking true charity for the Jews, one can never accuse the Church itself - a perfect society and the spotless Bride of Christ, of lacking such. To do so is blasphemy. John XXIII also presumed to change Scripture by deleting the word perfidious in relation to the Jews who crucified Christ. This is to forget or ignore the fact that not all Jews were perfidious, but those responsible for Christ's death. Can one imagine the Jews changing a word of Torah, or deleting sections of the Talmud that are offensive to Christians?

(49) Malachi Martin, The Decline and Fall of the Catholic Church, N.Y.: Putnam, 1981.

(50) Avro Manhattan, The Vatican Moscow Alliance, N.Y.: Ralston-Pilot, 1977.

(51) Alden Hatch, Pope Paul VI, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1967.

(52) His father, a banker employed by the Vatican, came from a Jewish family, and his mother was a convert from Judaism at the time of her marriage. Now, no traditional Catholic can have any objection to his Jewish ancestry. What is however significant is that no record of his baptism can be found. If in fact he was never baptized, then his Orders are totally invalidated. Myra Davidoglou, La Voie, Cahier No. 5 (France, Imbert-Nicolas, Dec. 1982).

(53) Peter Hebblethwaite says he was theologically formed by reading Maritain, Congar and de Lubac, and intellectually formed by Pascal, Bernanos and Simone Weil.' (The Year of Three Popes, London: Collins, 1978).

(54) Myra Davidoglou provides documentation for these facts which are also confirmed by other authors. The traitor Tondi was thrown into jail for a period. When released, he married his mistress, the militant communist Carmen Zanti. For a while this KGB agent was the secretary of Walter Ulbricht and then Professor of Atheism at the University of Marxism-Leninism. After Paul VI became Pope, Tondi returned to Rome and obtained employment in the Vatican's Civil Service as a cover for his continued KGB activities. He was, without making any retraction, forgiven by Paul VI and his civil marriage ratified sanatio in radice - that is to say, without a priest.



CHAPTER IX, Part 4

'POPE' PAUL nad 'POPE' JOHN PAUL I

Next to be 'elected' to the Papal chair was Giovanni Battista Montini, a man who was said to have lived in the shadow of his predecessor. He had been born in Brescia in 1897, the son of a Catholic journalist and politician of strong liberal leanings. During his seminary days, he had been allowed to live and study at home for reasons of health, which resulted in a very limited theological training and almost no spiritual formation. It also allowed him to imbibe much of his father's liberal philosophy. During this period he also associated himself with such organizations as the Student Association of Alssandro Manzoni, as well as other liberal political groups. After ordination he was appointed to the Vatican diplomatic corps and slow rose in rank until he became Pro-Secratary of State, a position he held for many years. Needless to say such an appointment allowed him to both become acquainted with many members of the hierarchy and to foster the advancement of those who held similar views to his own.

Then in 1954 he was suddenly 'dismissed' to Milan under circumstances which have never been entirely clear. Myra Davidoglou documents the following facts: In July of 1944 Montini offered his services without the knowledge of Pius XII to the Soviet Union through the offices of his childhood friend Togliatti (then head of the Communist Party in Italy). The details of this sinister affair were exposed to the Pope by the Archbishop Primate of the Protestant Church in Sweden who was a state official and as such had access to governmental intelligence reports. This information came as a shock to Pius XII. An enquiry was made and among other things it was found that Montini's private secretly, the Jesuit Tondi, was a Russian agent and the man responsible for giving the Soviets the names of Catholic priests who were being sent into Russia. This explained why they were all being immediately caught and executed (54). The upshot of this was that Montini was exiled to Milan without the traditional red hat.

Montini was responsible for the translation of Jacques Maritain's Integral Humanism into Italian. This individual, despite his neo-Thomism, is by no means the orthodox Catholic that he is usually represented as being. In this text Maritain called for a basic shift in ecclesiology - in the way the Church looks at itself, its function and its identity. He envisioned an integral humanism in which religions of every kind converged towards a single human ideal in a world civilization wherein all men would be reconciled in justice, love and peace. As the French theologian M. Caron explained, 'Integral humanism is a universal fraternity of men of good will belonging to different religions or none, including even those who reject the idea of a Creator. It is within this fraternity that the Church should exercise her leavening influence without imposing itself and without demanding that it be recognized as the one, true Church. The cement of this fraternity is twofold: the virtue of doing good and an understanding grounded in respect for human dignity.'

