Carefully before choosing the single best response




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BIOL 1114 EXAM 2 (No Star Form) 12 March 2001
Use a # 2 pencil to fill in the information portion of your NCS answer sheet including the appropriate circles (bubbles). Write “No Star Form” – above your name in the margin of your NCS answer sheet. Read all questions and answers carefully before choosing the single BEST response for each question. Feel free to ask the instructor for clarification.

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Use the following information to answer the next 14 questions.

Delphinium, commonly known as larkspur, is naturally distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, including North America, Europe, and China. Worldwide, there are nearly 300 species, which include 61 recognized species in North America. Most native species of larkspur have blue or purple flowers, sometimes ranging into nearly white or yellow. A notable exception is Delphinium nudicaule, red larkspur, with natural distribution restricted to northern California. Red larkspur has a mutation that results in brilliant red-pigmented flowers.
To successfully reproduce, all Delphinium species require pollinators to move pollen from flower to flower. Bees see and are attracted to flowers ranging from ultraviolet and blue to yellow, but cannot see red. Therefore, bees are the traditional pollinators of larkspur. Fortunately for the mutant larkspur population with red pigments, hummingbirds see red quite well, and red larkspur flowers are pollinated by birds, which do not visit blue larkspurs in their daily nectar gathering activities.



  1. The red pigment in Delphinium nudicaule primarily absorbs ________ light and reflects ______light.

  1. red; blue b) blue; red c) red; red d) blue; blue




  1. Which one or more of the following statements is true about bees?

  1. Red light reflected from blue flowers initiates an action potential in photoreceptors.

  2. Blue light reflected from blue flowers initiates an action potential in photoreceptors.

  3. Red light reflected from red flowers initiates an action potential in photoreceptors.

  4. Bees do not see red because they do not have pigments in their photoreceptors that are stimulated by red light.

  5. Both (b) and (d)




  1. Larkspurs are autotrophic organisms. During photosynthesis, they use energy from sunlight to produce _______ from _______.

  1. carbon dioxide and water; glucose and oxygen

  2. electrons and protons; air

  3. glucose and oxygen; carbon dioxide and water

  4. pigments; protons

  5. carbon dioxide and water; chloroplasts




  1. Which one or more of the following is not occurring in larkspur leaves during daylight hours?

  1. proton pumping across thylakoid membranes

  2. proton pumping across mitochondrial membranes

  3. sodium-potassium pumping across neuron membranes

  4. glucose production in the Calvin cycle

  5. glucose consumption in glycolysis




  1. In the light-dependent reactions, larkspur cells make _______________ to provide_____________.

a) sunlight; pigments

b) ADP and FADH2; glucose for the Krebs cycle

c) glucose; energy for the Calvin cycle (light independent reactions)

d) ATP and NADPH; energy for the Calvin cycle (light independent reactions)

e) glucose and CO2; energy to make an electron gradient
6. In the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle), larkspur cells make ____________.


  1. NADPH b) proton gradients in the thylakoid c) glucose d) oxygen e) ATP

7. The mutation that results in red-pigmented flowers is due to a difference in __________.



  1. climate b) light quality/wavelength c) pollinators d) genes/DNA e) none of these (a-d) are correct.

  1. Red-flowered larkspurs have red-flowered offspring because _______________.

  1. Physical traits are inherited from parents through genes.

  2. The presence of many of hummingbirds causes mutations to occur.

  3. Adaptive radiation results in more species.

  4. The offspring want to match the parents.




  1. Assume that physical traits in the red larkspur population are the same as physical traits in the larger blue population except for flower color. Red larkspur would most convincingly be considered as a separate species because _____________.

  1. the flowers of the two species have different colors

  2. the two species are reproductively separated, since pollen from red flowers can no longer fertilize blue flowers to produce viable offspring

  3. all mutations result in different species

  4. the flowers of the two species bloom at different times

  5. bees prefer the red flowers


Use this additional information to answer the next 5 questions.

