Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Sudan: “South Sudan”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia.

Amauris (Amaura) comorana Oberthür, 1897
Amauris comorana Oberthür, 1897. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1897: 191 (188-194).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Grande-Comore”. First description of female, Turlin, 1994. Lambillionea 94 (2) (Tome I): 193 (189-200).

Distribution: Comoro Islands (Grand Comore).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi Butler, 1897
Amauris crawshayi Butler, 1897. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 821 (817-850).

Type locality: Malawi: “Kapora, Songwe plain; Nkata Bay, W. coast of Lake Nyasa”.

Diagnosis: Differs from A. echeria in that the hindwing upperside pale band reaches much closer to the base and the forewing apex is broadly rounded (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Probably misattributed to the Ghana fauna (see ssp. camerunica, below).



Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from 300 to 2 200 m and ssp. oscarus is found from 900 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Tylophora species (Asclepiadaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 74].

Marsdenia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 74].

Cynanchum species (Asclepiadaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 74].

Gymnema species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Secamone species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Tylophora anomala (Asclepiadaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 49].
Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi crawshayi Butler, 1897
Amauris crawshayi Butler, 1897. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 821 (817-850).

Type locality: Malawi: “Kapora, Songwe plain; Nkata Bay, W. coast of Lake Nyasa”.

Distribution: Malawi (north), Tanzania (south and south-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – South and south-eastern parts of the country, west to Tukuyu and as far north as Image Mountain (Kielland, 1990).
alba Neustetter, 1916 (as var. of Amauris echeria). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 96 (95-108). “Ost-Afrika”.
Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi angola Bethune-Baker, 1914
Amauris angola Bethune-Baker, 1914. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1914: 336 (314-337).

Type locality: Angola: “[“N’Dalla Tando, N. Angola”].

Distribution: Angola.
Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi camerunica Joicey & Talbot, 1925
Amauris lobengula camerunica Joicey & Talbot, 1925. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 16: 643 (633-653).

Type locality: Ghana: “Gold Coast”. Probably a false locality (Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984). A co-type is from Cameroon (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Ghana, to Cameroon.

The Ghana record is doubtful (Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984).


Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi oscarus Thurau, 1904
Amauris echeria var. oscarus Thurau, 1904. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 301 (301-314).

Type locality: Uganda: “S. Albert-Nyansa”.

Distribution: Kenya (west), Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele, Ituri, Kivu), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Tiriki; Kakamega Forest (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Ntakatta Forest; Kemfu Forest; Mihumu Forest (rare in all) (Kielland, 1990).

Note: Kielland (1990: 75) and Larsen (1991: 261) treat oscarus as a distinct species.
prominens Grünberg, 1908 (as var. of Amauris echeria). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908: 50 (50-62). Uganda.
reducta Aurivillius, 1922 (as var. of Amauris crawshayi). Arkiv för Zoologi 14 (5): 3 (27 pp.). Uganda: “Entebbe”.
Amauris (Amaura) crawshayi simulator Talbot, 1926
Amauris echeria simulator Talbot, 1926: 226. [? No reference given in Ackery, et al., 1995.]

Amauris crawshayi simulator. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. R. Luena Lubudi, Shaba, Zaire [D.R.C.]. 10/4/82. S.C. Collins. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kasango, Katanga, S.E. Congo; Kinda”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east - Shaba, Lulua, Maniema), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – A single record, by White, from Nchelenge (Lake Mweru) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Amauris (Amaura) damocles (Fabricius, 1793)
Papilio damocles Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 41 (488 pp.).

Type locality: [West Africa.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Tanzania.

Common name: Small monk.

Habitat: Dry forest and Guinea savanna, as well as disturbed areas in the rainforest zone (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Dry season roosts containing hundreds of specimens were found at Boabeng-Fiema in Ghana by Larsen. Occasionaly individuals from this roost would come to water or flowers before rejoining the roost (Larsen, 2005a). Males are attracted to shrimp-baited traps (Larsen, 2005a). One of the forms of Hypolimnas anthedon mimics this species.

Early stages:
Ackery and Vane-Wright, 1984 [larva and pupa].
Larval food:

Possibly Pergularia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 2005a; Oban Hills, Nigeria].



Relevant literature:

Vane-Wright, R.I. 2003. Systematics and Biodiversity 1 (1): 3-11. [Key to semi-species]


Amauris (Amaura) damocles damocles (Fabricius, 1793)
Papilio damocles Fabricius, 1793. Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 41 (488 pp.).

Type locality: [West Africa.]