Prior to his election to the papacy, Montini was well known to the liberal forces in and around the Vatican. Mark Winckler, an elderly interpreter working at the Vatican during these years, tells the story of his meeting with Msgr. Pignedoli (now Cardinal), one of the most liberal members of the Curia and a man strongly suspected of Freemasonic connections. Pignedoli told him in 1944 that the reversal of the Freemason's plans by the failure of Cardinal Rampolla to be elected to the Papacy would soon be corrected, that in time the proper man would be elected Pope, a man who would bring the Church into the modern age. When Mark Winckler asked who this individual was, Pignedoli told him it was the priest whose Mass he served every Thursday - namely Father Battisto Montini. Montini was to state with regard to the Freemasons that 'another generation will not pass before peace is established between these two religious societies [i.e., the Freemasons and the Church]', and after his death a Freemasonic review stated in an obituary notice that 'this is the first time that the leader of one of the greatest religious bodies in the west has passed away without considering the Masons as a hostile organization.' Now, in the light of these facts, it is not surprising that Montini did everything he could to protect Roncalli, nor is it surprising that as soon as John XXIII was seated on the Chair of Peter, he returned the favor, giving Montini a red hat and calling him back to Rome as a 'non-resident Cardinal.' He is reputed to have written most of John XXIII's speeches and Encyclicals, while himself keeping a low profile. John realized that he would be the man 'most able to push through his ambitious program and realize his hopes for an open church and a united Christendom.' As for Paul VI, 'it is possible that of all the Popes of modern times... he is the only one who actually desired the office.' To guarantee his election John XXIII appointed 23 new cardinals, thus 'stacking' the next conclave.

Long before his election Montini gave expression to beliefs that placed him outside the pale of the church. 'Our times, can they also not have an Epiphany which corresponds to its spirit, to its capacities? The marvelous scientific evolution of our days, can it not become this star, this sign that thrusts modern humanity towards a new quest for God, towards a new discovery of Christ?' (Milan, 1956, Le Pape de l'Epiphanie). 'Modern man, will he not gradually come to the point where he will discover, as a result of scientific progress, the laws and hidden realities behind the mute face of matter and give ear to the marvelous voice of the spirit that vibrates in it? Will this not be the religion of our day? Einstein himself glimpsed this vision of a universal religion produced spontaneously [i.e., without revelation]. Is this not perhaps today my own religion? (Conference in Turin, Mar. 27, 1960). And is not [scientific] labor itself already engaged in a course that will eventually lead to religion?'(Doc. Cath. 133, 1960) No wonder he said that 'We must never forget that the fundamental attitude of Catholics who wish to convert the world must be, first of all, to love the world, to love our times, to love our [non-Catholic] civilization, our technical achievements, and above all, to love the world' (Bodart's La biologie et l'Avenir de l'Homme). Such were the beliefs of the 'papabile selected by John XXIII.

At the beginning (1963) of his 'pontificate' Montini was primarily concerned with bringing the Council to its full potential. A careful reading of Father Wiltgen's book, The Rhine Flows into the Tiber, as well as Archbishop Lefebvre's J'accuse le Councile shows that he continued John XXIII's policy of appearing neutral while strongly abetting the 'progressive forces' of the innovators. He spoke much of 'Ecumenical dialogue,' 'Openness to the World,' 'Reforms,' and 'Changes' while at the same time speaking of 'Faith,' 'Tradition,' and 'the striving for spiritual perfection.' While it is true that he made certain minor corrections in the Conciliar documents before promulgating them, it is also true that he gave papal approval to other items which were diametrically opposed to de fide teachings of the Church. His response to Archbishop Lefebvre's warnings (J'Accuse le Councile) clearly shows that he was on the side of the revolutionaries. Nor should we forget that he that he openly taught that 'the conciliar decrees are not so much a destination as a point of departure towards new goals... The seeds of life planted by the Council in the soil of the Church must grow and achieve full maturity,' and that he used these very documents as the excuse for the creation of his new 'mass' and the other atrocious changes in the sacraments.

This pattern of speaking out of both sides of his mouth - seemingly defending orthodoxy while in fact doing everything he could to undermine it - is seen throughout his 'pontificate' and can be said to be a fundamental characteristic of the new Church. As a result, no matter what one stands, one can quote him and the documents he promulgated in support of one's viewpoint. Some may argue that this is a positive quality, but to do so is to forget the function of a true pope. Conservative Catholics who defend him should remember that to be in 'obedience' to him, and to accept him as a spokesman for 'truth,' demands that they accept his heterodox statements and actions with the same authority as his orthodox ones. In point of fact, it s totally impossible to be 'in obedience' to this self-contradictory individual, for to do so is to embrace both truth and error simultaneously. Nevertheless, obedience was a favorite theme of his.

