Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Kenya: “Marsabit, S.E. of Lake Rudolph”.

Distribution: Kenya (north).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Mt Marsabit; Mt Kulal; Mt Nyiro (Larsen, 1991); Ewaso Ngiro River.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria serica Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria serica Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 332 (319-336).

Amauris echeria serica. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 71mm. Kasyaola, Nyika, Malawi. 18 Jan 1982. R.J. Dowsett No. 255. (Henning collection - H161).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Itumba”.

Distribution: Tanzania (east and south), Malawi (north), Zambia (extreme north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Eastern parts, south to Songea and west to the Rubeho Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Nyika; Mafinga Mountains; Makutu Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria steckeri Kheil, 1890
Amauris steckeri Kheil, 1890. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 33: 393 (393-394).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abessynia”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (southern and western highlands), Sudan (adjoining Ethiopia).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria terrena Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria terrena Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 330 (319-336).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Masisi, N.W. Kivu”.

Distribution: Uganda (west), Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Ituri, Kivu), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bukoba Region; Kigoma District; Mpanda District (Kielland, 1990).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria whytei Butler, 1894
Amauris whytei Butler, 1894. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 644 (643-684).

Type locality: Malawi: “Zomba”.

Distribution: Malawi (south - Zomba Plateau).

Amauris (Amaura) ellioti Butler, 1895
Amauris ellioti Butler, 1895. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 122 (122-123).

Type locality: “Ruwenzori, 5000-6000 feet”; “from Salt Lake to Wawamba Co.”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by four conjoined spots beyond the end of the cell (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Semi-montane forest. In Tanzania ssp. junia is found at altitudes from 1 100 to 2 400 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is said to be characteristically buoyant (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages:
Van Someren, 1935.
Larval food:

Tylophora stolzii (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Tylophora anomala N.E. Brown (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia racemosa (= latifolia Schum.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Cynanchum spp. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Gymnema species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Secamone species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Gongronema latifolium (Asclepiadaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 49].
Amauris (Amaura) ellioti ellioti Butler, 1895
Amauris ellioti Butler, 1895. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 16: 122 (122-123).

Type locality: “Ruwenzori, 5000-6000 feet”; “from Salt Lake to Wawamba Co.”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda (west), Rwanda, Burundi.
styx Rebel, 1914 (as ab. of Amaurina ellioti). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 231 (219-294). Rwanda?: “Nordwesten des Tanganyika-Sees”.
duponti Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Amaurina ellioti). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “mission norvégienne de Makawendé à environ 100 km. S.O. Costermansville, Kivu, 2500 à 3000 m altitude”.
Amauris (Amaura) ellioti altumi van Someren, 1936
Amauris ansorgei altumi van Someren, 1936. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 12: 44 (147-199).

Type locality: Kenya: “Katamyio River, Uplands”.

Distribution: Kenya (east of the Rift Valley), Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Kenya – Nairobi; Aberdares; Mt Kenya (Larsen, 1991).

Note: Larsen (1991: 261) is unsure to which subspecies of ellioti the populations on Ol’Doinyo Orok (near Namanga, Kenya) belong.
Amauris (Amaura) ellioti ansorgei Sharpe, 1896
Amauris ansorgei Sharpe, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 18: 158 (158-159).

Type locality: Uganda.

Distribution: Uganda? (western slopes of Mt Elgon), Kenya (west of the Rift Valley).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Lumbwa; Nandi; Mt Elgon (Larsen, 1991).
torrefacta Le Cerf, 1920 (as ab. of Amaurina ansorgei). Bulletin de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 26: 39 (39-40). Kenya: “Afrique Orientale britannique, Molo”.
Amauris (Amaura) ellioti junia (Le Cerf, 1920)
Amaurina ansorgei var. junia Le Cerf, 1920. Bulletin de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 26: 39 (39-40).

Amauris ellioti junia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 80mm. Tanzania. Ukaguru Mtns, Mandege. 1900 m. 5.I.1986. Jan Kielland. (Newport Collection).

Amauris ellioti junia. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 82mm. Tanzania. Uluguru Mtns, Bondwa. 1800 m. 4.I.1982. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Afrique Orientale germanique, Mts. N’Guru”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in that all the pale markings are white (orange in the nominate subspecies) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (north, central and southern highlands), Malawi (north), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Oldeani-Ngorongoro; Mount Meru; Mount Kilimanjaro; Uluguru Mountains; Songea; Mount Rungwe; Tukuyu (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mafinga Mountains; Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
neavei Poulton, 1929 in Eltringham, et al., 1929 (as f. of Amauris echeria jacksoni). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 475 (475-504). Tanzania: “Irungu, foot of Kifulufulu Mtn., Usanga Distr., Kilosa Rd.”.

Amauris (Amaura) hecate (Butler, 1866)
Danais hecate Butler, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 44 (43-59).

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia.

Common name: Scarce monk.

Habitat: All types of forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is a scarce species, at least in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). Males are known to mud-puddle on forest roads (Congdon and Collins, 1998). Both sexes come to flowers (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Amauris (Amaura) hecate hecate (Butler, 1866)
Danais hecate Butler, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 44 (43-59).

