Ch. 22 The Diversity of Plants 22. 1 Nonvascular Plants What is a Nonvascular Plant?

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Ch. 22 The Diversity of Plants

22.1 Nonvascular Plants

  1. What is a Nonvascular Plant? – Plants limited to __________ habitats by streams and rivers or in temperate or tropical rain forests. The lack of ____________ tissue also limits the size of the plant.

1. Alternation of Generations – nonvascular plants are the only plant division to have a dominant _____________________ generation. The ___________________ are attached to the gametophyte.

2. Gametophytes produce two kinds of sexual reproductive structures.

a. ________________________– the male reproduction structure in which sperm are produced.

b. _________________________– the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced.

  1. Adaptations in Bryophyta – _____________________ are small plants with leafy stems (usually 1 cell thick). They grow in dense carpets of hundreds of plants and can even grow in the arctic.

  2. Adaptations in Hepatophyta - liverworts are small plants that range from the Arctic to the Antarctic.

  3. Adaptations in Anthocerophyta hornworts have a sporophyte stage that resembles _________

A. What is a Non-Seed Vascular Plant? – Plants that don’t produce ___________ but have vascular tissue designed to transport water and sugar.

1. Alternation of generations – unlike nonvascular plants, the spore-producing _______________ stage is dominant. Leaves protect reproductive cells.

22.2 Non-seed Vascular Plants

a. ______________ - a compact cluster of spore-bearing leaves. Spores produce a prothallus

b. _________________ - gametophyte stage that forms antheridia and archegonia. Fertilization occurs when sperm swim to the egg via water

B. Adaptations in Lycophytaevergreen club and spike mosses resemble pine trees.
C. Adaptations in Sphenophyta- __________________________ are rough and grow in damp soil

D. Adaptations in Pterophyta

1. Fern structure – the main stem is underground,

_____________ branch off the stipe and fern leaves are called fronds.

P. 605

a. __________________________ – thick, underground stem that contains starch

b. __________________________ – a cluster of sporangia found underneath the pinnae

22.3 Seed Plants

A. What is a Seed Plant?Seeds are reduced sporophyte plants enclosed within a protective coat. The seeds may be surrounded by a fruit or carried naked on the scales of a cone.

1. Seed plants produce ____________– spores develop to produce male and female gametophytes

a. _________ grain – male gametophyte structure

that includes sperm cells, nutrients and a protective coat

b. __________________________ – female gametophyte structure that produces the egg cell.
2. Fertilization and reproduction – the union of sperm and egg form a sporophyte. Fertilization does not require water in seed plants.

a. __________________________ – an organism at an early stage of development (in plants, it’s the young diploid sporophyte stage)

b. __________________________ – seed leaves that store nutrients for the embryo
3. Advantages of seeds – seeds can survive harsh environments and have a food supply to reduce competition with mature plants
4. Diversity of seed plants – __________________________ (“naked seed”) produce seeds in cones, __________________________ are flowering plants that produce seeds in fruits.
B. Adaptations in CycadophytaCycads are tropical plants with separate male and female plants

C. Adaptations in GinkgophytaGinkgos have fan shaped leave and show separate male and female plants.

D. Adaptations in Gnetophyta – low growing plant with separate male and female plants

E. Adaptations in Coniferophyta Conifer trees or shrubs with needle or scale-like leaves. Most conifers have male and female cones on different branches of the same tree.

1. Conifers are evergreen – they __________________________ lose their leaves

2. Deciduous trees lose their leaves

a. __________________________ plants – lose all leaves at the same time to reduce water loss and remain dormant.

F. Adaptations in Anthophyta

1. Fruit production – seeds are encased in fruit. Animals aid in seed dispersal.

2. Monocots and dicots

a. __________________________ – have one seed leave.

Leaves have parallel veins (ex: grasses)

b. __________________________ - have two seed leaves.

Leaves have branching veins (ex: flowers)

3. Life spans of anthophytes

a. annual – plants that live for only a year or less

b. biennials – a life span that lasts two years (ex: carrots, beets)

c. perennials­ – live for several years producing flowers and usually once a year

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