In point of fact, 'obedience' is practically the only grounds on which the post-Conciliar Church can sustain the loyalty of erstwhile Catholics. It is this very 'obedience' which is leading them down the wide and gently sloping 'garden path.' Knowing this, Paul VI taught 'all men must obey him [the pope] in whatever he orders if they wish to be associated with the new economy of the Gospel' (Allocution, June 29, 1970). And just what is the 'new economy of the gospel?' Just what are some of the teachings that Paul would foist on us in the name of the post-Conciliar Magisterium? Here is a fair sampling:

That Paul VI should bend his every effort to change the Catholic Faith followed from his basic premises. 'The order to which Christianity tends is not static, but an order in continual evolution towards a higher form... If the world changes, should not religion also change?'(Dialogues, Reflections on God and Man); 'We moderns, men of our own day, wish everything to be new. Our old people, the traditionalists, the conservatives, measured the value of things according to their enduring quality. We instead, are actualists, we want everything to be new all the time, to be expressed in a continually improvised and dynamically unusual form' (L'Osservatore Romano, April 22, 1971); And hence it follows that 'it is necessary to know how to welcome with humility and an interior freedom what is innovative; one must break with the habitual attachment to what we used to designate as the unchangeable traditions of the Church...' (La Croix, Sept 4, 1970). He is highly critical of those who refused to go along with the changes, especially in liturgical matters (60) - they have what he calls 'a sentimental attachment to habitual forms of worship,' and are guilty of 'inconsistency and often of falsity of doctrinal positions' (quoted in O'Leary's The Tridentine Mass Today ). As for those who find such statements heterodox, he had stated while still in Milan that 'the exigencies of charity frequently force us outside the bonds of orthodoxy.'

Paul VI also believed in vital imminence as a source of truth. During the General Audience of Nov 20, 1974 he stated: 'To undertake the religious effort that the celebration of the Holy Year will ask of each of us, a certain spiritual certainty is necessary. Without it the teaching characteristic of this period would take little hold on us. In the preceding elementary talk we mentioned the state of subjective uncertainty, a doubt about our identity, which if not overcome by a logical, psychological, moral state of normal interior certainty, would make unavailing the effort towards explicit and progressive renewal of oneself... Apologetics [i.e., the old way of defending truth] remains and does not refuse its indispensable and tacit service, even when it is not explicitly requested; but in the religious field today preference is given to experience rather then to reasoning. Charismatic spirituality is preferred to rational dogmatism.'

Leaving aside the issue of the Second Vatican Council which is discussed in detail later, we find in Paul VI all the themes elaborated by his predecessor. As early as 1965 we find him telling the United Nations that 'it is your task here to proclaim the basic rights and duties of man, his dignity and liberty, and above all his religious liberty. We are conscious that you are the interpreters of all that is paramount in human wisdom. We would almost say: of its sacred character. For your concern is first and foremost with the life of man, man's life is sacred. No one may dare to interfere with it... The people turn to the United Nations as their last hope for peace and concord... [The goals of the UN] are the ideal that mankind has dreamed of in its journey through history. We would venture to call it the world's greatest hope - for it is the reflection of God's design - a design transcendent and full of love - for the progress of human society on earth; a reflection in which We can see the gospel message, something from heaven come down to earth...' And some of us were foolish enough to believe that Christ was the hope of the world and that it was the function of the Church to 'interpret all that is paramount in human wisdom.'

Paul VI made it clear from the start that his manner of ruling the Church would be different. Having declared religious liberty to be the sacred and inalienable right of man and that salvation was available outside the Church, he proceeded to abrogate the oath against Modernism, the Index against forbidden books, the obligation of the Church to decide on the validity of divine manifestations (such as Garabandel) and a host of other restrictions created to protect the faithful from error. In 1972 he stated that 'Perhaps the Lord has called me not to govern and save the Church, but to suffer for her and to make it clear that He and no one else guides and saves her.' (Why then did Christ establish the papacy?) This is but the logical conclusion of his declaration in the Encyclical Ecclesiam Suam that 'the sort of relationship for the Church to establish with the world should be more in the nature of a dialogue...' (Did Christ say, 'go ye forth and dialogue with all nations 'on an equal footing'? Let it be clear that the function of the Church is to teach, and not to dialogue with every theological Tom, Dick or Harry that comes down the pike.) These are not isolated quotations. Thus on Oct. 16, 1968 he told the Roman Clergy that 'it would be easy, and even perhaps our duty to rectify...' the serious disorders spreading within the Church, but that it would be better for 'the good people of God to do it themselves.' He continued 'You will have noticed my dear friends to what extent the style of Our government of the Church seeks to be pastoral, fraternal, humble in spirit and form. It is on this account that, with the help of God, We hope to be loved.' (Was Christ 'loved' by those that rejected and crucified him?) It is a common theme: As he said elsewhere of the Council: 'From the start, the Council has propagated a wave of serenity and optimism, a Christianity that is exciting and positive, loving life, mankind and earthly values... an intention of making Christianity acceptable and lovable, indulgent and open, free of mediaeval rigorism and of the pessimistic understanding of man and his customs...'(Doc. Cath. No. 1538). Yes indeed, his new manner of ruling, as he says in his Ecclesiam Suam, 'avoids peremptory language and makes no demands.'