Delphinium species contain neurotoxins that have been used variously as medicines and poisons throughout human history. Native Americans used extracts of Delphinium as an antiparasitic (killed internal and external parasites). Chinese herbalists have used it to treat neurological problems. Grazing livestock, particularly cattle, eat larkspur and become quite sick or die. The primary neurotoxin found in Delphinium species is lycoctonine, which inhibits acetylcholine reception (blocks receptors) at postsynaptic sites in neuromuscular junctions. Its action is much like that of curare, and was used as a surgical or laboratory substitute for curare around the turn of the 20th century. Veterinarians treating cattle who have eaten larkspur, will give physostigmine (an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) as the preferred antidote.


  1. Given lycoctonine’s mode of action, you correctly predict the following symptoms in cattle who have eaten larkspur:

  1. seizures, pupil contraction, bowel cramping

  2. paralysis of muscles, and respiratory failure




  1. Physostigmine is the best antidote for lycoctonine because:

  1. acetylcholinesterase will build up in synapses, increasing neuromuscular signals

  2. acetylcholine will build up in synapses, increasing neuromuscular signals

  3. it has the same action as lycoctonine

  4. they both occur naturally in plants

  5. it is not toxic




  1. Lycoctonine is present in nearly all Delphinium species because of which one or more of the following:

  1. The plants wanted it to be there.

  2. All plants make insecticides of one type or another.

  3. A mutation arose and it increased survival and reproduction for mutant individuals.

  4. Natural selection favored individuals containing lycoctonine.

  5. Both (c) and (d)




  1. If a tourist visiting the Galapagos islands dropped a few seeds of red larkspur, which then germinated, grew, and survived there, you would correctly predict that __________.

  1. The genetic diversity of the Galapagos founder population is greater than that of the California population.

  2. The genetic diversity of the Galapagos founder population is less than that of the California population.

  3. The genetic diversity of both populations is the same.




  1. If there are no pollinators present for the red larkspur on the Galapagos islands, you correctly predict that ____________ will most likely occur:

  1. A mutation will occur in bees so that they will be able to see red.

  2. A mutation will occur in red larkspur so that it will not need a pollinator.

  3. Red larkspur will hitchhike out of there and live somewhere else.

  4. Red larkspur will not reproduce, and eventually disappear from the Galapagos islands.

  5. Another visitor will pick all the red larkspur and take them home to California.



Use the following information to answer the next 8 questions.

A female yucca moth visits a yucca flower, collects pollen, and rolls it into a compact ball. The moth flies off with the pollen ball to another yucca flower, drills a hole in the flower's ovary wall, and lays its eggs inside the ovary. It then takes the pollen ball and smears pollen all over the stigma of the flower, pollinating it. When the moth eggs hatch, the offspring will feed and develop inside the swollen ovary of the flower. By pollinating the yucca, the moth ensures that the plant will provide a supply of developing seeds for its own offspring (caterpillars). Because the caterpillars eat only a small portion of the seeds, the yucca also reproduces successfully. Neither organism can reproduce without the other.




  1. Which one or more of the following are involved in (responsible for) the described situation?

a) natural selection b) coevolution c) genetic mutations d) All of the above (a-c) are involved.


  1. Which of the following are necessary for glycolysis and aerobic cellular respiration to occur in the yucca plant?

a) carbon dioxide and water

b) glucose and oxygen

c) sunlight and oxygen

d) water and sunlight

e) None of the above - plants do not do glycolysis and aerobic cellular respiration.


  1. Which of the following are necessary for glycolysis and aerobic cellular respiration to occur in the yucca moth?

a) carbon dioxide and water

b) glucose and oxygen

c) sunlight and oxygen

d) water and sunlight

e) None of the above - yucca moths do not do glycolysis and aerobic cellular respiration


  1. If a mutation occurred in one of the moth's eggs that resulted in holes in the inner mitochondrial membrane of caterpillar cells, you would correctly predict which one or more of the following?

a) increased production of ATP in the mitochondria of the caterpillar

b) a much higher concentration of protons in the matrix than in the inter membrane space of the mitochondria of the caterpillar

c) lack of electron flow through the electron transport chain of the mitochondria of the caterpillar

d) decreased production of ATP in the mitochondria of the caterpillar

e) Both (b) and (c).