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Aburi Botanical Gardens (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Kaduna (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Kenya – Kakamega Forest; South Kavirondo (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Near Kere Hill, Minziro Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
dira Neave, 1904 (as sp. of Amauris). Novitates Zoologicae 11: 324 (323-363). Kenya: “Nyangori, Tiriki”.
reducta Bartel, 1905 (as female f. of Amauris hecate). Novitates Zoologicae 12: 129 (129-152). Cameroon: “Kamerun (Victoria)”.
bedoci Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Amauris hecate). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge”.
lagai Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Amauris hecate). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Djamba, Uélé”.
draedada Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Amauris hecate). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [2] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Kakamega”.
tenebrosa Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Amauris hecate). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [3] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Kakamega”.
expansa Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Amauris hecate). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [3] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Kakamega”.
Amauris (Amaura) hecate stictica Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Amauris hecate stictica Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novitates Zoologicae 10: 504 (491-542).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Anderatscha”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south).

Specific localities:

Ethiopia – Anderatscha (TL).

Amauris (Amaura) hyalites Butler, 1874
Amauris hyalites Butler, 1874. Cistula Entomologica 1: 209 (209-217).

Amauris damocles hyalites Butler, 1874. Ackery et al., 1995: 273.

Amauris hyalites Butler, 1874. Kielland, 1990: 74.

Amauris hyalites Butler, 1874. D’Abrera, 1997: 188.

Amauris hyalites. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Mbunya, Zambia. 10 Nov 71. (Henning collection - H158).
Type locality: Angola: “Ambriz”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania (west), Zambia (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kigoma District, from Mahale Mountains in south to Mihumu Forest in north (Kielland, 1990). Kielland (1990: 74) treats the populations of A. hyalites in western Tanzania as belonging to ssp. makuyuensis Carcasson, 1964. Note: this taxon is not listed in Ackery, et al. (1995).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kazombo (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Low to medium altitude forest. In Tanzania it occurs at altitudes from 800 to 1 600 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males are attracted to wet sand (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Asclepiadaceae [Kielland, 1990: 75].


difficilis Aurivillius, 1891 (as sp. of Amauris). Entomologisk Tidskrift 12: 194 (193-228). Gabon: “Gabun”.
fenestrata Aurivillius, 1907 (as sp. of Amauris). Archiv för Zoologi 3 (19): 1 (7 pp.). Congo: “Französisches Congogebiet”.
schubotzi Schultze, 1914 (as sp. of Amauris). Entomologische Rundschau 31: 47 (47-48). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Duma (Ubangi-Distrikt)”.
lygia Hulstaert, 1924 (as sp. of Amauris). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 476 (476-481). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Région de Sasa (Uele)”.

Amauris (Amaura) inferna Butler, 1871
Amauris inferna Butler, 1871. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 79 (79-83).

Type locality: “West Africa”.

Diagnosis: Differs from A. hecate in that the androconial patch is pale (not blackish); forewing upperside with the two large hyaline spots always separate and the long axis of the larger spot at an angle to the inner margin, pointing down towards tornus (in hecate parallel to the inner margin) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania.

Misattributed to the Ghana fauna by Berger (1981) (Larsen, 2005a).



Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Males are known to mud-puddle (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Amauris (Amaura) inferna inferna Butler, 1871
Amauris inferna Butler, 1871. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 79 (79-83).

Type locality: “West Africa”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa).
semvitrea Mabille, 1876 (as race of Amauris egialea). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 1: 198 (194-203, 274-281). No locality given. [Provisionally placed here by Ackery, et al., 1995: 275.]
hecatoides Aurivillius, 1901 (as sp. of Amauris). Entomologisk Tidskrift 22: 113 (113-128). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Banzyville, M’Boko, Roubi”.
reuteri Strand, 1910 (as ab. of Amauris hecate). Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 29: 29 (29-35). Cameroon: “Kamerun”.
infernalis Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Amauris inferna). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 108 (107-123). Cameroon: “Ekona, Nlohe, Bodongo, Manjo, Bombe und Bakossu”.
Amauris (Amaura) inferna discus Talbot, 1940
Amauris inferna discus Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 325 (319-336).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Upper Kasai District”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (west and central - Kwilu, Sankuru, Kisangami).
Amauris (Amaura) inferna grogani Sharpe, 1901
Amauris grogani Sharpe, 1901. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 8: 278 (278-286).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mushari, 8000 feet”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - north Kivu, Ituri), Uganda (extreme west).
torleyi Hulstaert, 1926 (as sp. of Amauris). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 14: 61 (60-63). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lulenga (Kivu)”.
Amauris (Amaura) inferna moka Talbot, 1940
Amauris inferna moka Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 325 (319-336).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Moka Bubi”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).
Amauris (Amaura) inferna uganda Talbot, 1940
Amauris inferna uganda Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 325 (319-336).

Type locality: Uganda: “Between Seziwa River and Kampala”.