Paul VI literally fell all over himself trying to make the Church lovable. 'And what was the Church doing at that particular moment [i.e., at the time of the Council] the historians will be asking; and the reply will be: the Church was filled with love... The Council puts before the Church, before us in particular, a panoramic vision of the world; how can the Church, how can we ourselves, do other than behold this world and love it... The Council is a solemn act of love for mankind... love for men of today, whoever and wherever they may be, love for all' Believing that man was 'intrinsically good,' he repeatedly expressed his confidence in him. 'We have faith in Man. we believe in the good which lies deep within each heart, we know that underlying man's wonderful efforts and the motives of justice, truth, renewal, progress and brotherhood - even where they are accompanied by dissension or sometimes even unfortunately, by violence...' (Address to the journalists in Sydney Australia, Dec. 1970). This confidence in man reached extraordinary heights with the moon landing. 'There is no true riches but MAN'(L'Osservatore Romano, Aug. 5, 1970). 'Honor to Man, honor to thought, honor to science, honor to technique, honor to work, honor to the boldness of an, honor to the synthesis of scientific and organizing ability of man who unlike other animals, knows how to give his spirit and his manual dexterity these instruments of conquest. Honor to man, king of the earth, and today Prince of heaven...'(Doc. Cath. No. 1580). No wonder he said that 'a peace that is not the result of the true worship of man is not a true peace'(Le Figaro, Jan. 1, 1973).

Lest any doubt about Montini's humanism and his cult of man, consider the following address given the Fathers gathered at the Council on December 7th, 1965: 'The Catholic Church has also, it is true, been much concerned with man, with man as he really is today, with living man, with man totally taken up with himself, with man who not only makes himself the center of his own interests, but who dares to claim that he is the end and aim of all existence... Secular, profane, humanism has finally revealed itself in its terrible shape and has, in a certain sense, challenged the Council. The religion of God made man has come up against the religion (for there is such a one) of man who makes himself God. And what happened: an impact, a battle, an anathema. That might have taken place, but it did not. It was the old story of the Samaritan that formed the model of the Council's spirituality. It was filled only with an endless sympathy. Its attention was taken up with the discovery of human needs - which became greater as the son of the earth makes himself greater... Do you at least recognize this its merit, you modern humanists who have no place for the transcendence of the things supreme, and come to know our new humanism: We also, we more than anyone else, have the cult of man.'

We are, it would seem, to play the good Samaritan, even with the devil! As Paul said elsewhere, 'Man is both giant and divine, in his origin and his destiny. Honor therefore to man, honor to his dignity, to his spirit and to his life.' It is not surprising then to find Paul VI returning once again to John XXIII's theme of mutual understanding and the need for world unity. 'Man must go out to meet man, and the nations come close to each other as brothers and sisters, as the children of God. In such mutual friendship and understanding, in this sacred communion, we must all join together in working for the common future of humanity... mankind is undergoing profound changes and searching for guiding principles and new forces which will show it the way in the world of the future...'(Speech in Bombay, 1964).

So much confidence does he have in man's innate goodness and modern forms of government that he tells us: 'You, the people, you have the right to make yourselves heard... You have the lawful and sacred right to insist that your leaders arrange things so that you do not have to suffer... We live under a system of democracy... That means that is THE PEOPLE WHO COMMAND, THAT POWER IS VESTED IN NUMBERS, IN THE PEOPLE AS A WHOLE'(Discourse, Jan. 1, 1970).

Now this is an entirely un-Catholic concept of Democracy, and one reminiscent of the crowds that cried for the release of Barabas and the Crucifixion of Christ. As against such an attitude the Church has always taught that authority and hence power derives, not from the people, but from God. The people may elect their leaders, but the leaders must rule in God's name and not in the name of the people. It is of interest however to consider from whence Paul VI thinks the people have this power. He told us in his discourse to the United Nations that it is 'based on conscience... never so much as today, in a period when human progress has been so rapid, has it been necessary to appeal to the moral conscience of mankind'

Once again, we are brought back to the basic theme of man's innate dignity, from which he derives his conscience. Man is not to be guided by the Church, but rather the reverse, the world and the Church are to be guided by man's 'moral conscience.' This ties in closely with the new teaching on Religious Liberty which is granted to man as a right, and which it is the duty of the state to enforce. Along these lines Paul VI positively objected to the concept that the State had the obligation of establishing its laws on Catholic principles. And therefore it was only logical that Paul VI induced Catholic countries such as Spain, Columbia and Italy to change their constitutions by deleting any and all privileges given to the Church. No longer could the Catholic religion be the sole religion recognized in their constitutions. No longer could the reign of Christ the King be proclaimed in these lands. Here we have Christ's representative saying that Christ's love demanded that Christ's religion be given no higher status than all the other religions that mankind has invented. How is it possible for Christ's representative not to desire that every nation and every government be Catholic? How is it possible for Christ's representative not to desire that every nation and every government be Catholic?

