|Ch. 22 The Diversity of Plants
22.1 Nonvascular Plants
What is a Nonvascular Plant? – Plants limited to __________ habitats by streams and rivers or in temperate or tropical rain forests. The lack of ____________ tissue also limits the size of the plant.
1. Alternation of Generations – nonvascular plants are the only plant division to have a dominant _____________________ generation. The ___________________ are attached to the gametophyte.
2. Gametophytes produce two kinds of sexual reproductive structures.
a. ________________________– the male reproduction structure in which sperm are produced.
b. _________________________– the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced.
Adaptations in Bryophyta – _____________________ are small plants with leafy stems (usually 1 cell thick). They grow in dense carpets of hundreds of plants and can even grow in the arctic.
Adaptations in Hepatophyta - liverworts are small plants that range from the Arctic to the Antarctic.
Adaptations in Anthocerophyta – hornworts have a sporophyte stage that resembles _________
A. What is a Non-Seed Vascular Plant? – Plants that don’t produce ___________ but have vascular tissue designed to transport water and sugar.
1. Alternation of generations – unlike nonvascular plants, the spore-producing _______________ stage is dominant. Leaves protect reproductive cells.
22.2 Non-seed Vascular Plants
B. Adaptations in Lycophyta – evergreen club and spike mosses resemble pine trees.
a. ______________ - a compact cluster of spore-bearing leaves. Spores produce a prothallus
b. _________________ - gametophyte stage that forms antheridia and archegonia. Fertilization occurs when sperm swim to the egg via water
C. Adaptations in Sphenophyta- __________________________ are rough and grow in damp soil
D. Adaptations in Pterophyta
1. Fern structure – the main stem is underground,
_____________ branch off the stipe and fern leaves are called fronds.
a. __________________________ – thick, underground stem that contains starch
b. __________________________ – a cluster of sporangia found underneath the pinnae
22.3 Seed Plants
A. What is a Seed Plant? – Seeds are reduced sporophyte plants enclosed within a protective coat. The seeds may be surrounded by a fruit or carried naked on the scales of a cone.
1. Seed plants produce ____________– spores develop to produce male and female gametophytes
a. _________ grain – male gametophyte structure
that includes sperm cells, nutrients and a protective coat
b. __________________________ – female gametophyte structure that produces the egg cell.
2. Fertilization and reproduction – the union of sperm and egg form a sporophyte. Fertilization does not require water in seed plants.
a. __________________________ – an organism at an early stage of development (in plants, it’s the young diploid sporophyte stage)
b. __________________________ – seed leaves that store nutrients for the embryo
3. Advantages of seeds – seeds can survive harsh environments and have a food supply to reduce competition with mature plants
4. Diversity of seed plants – __________________________ (“naked seed”) produce seeds in cones, __________________________ are flowering plants that produce seeds in fruits.
B. Adaptations in Cycadophyta – Cycads are tropical plants with separate male and female plants
C. Adaptations in Ginkgophyta – Ginkgos have fan shaped leave and show separate male and female plants.
D. Adaptations in Gnetophyta – low growing plant with separate male and female plants
E. Adaptations in Coniferophyta –Conifer trees or shrubs with needle or scale-like leaves. Most conifers have male and female cones on different branches of the same tree.
1. Conifers are evergreen – they __________________________ lose their leaves
2. Deciduous trees lose their leaves
a. __________________________ plants – lose all leaves at the same time to reduce water loss and remain dormant.
F. Adaptations in Anthophyta –
1. Fruit production – seeds are encased in fruit. Animals aid in seed dispersal.
2. Monocots and dicots
a. __________________________ – have one seed leave.
Leaves have parallel veins (ex: grasses)
b. __________________________ - have two seed leaves.
Leaves have branching veins (ex: flowers)
3. Life spans of anthophytes
a. annual – plants that live for only a year or less
b. biennials – a life span that lasts two years (ex: carrots, beets)
c. perennials – live for several years producing flowers and usually once a year