  1. The carbon contained in glucose molecules inside the yucca's cells most recently came from (was derived from) _______.

a) CO2 in the soil

b) pyruvic acid in the mitochondria

c) CO2 in the atmosphere

d) glucose in the caterpillars

e) H2O found in the soil


  1. The oxygen released by the yucca during photosynthesis most recently came from (was derived from) _______.

a) CO2 in the soil

b) pyruvic acid in mitochondria

c) CO2 in the atmosphere

d) glucose in the caterpillars

e) H2O found in the yucca cells


  1. Which one or more of the following cell structures might a yucca cell contain?

a) chloroplast b) mitochondrion c) Golgi body d) ribosome e) all of the above


  1. Which one or more of the following cell structures might a caterpillar cell contain?

a) ribosome b) mitochondrion c) smooth endoplasmic reticulum d) Golgi body e) all of the above


  1. The concentration of NaCl inside a cell is 0.4%. The concentration of NaCl outside the cell is 0.2%. Which one or more of the following is/are ways that the cell could obtain more NaCl?

a) osmosis b) passive transport c) active transport d) exocytosis e) all of the above


  1. A neurotoxin that binds with neuron sodium channels, keeping them closed, will:

a) prevent neurons from initiating an action potential

b) immediately cause an action potential

c) cause strong muscle contractions

d) prevent neurons from creating a resting potential

e) allow sodium to rush into the neuron, down their concentration gradient

Use the following information to answer the next 6 questions.

Plants were grown in a green house under 14 cycles of 12 hours light (day) and 12 hours dark (night). At the end of the 14th cycle, plants were divided into 4 groups that were exposed to one of four experimental light conditions.


The following table shows the photosynthetic rate under each of the experimental light conditions.

______________________________________________________________

Plant

Group Treatment Photosynthesis rate (%)



______________________________________________________________

  1. Dark 0

  2. Green light 14

  3. Full spectrum of low intensity light (dim) 47

  4. Full spectrum of high intensity light (bright) 100

25. Which of the variables in this experiment is the dependent/response variable?

a) light quality (wavelength) b) light intensity c) photosynthesis rate d) darkness e) number of days
26. The 4 groups of plants are kept under the experimental conditions indefinitely. Which group of plants will die first because of the light conditions?


  1. A b) B c) C d) D




  1. The immediate cause of death in the previous question is lack of _______.

  1. CO2 b) O2 c) Glucose d) Fats e) Amino acids




  1. Which group of plants will have the highest rate of NADPH production?

  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. None of the above is correct. NADPH production is not dependent on light at all. Therefore all groups will produce the same level of NADPH.




  1. Group ____ produces the most oxygen?

  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. None of the above is correct because all groups produce the same amount of oxygen




  1. What happens inside the chloroplasts of plants in group D that does not happen inside chloroplasts in group A?

  1. Generation of H+ gradient across the thylakoid membranes.

  2. Production of oxygen.

  3. Production of NADPH.

  4. Water molecules are split.

  5. All of the above (a-d) are correct.


Use the following information to answer the next 4 questions.

One of the examples of adaptive radiation that is continuously studied is that of the cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria. There are hundreds of species of cichlids in this relatively young lake (300,000 years old) and they have some interesting dietary differences: some eat algae, some plants, some mollusks, some zooplankton, some other cichlid eggs, some cichlid babies, some fish scales. This diversity of similar species in a single lake is considered an example of adaptive radiation. Currently researchers are investigating the similarities and differences among the genetic make-up of the species to see if this lends support to this hypothesis.


31. Which of the following patterns of genetic similarity would provide the best evidence for adaptive radiation of these cichlids?

a) None of the species are related at all.

b) All of the species in the lake have genetic similarities that point to a single common ancestor species.

c) None of the species in the lake have genetic similarities that point to a single common ancestor species.

d) Genes have nothing to do with evolution.
32. Which of the following hypotheses best supports the observations of the cichlids and the hypothesis of adaptive radiation?

a) Adaptive radiation took place because all the fish came from different lakes.

b) Adaptive radiation took place because a single fish species evolved (diverged) into many fish species that fed in different ways (niches).

c) Adaptive radiation took place because new fish species were attracted to the lake because there were already many fish there occupying all the available niches.

d) Adaptive radiation took place because local people dumped many different species into the lake.
33. The observations of the cichlids does NOT support any hypothesis concerning coevolution because:

a) coevolution does not involve natural selection.

b) coevolution requires the founder effect.

c) coevolution requires evidence that as one species changes another changes in response.

d) coevolution can never involve predation.

e) coevolution requires evidence that the fish are naturally selecting the other species in the area depending on the adaptations they need.