We will note however the Paul VI's love of mankind was curtailed by the decision not to criticize Communism at the Council, as it was in the new doors commissioned by this Pontiff for Saint Peter's - doors which depicted slavery throughout the world, but not of course in Communist countries. These doors are symbolic, for in the face of the 'moral conscience of mankind' we find Paul VI freely criticizing the abuse of human rights in Western nations, but never those in Communist lands. Perhaps one of his most offensive statements to those who are aware of events in China, a land where, according to the American Congressional Record, between 30 and 60 million Chinese were 'liquidated' by Mao-Tse Tung and a land where abortion is forced on women whether they desire it or not, is the following: 'The Church recognizes and favors the just expression of the historical phase of China and the transformation of ancient forms of aesthetic culture into the inevitable new forms that rise out of the social and industrial structure of the modern world... We would like to enter into contact once again with China in order to show with how much interest and sympathy we look at their present and enthusiastic efforts for the ideals of a diligent, full and peaceful life.'

But then, what can one expect from an individual who believes 'all discrimination is unjustified and inadmissible, whether it be ethnic, cultural, political or religious' (Encyclical Populorum Progressio).

Paul VI also followed the lead of John XXIII in fostering Ecumenism. Not only did he refer to the Anglican and Orthodox Communions as 'sister Churches,' but he invited the Anglicans to use Catholic altars in the Vatican for their services (a sacrilegious act), and placed his papal ring on the Anglican 'archbishop' and invited him to bless the faithful in St. Peter's Square. On Dec. 15, 1975, when receiving the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople in the Sistine Chapel, he suddenly knelt down before him and kissed his feet (The Metropolitan Melitone was astonished and flustered and tried to prevent Paul from doing so.). No wonder he was able to say that 'the pace of this movement [ecumenism] has quickened marvelously in recent years, so that these words of hope the Anglican Church united by not absorbed are no longer a mere dream' (L'Osservatore Romano, May 5, 1977). And for the sake of ecumenism he did not hesitate to even desecrate the Sacred Body of Our Lord, as for example when he personally authorized giving communion to Barbara Olson, a Presbyterian, at her Nuptual Mass (Sept. 21, 1966) without her abjuring her Presbyterian views or her going to Confession. Not an isolated act by any means, for he also gave Communion under the same circumstances to the Lutherans. (Forts dans La Foi, No. 47) As the Abbe of Nantes said, 'no one in the world, bishop or Cardinal, Angel or even the Pope himself, has any right whatever to give the Sacrament of the Living to those who are spiritually dead.' But then, what else can one expect from a man who believed that 'the truth is that the world's inability to achieve unity of thought and to end spiritual divisions is the real reason why society is so deeply unhappy, so poor in ideas and enthusiasm.'

Following in the footsteps of John XXIII, Paul VI broke with many papal traditions. One of this first acts was to give up the Papal Tiara (John XXIII had only refused to wear it on state occasions), symbolic of giving up the rights of Christ's representative to have precedence over the Kings and Princes of this world. He was crowned with a hat of his own design (looking like a space rocket), and not in St. Peter's but outside the sacred precincts. While spending a fortune on some of the most trivial and ugly modern art known to mankind, he made a great show of selling this Tiara in order to give the money to the poor. (65). He then proceeded to give his Shepherd's Crook and Fisherman's Ring (his?) to U Thant (then head of the United Nations) who in turn sold them to a Jewish businessman in the Midwest. He further started to carry what must be one of the world's ugliest crucifixes in place of the Shepherd's Crook (Traditionally, the Crucifix was carried before the Pope so that he could always look upon his divine Master) (67). He then induced all the bishops of the post-Conciliar Church to give up their traditional rings, and gave each of them a new gold [sic] one, symbolic of the new Church. He also asked them to give up their shepherd's 'Crooks' and since then one rarely if ever sees a post-Conciliar bishop 'sporting' one.

However, Montini reached the apogee of scandalous example with his visit to Fatima. Here we see a 'pope' who spent time 'meditating' in the 'meditation room' at the United Nations, a room replete with freemasonic significance and containing an altar dedicated to 'the faceless God'; here we see a man who received with respect the leaders of the Freemasonic B'nai B'rith at the Vatican; here we see a man who has promised to pray for the success of Mrs. Hollister and her 'Temple of Understanding' (which Cardinal Bagnozzi told him was 'an occult enterprise of the Illuminati whose aim is the founding of 'the World Religion of Human Brotherhood''); here we see a man who has joined with Cardinal Willebrands in 'the common prayer of the World Council of Churches' (Doc. Cath. Jan 17, 1971); here we see a man who claims to be the head of the Catholic Church and Christ's representative on earth, finally visiting one of the most sacred shrines in Christendom where he tarried 14 long hours. And what does he do? With the whole world watching on television, he says mass in Portuguese (which only a small percentage of those watching on television could understand), and then proceeds to give a series of audiences including one to the 'representatives of the non-Catholic Communities' (of which there are virtually none in the entire area). Those that watched this 14 hour spectacle tell us that during the entire time he neither visited the shrine at Cova de Iria where the apparitions took place, nor said A SINGLE HAIL MARY! According to the Abbe of Nantes, he even refused to talk privately with Sister Lucia, fifty years a nun, and one of the children who were the recipients of the vision at Fatima and who claimed to have a private message from the Virgin for his ears.