Distribution: Uganda (except extreme west), Tanzania (north-west - single specimen from Kere Hill).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Kielland, vide Congdon and Collins, 1998; single male).
aurivilliana Bryk, 1937 (as f. of Amauris egialea). In: Bryk, F., Lepidopterorum Catalogus 28 (78): 191 (1-432). ‘s-Gravenhage. Uganda.

Amauris (Amaura) nossima (Ward, 1870)
Danais nossima Ward, 1870. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 6: 225 (224-228).

Type locality: Madagascar.

Taxonomy: The different forms of this species on Madagascar require re-examination from a geographic, genetic and conservation perspective. Some phenotypically distinctive populations may be highly threatened, if not already extinct (Lees et al., 2003).

Distribution: Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Mayotte).

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
interrupta Boullet, 1912 (as var. of Amauris nossima). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1912: 381 (381-382). Madagascar: “Vohémar, Madagascar”.
conjuncta Boullet, 1913 (as var. of Amauris nossima). Bulletin de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 19: 343 (342-343). No locality given.
defasciata Röber, 1937 (as ssp. of Amauris nossima). Entomologische Rundschau 54: 298 (298). Madagascar: “Madagaskar, Tananarive.
disjuncta Talbot, 1940 (as f. of Amauris nossima). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 323 (319-336). Madagascar. Apparently this form is confined to the 800-1000 m elevational belt of Montagne d’Ambre (Turlin, 1994: 192). This appears to represent the only extant population of this form (Lees et al., 2003).
antsingyi Paulian, 1956 (as f. of Amauris nossima). Faune de Madagascar 2: 7 (102 pp.). Madagascar: “Madagascar Ouest: Antsingy, 63 km Est de Maintirano, July 1949”. Lees et al., 2003 state that this taxon requires critical re-examination.

Amauris (Amaura) ochlea (Boisduval, 1847)

Euploea ochlea Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 589 (585-602).

Type locality: South Africa: “Baie de Port-Natal”.

Distribution: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999), Comoro Islands.

Common name: Novice; novice friar.

Habitat: Forest and coastal woodland. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from sea-level to 1 000 m and ssp. bumilleri from 600 to 1 700 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is slow, and often high up. Both sexes are very fond of flowers (Pringle, et al., 1994). Large numbers of individuals sometimes roost communally (Larsen, 1991).

Flight period: All year. In southern Africa it is scarce during the winter months (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Rogers and Van Someren, 1925: 35.

Egg creamy white; tall, oval; pointed at upper end; longitudinal ribs and numerous transverse ridges.


Clark, in Van Son, 1955: 12.

Egg laid singly on underside of leaf; 1.0-1.2 mm diameter by 2.0-2.3 mm high; 18-20 longitudinal ribs connected by 23-25 cross-ridges; pale cream changing to pale yellow, then brown with black top; egg stage 3-8 days. 1st instar larva – eats way out near top of egg and consumes shell; 3 mm long; pale brown; feeds on surface and later on edge of leaf; grows to 7 mm long; group of six setae on first wrinkle but may have an additional small seta in front of no. 5 from top; may also be an additional small seta to the general group of three on the ridge; duration 4 days; white spots of next instar develop towards end of first instar. 2nd instar larva – blackish with subdorsal row of white spots, one on each wrinkle except second, on central segments, but these spots interrupted on sements 2, 3, 5, 10 and 11; a single white spot on the third wrinkle on the lateral line; two white spots at extremes of each segment on a spiracular line and two elongated spots on the ridge; ventral portion brown to dull yellow; prolegs with black shields and jet-black spines; cuticle velvety, furry; duration 4-5 days; grows to 11 mm. 3rd instar larva – more white spots develop on each line; lateral line wavy; upper portion of body blackish, ventral portion light brown, interrupted by lighter cross stripes; duration 3-4 days; grows to 17 mm. 4th instar larva – still more development of spots, otherwise as in 3rd instar; duration 4-6 days; grows to 23-25 mm. 5th (final) instar larva – very similar to 4th instar but paler ventrally; fleshy processes on segments 2, 3, 5, 10 and 11, which have developed from small brown moles of 1st instar, are now long, tapered, flexible projections coated with fine fur similar to to that on upper portion of the body, where there are a few scattered small black setae; spiracles and head jet-black; duration 9 days; grows to 38-40 mm. Pupa – 20 mm long; at first translucent golden yellow, developing yellow-brown markings which turn brown after 2 days; remainder turns to mirror-like silver, sometimes with a touch of gold; twin black spots develop on each side and those on upper abdominal portion have a half-moon of salmon; markings turn black before emergence; pupal stage 17 days.


Larval food:

Tylophora anomala N. E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) [Platt (1921) cited by Van Son, 1955: 16].

Cynanchum chirindense S. Moore (Asclepiadaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921].

Tylophora stolzii (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Cynanchum abyssinicum Decnesi (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324; as C. abyssinica].

Gymnema species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Marsdenia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Secamone species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Cynanchum natalitium Schltr. (Asclepiadaceae) [Pringle, et al., 1994: 49].
Amauris (Amaura) ochlea ochlea (Boisduval, 1847)
Euploea ochlea Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 589 (585-602).

Type locality: South Africa: “Baie de Port-Natal”.
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