34. At least one of the scale eating cichlids has a prominent lower jaw that aids in its rapid attacks on the scales of other fish. Which of the following hypothesis best explains how natural selection may have led to this.

a) Certain cichlids naturally selected this trait and produced offspring.

b) Cichlids with slightly more prominent jaws were able to eat more and could therefore produce more offspring which in turn inherited more prominent jaws.

c) Cichlids that radiated developed stronger jaws and therefore adapted.

d) Cichlids that ate scales needed stronger jaws and adapted them

e) Cichlids that ate scales developed more prominent jaws and passed these to their young.


Use the following information to answer the next 6 questions.

You are being led by an experienced biologist guide through a remote tropical rainforest. Given your BIOL 1114 experience, you are not surprised when the guide tries to scare you with tales of poisonous tropical plants and animals. Frustrated at his inability to upset you, he decides to show off by handling a snake, which he tells you is deadly but generally will not bite humans unless provoked. He explains that the snake injects neurotoxic venom that paralyzes its victim in a few seconds, and death would slowly ensue unless treated with an antidote within a few minutes. As with the other toxic plants and animals he had pointed out, you inquire into the mechanism of action of the toxin. He says it affects mainly skeletal muscle (not internal organs), by holding neuron potassium gates open. You are just about to ask if there is a local antidote when the (apparently provoked!) snake bites your guide on his forearm. After an instant of stunned surprise, he manages to say “quick, find me a ...” before collapsing in silence. He remains conscious with more or less normal pulse and breathing, and can blink his eyes slowly. You hope you can correctly (and quickly!) recall what he had just been telling you about various poisonous plants and animals you had seen so far. Maybe he can confirm your choice of antidote organism by blinking his eyes.


35. Here is what you recall about the toxic organisms you can locate and identify with some confidence. Which one or more organisms should you look for as the antidote?

a) A vine that produces acetylcholinesterase.

b) An ant whose bite injects a potent toxin that inhibits ATP synthesis in mitochondria.

c) A frog whose slime closes potassium gates.

d) A small herb (non-woody plant) containing a compound that blocks acetylcholine receptors.

e) Either the vine (a) or the herb (d)


36. Which one or more of the following explains why the various organisms contain toxic compounds?

a) They have one or more random mutations that by chance allowed them to make the toxins.

b) They need to avoid being eaten and choose to make toxic chemicals to help.

c) They are more likely to survive and reproduce successfully if they are toxic.

d) They have them so that people can use them as antidotes for snake bites and other problems.

e) Both (a) and (c)


37. Which of the following is NOT involved in the process of secreting a protein toxin in the slime on frog skin?

a) vesicles b) smooth ER c) ribosomes d) chloroplasts e) Golgi body

38. A species of red lizard lives in this rainforest. The lizard appears red because ___________.

a) sunlight lacks red wavelengths.

b) their skin absorbs red light very efficiently.

c) their skin reflects red light.

d) they like the color red.

e) red light reflects off of green leaves and hits the lizards.


39. The double-toothed kite, a predatory bird species, hunts the red lizard (its main food source) mainly by using color vision. Which of the following would you logically predict?

a) Predatory birds would be less successful finding lizards in the deep shade under the tree canopy because there is little red light left to reflect off the lizards.

b) Predatory birds would more easily find lizards in the deeply shaded areas because the birds would see red better under the green tree leaves.

c) These predatory birds are likely to be nocturnal (hunt at night).

d) Shade under the trees should have no effect on predatory birds’ ability to see red objects.
40. A neural signal travels through a lizard neuron in the following sequence:

a) dendrite, cell body, axon, synaptic bulb

b) axon, dendrite, cell body, synaptic bulb

c) dendrite, axon, cell body, synaptic bulb



d) synaptic bulb, cell body, dendrite, axon

e) cell body, axon, dendrite, synaptic bulb


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