As against all this we have the constant references of conservative Novus Ordo Catholics as to Paul VI's orthodoxy because of his Encyclical Humanae vitae. Many will be surprised to now that before he died Pius XII had already condemned the use of the 'pill' for other than purely medical indications, and this condemnation was suppressed by the post-Conciliar Church. For some 20 years the matter continued to be debated while the faithful were encouraged to engage in the practice of contraception on the grounds that the Church had not as yet come to a decision about the matter. Once Humane vitae was promulgated protests were loud and vociferous, especially from the celibate clergy. The entire French hierarchy met at Lourdes to discuss the problem and then announced that the faithful were free to use the 'pill' when in their (private) judgment the 'pill' involved a lesser evil than having children. Now such a statement is apostasy, for while the doctrine of choosing the 'lesser evil' may be applied to political situations, it can never be invoked as against the commands of God. But Montini had no desire to be separated from his hierarchy. He sent them a congratulatory telegram praising them for clearly interpreting his intention and meaning (69).

Like his predecessor, he stacked the next Conclave by raising the number of cardinals to 125 and forcing all those over 80 (the conservatives) to retire. He also had a predilection for advancing to higher positions in the hierarchy those whose activities he approved. For example, he appointed Cardinal Samore to be 'Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for Discipline in Sacramental Matters' two months after this Cardinal had distributed Communion to a motley crowd of Protestants - with full awareness that they did not believe in the 'Real Presence.' This fact received a great deal of publicity in the French press, so much in fact that, Paul VI was led to deplore 'the acts of intercommunion that went against the proper ecumenical guidelines' (Doc Cath. 68-141).

Much more could be said of this enigmatic individual described by Malachi Martin as 'the first un-pope' and 'the man who merely completed Pope John's destruction of the Church.' (70) Not only did he confirm and promulgate the Documents of Vatican II; not only did he carry forward the program of John XXIII in the political arena (apart from his attitude towards Communism, consider the treatment of Cardinal Mindszenty, and his refusal to support the struggles of five million Ukranian Catholics); not only did he refuse in principle to defend the Church against heresy (consider his refusal to condemn the Dutch Catechism), but most significant of all, he was the individual primarily responsible for changing the liturgical and sacramental practice of the Church. And after having done all this he had the gall to tell the distraught faithful that 'the smoke of Satan could be seen rising in the Vatican,' and that the Church was in the process of 'auto-demolition.' (The statement is incidentally heretical for the Mystical Body of Christ can never self distract). So unbelievable were the statements and actions of this individual that many absurdly claimed he was 'a prisoner in the Vatican,' 'drugged,' or that he had died and had been replaced by a satanic 'double.'

Like his predecessor, he received the praises of the Freemasons: Yves Marsoudon, State Minister, Supreme Council of France (Scottish Rite) said: 'Born in our Masonic Lodges, freedom of expression has now spread beautifully over the Dome of St. Peter's... this is the Revolution of Paul VI. It is clear that Paul VI, not content merely to follow the policy of his predecessor, does in fact intend to go much further.'

When he died, he was waked in a simple wooden casket placed upon the ground. An open Bible, its pages fluttering in the breeze, was the only adornment. I leave you then with Montini, often described as a 'Hamlet,' but in fact, far more an 'Iago'.



'Pope' John Paul I

Space demands that we pass over the reign of this 'pontiff' briefly. Cardinal Luciani was known to be a liberal and a favorite of Cardinal 'innovator' Bonelli. He had obtained his Doctorate in Theology by defending Serbati Rosmini (1797-1885), a man who had had 40 propositions from his books condemned by the Holy Office in 1887. He was an ardent feminist as is shown by his letters to Carlo Goldini in his briefly famous book entitled 'Humbly Yours.' He was prone to making surprising theological statements such as 'God is a woman.' He openly stated with regard to Vatican II and the problem of religious liberty that 'for years I have taught that only truth has rights. Now I have convinced myself that we have been wrong' ('Time' magazine). In September of 1978 he held up as a classical example of self-abnegation and devotion to duty, one Giosue Carducci, a Professor at the University of Bologna who founded two Masonic lodges and was the author of a long and blasphemous 'Hymn to Satan.' As a thinker he can only be described as 'trivial.' Such a background made him eminently suitable to 'lead' the post-Conciliar Church.

While his reign was brief, he followed the pattern expected by those who elected him - essentially those who Paul VI had 'stacked' in the Cardinalate. He refused to be crowned as Pope and was 'invested' with the Palium as 'Bishop of Rome,' a favorite ascription of the Anglicans which effectively placed the papacy to the level of the Archbishop of Canterbury. (73) He then dismissed the Vatican guard, banished the Sedia Gestatoria and abolished the title of Pontifex Maximus. Fate did not give him time to destroy much more, for barely thirty days after his election he died under circumstances which remain highly suspicious (74).

FOOTNOTES:

(55) Avro Manhattan states that Montini's transfer, like that of Roncalli's was intended to remove them from the center of Church activities - a form of exile. He also states that Montini was so angry that he refused to accept the cardinal's baretta from Pius XII. op. cit.

(56) Quoted by Mary Martinez, 'My Favorite Maritain?' The Roman Catholic, Vol. 5, No. 2, Febuary 1983. Jacques Maritain dreamed 'of reconciling the vision of a Joseph de Maistre and that of a Lamennais in a superior unity of that great wisdom of which St. Thomas was the herald...' (Du regime temperal de la liberte). Again, 'the nation (France) will never be truly united until a sufficiently powerful ideal is able to lead to the point where the two traditions of France, that of Joan of Arc, and that of the Rights of Man [enunciated at the time of the French Revolution] are reconciled... It is no accident that France has two national holidays, that of Joan of Arc, and that of July 14 [commemorating the revolution], two feasts which interpenetrate each other and have as their basis one and the same promise...' (Pour la Justice). A good discussion of this matter is to be found in Michael Davies' Pope John's Council (Devon: Augustine, 1977); in 'Maritain: a revival,' Fortes in Fide, France; in 'Jacques Maritain and Saul David Alinksy - Fathers of the 'Christian Revolution'' by Hamish Fraser (Approaches, Suppl. 71, Scotland) In his last book, Approaches sans entraves?, he teaches: 'Lucifer no doubt will be the last to be changed. For a time he will be alone in the abyss and will think that only he is condemned to endless torment, and his pride will be boundless. But there will be prayers for him also, and appeals. And in the end he also will be restored to the good, the good in the natural order, brought back in spite of himself to natural love of God... When all the dwellers in Hell are gathered in Limbo, when all the damned are pardoned, an hymn of gratitude will ascend towards the Church Triumphant, towards God and towards Jesus, towards all the elect, for their great cry of love. It will be nature's hymn, the hymn of poor lovely nature, left mere nature, but straightened out: the Hosana of Hell defeated.' Let us hope and presume Maritain was senile at this point.

(57) Alden Hatch, Pope Paul VI, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1967.

(58) Alden Hatch, op. Cit.

(59) Quoted by Cardinal Suenens in Doctrines do Grow, ed. John Tl McGinn, N.Y. : Paulist, 1972.

(60) The attachment of traditional Catholics to their 'rites,' does not reflect 'a sentimental attachment to habitual forms of worship,' as Paul VI claims, but a legitimate sentimental attachment - indeed, a nostalgia, for the 'sacred.' The so-called 'falsity of doctrinal positions' has never been specified.

(61) Hubert Monteilhet, Papa Paul VI - L'Amen-Dada, Paris: Pauvert, 1976. The idea that Charity can exist outside the bounds of 'true doctrine and right belief' is highly absurd. Was Christ lacking in Charity? Did St. Thomas More lack sufficient charity towards his family when he refused to compromise his faith? Are we to tell lies and dissimulate rather than offend our neighbor or the truth? Hardly.

(62) Congregation for the Evangelization of the Peoples (formerly De Propaganda Fide) 1976. One is reminded of Father Barry, S.J.'s teaching at Fordham University that Mao Tse Tung's famous trek across China is an exact parallel to Moses' leading his people out of Egypt!

(63) Liber Accusationis in Paulum Sextum (Book of Accusation against Paul VI) published by The Catholic Counter Reformation, 31 Wimbotsham Road, Downham Market, Norfolk, England. This important document has never had a response from the new Church.

(64) J. Clancy, Apostle for Our Times, N.Y.: Kennedy, 1963.

(65) As to his taste in music, we are informed by Gordon Thomas, that his favorite piece of music was 'Jesus Christ Superstar,' and his favorite song in this musical was 'I don't know how to love Him,' a song with sexual overtones sung by 'Mary Magdelane.' (Pontiff, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1983)

(66) The Voice, Dec. 9, 1972. Also documented in No. 63.

(67) This Crucifix on a distorted cross is highly reminiscent of those used by 'liberation theology' and is not without its satanic aspects. As Piers Compton has pointed out, the 'bend or broken cross...' was made use of by the 'satanists of the sixth century' and is implicitly forbidden by Canon 1279 which condemns the usage of any sacred image that is not in keeping with the approved usage of the Church. (The Broken Cross, Eng: Spearmen, 1983)

(68) Abbe of Nantes, Liber Accusationis in Paulum Sextum, op. Cit.

(69) Hubert Monteilhet, Rome n'est plus dans Rome, Paris: Pauvert, 1977. Father Greely states with regard to this Encyclical that 'the massive exodus from the Church as predicted by the liberal Catholic journals... did not occur.' Instead, 'Catholics made an important discovery: you can ignore the Pope and life goes right on'(The Cardinal Sins). Surveys show that 80% of post-Conciliar Catholics use artificial means of birth control, and do not consider that they are 'sinning' in doing so.

(70) Three Popes and the Cardinal, N.Y: Straus, 1972 and The Decline and Fall of the Catholic Church, N.Y. Putnam, 1981

(71) It is the old argument of 'abuses' in another form. Conservative Novus Ordo Catholics cannot accept the fact that their 'pope' is an apostate, so they claim that everything is being done by those around him.

(72) Quoted in Y. L. Dupont, Freemasonry and Vatican Two, London: Britons, 1968

(73) Both John-Paul I and II were shown on television as being 'invested' with the pallium. According to Rev. L. O'Connell (The Book of Ceremonies, Milwaukee: Bruce, 1956), the pallium is 'a wide circular band of white wool with a pendant attached to the front and back, and with six black crosses stitched on it... Symbolic of the plenitude of the Episcopal power, the pallium is worn by the Pope at all times. It is worn by archbishops also as a mark of their participation in the Pope's supreme pastoral office... It is a mere honorary dignity.' It is even occasionally conferred on Bishops. As such, it denotes no function beyond that of being 'Bishop of Rome.' While it is true that the pope is the 'Bishop of Rome,' it is also true that he is much more, for he is the 'Bishop of Bishops.' A valid pope is pope from the moment he is elected and accepts. It is of interest to know the words of the traditional ceremony: 'Receive the Tiara of three crowns, knowing you are the father of princes and kings, the guide of the faithful and the Vicar of Christ on earth.' In the new ceremony these words are replaced by 'Be blessed by God who has chosen you as supreme pastor of the whole Church, confiding in you the apostolic ministry. May you shine gloriously during many years of life until called by your Lord to be covered with immortality at the entrance of the heavenly kingdom.'

(74) See David A. Yallop, In God's Name, N.Y.: Bantom, 1984.

CHAPTER IX, Part 5

Carol Wojtyla or 'pope' John Paul II [1]



Carol Wojtyla was born and bred in Poland. Many have attempted to paint his youth as that of an anti-Nazi resistance fighter, In point of fact, before entering the priesthood, he worked in a chemical factory, the products of which were used to aid the German war effort. He spent his spare time in the theater, performing leading roles in a quasi-professional theatrical company.

After the communists took over Poland, Wojtyla remained a survivor - indeed, as a budding philosopher and cleric, he was given the freedom to travel throughout the world which as anyone familiar with Communist tyranny knows, implies that he remained in the good graces of the powers in control. Certainly he was no Mindszenty! And, indeed, Mary Craig tells us in her biography that when he worked as a parish priest in Poland he kept a 'low profile... steering clear of politics (even to mention 'good' and 'evil' could bring down the wrath of the authorities...').



Despite the fact that he was the first non-Italian pope to be elected in almost 500 years, he was by no means an 'unknown' who arrived on the scene unexpectedly. He was rather a man that the post-Conciliar pseudo-hierarchy knew well and could trust with the continuation of the Conciliar reforms. It was Bishop Garonne of Toulouse, later Cardinal and chief inquisitor of Archbishop Lefebvre, that first recommended this young prelate to the Vatican when the Council was getting underway. Bishop Wojtyla proceeded to bring his 'personalist' and 'existentialist' ideas - what has been described as his 'Heidegger-Husserl-Scheler concepts' - to the key conciliar document entitled Gaudium et Spes otherwise known as 'The Church in the Modern World.' (This document has been described by Cardinal Heenan, Primate of England, as 'a treatise unworthy of a Catholic Council,' and by Bishop Russel McVinney as 'a doubtful compromise with everything that lies at the basis of the evils affecting humanity.' Contacts established at this time led to a close friendship with Paul VI and a rapid rise in the hierarchy. In 1964 he was asked to preach the annual Lenten retreat to the Pope and Curia, and shortly afterwards he was appointed a member of the pontifical commission for the study on the possibility of integrating oral contraception into Catholic moral theology. The same year he was made Metropolitan of Krakow (during which time he invited Billy Graham to speak from his pulpit), and in 1967 Paul VI made him a Cardinal and bestowed upon him the Pallium. He was one of the three European Bishops appointed as permanent members of the Vatican's Episcopal Synod, the 'collegiate' organ established after Vatican II. Finally, it was Cardinal Benelli, whose anti-traditional stand is well known, that engineered his election to the Chair of Peter. With such a background, it is little wonder that he chose as his name 'John-Paul,' or that, like his predecessor, he refused to take the oath of office and be crowned with the Tiara. Instead, he was once again invested with the pallium, this time as the 'Bishop of Rome,' and shortly thereafter proceeded to address the faithful, not as his 'children,' but as his 'brothers and sisters.' (All this refusal to be crowned at a time when the communist government of Hungary was so anxious to have the royal crown returned to its country to give its illegal government some vestige of legitimacy. The crown was returned with the full approval of Paul VI.)
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