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
egialea Cramer, 1777 (as sp. of Papilio). Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America 2: 146 (151 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht. Sierra Leone: “la Côte de l’Afrique, à la Sierra Leona”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Papilio egialea Cramer, [1777] (Pieridae).]
punctata Dufrane, 1948 (as race of Amauris hyalites). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Guinea: “Macenta”.
Amauris (Amaura) damocles makuyensis Carcasson, 1964
Amauris egialia makuyensis Carcasson, 1964. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society & Coryndon Museum 24 (4): 66 (62-67).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Makuyu, Kigoma”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Amauris (Amaura) dannfelti Aurivillius, 1891
Amauris dannfelti Aurivillius, 1891. Entomologisk Tidskrift 12: 196 (193-228).

Type locality: [Angola]: “Congo-Gebiete”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zambia,

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Amauris (Amaura) dannfelti dannfelti Aurivillius, 1891
Amauris dannfelti Aurivillius, 1891. Entomologisk Tidskrift 12: 196 (193-228).

Type locality: [Angola]: “Congo-Gebiete”.

Distribution: Angola.
Amauris (Amaura) dannfelti restricta Talbot, 1940
Amauris dannfelti restricta Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 326 (319-336).

Amauris dannfelti restricta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 72mm. Kitwe, Zambia. 64.12.27. A.I. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 59).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga, Kambove”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east - Shaba, Maniema), Zambia (north).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Solwezi; Chingola; Mufulira; Kitwe; Luapula River; Lake Bangweulu; Luwingu; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Note: D’Abrera (1980) records this taxon from Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) but there are no verified records from southern Africa (Pringle, et al., 1994: 49).

Amauris (Amaura) echeria (Stoll, 1790)
Papilio echeria Stoll, 1790 in Stoll, [1787-90]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America [Supplement]: 135 [184 pp.]. Amsterdam.

Type locality: South Africa: “Pais de Caffres”.

Diagnosis: In A. albimaculata, as the specific name implies, the forewing spots are always pure white; those in A. echeria often have an ochreous tinge. In addition the palps, below, have a white stripe in albimaculata and a white spot in echeria (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Chief; chief friar.

Habitat: Semi-montane and montane forest. In Tanzania ssp. meruensis occurs at altitudes from 1 400 to 2 600 m, ssp. serica from 400 to 2 200 m, and ssp. terrena from 1 200 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Often common where it occurs, flying slowly along forest edges and in clearings (Pringle, et al., 1994). Both sexes come to flowers readily. Males sometimes form large, tightly-packed, assemblages at damp patches and are also attracted to civet scats, horse manure and carrion (Larsen, 1991). It is a model for a number of palatable species, amongst others, Papilio dardanus, Papilio echerioides, Hypolimnas anthedon, and Pseudacraea deludens.

Flight period: All year. In southern Africa it is commoner in the summer months (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:

Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 58 [as Amauris Echeria (Stoll); matterial ex Little Umhlanga, near Durban, KwaZulu-Natal]. Final instar larva and pupa, based on notes and drawings prepared by W.D. Gooch.

“Larva. Black, with narrow blue and orange longitudinal stripes. Median dorsal stripe, from 5th to 13th segment, very narrow, bright blue; subdorsal lateral stripe interrupted, yellow-orange; spiracular stripe (superior) interrupted, pale-orange, (inferior) festooned on each segment, yellow-orange. Spiracles faintly ringed with light blue. Skin slightly rugose. Head smooth, black. Five pairs of rather short, divergent, subdorsal black filaments, springing respectively from the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 11th , and 12th segments.” “Pupa. Thick, short, gibbous, moderately angulated. Shining silvery-golden; the angles and points defined with markings of red and black. Attached by the tail only; imago disclosed on the sixteenth day.”


Rogers and Van Someren, 1925.
Clark, in Van Son, 1955: 18.

Egg – laid singly; bright pale yellow, darkening slightly, with a black top as the black head of the larva develops; 1.1-1.24 mm in diameter by 1.8-1.95 mm high; 19-20 longitudinal ribs and 23-26 transverse ribs; egg stage about 6 days. 1st instar larva – eats way out near top of egg and consumes shell; 3 mm long; pale yellow with black head and black shield on first and final segments; setae black; five pairs of small conical brown projections on segments 2, 3, 5, 10 and 11 (develop into the long fleshy processes in later instars); setae mostly found on the first wrinkle on the centre of the lateral ridge of each segment; colour darkens and spots develop as instar progresses; grows to 6 mm in 6 days. 2nd instar larva – almost black with subdorsal row of yellow spots, those on third and fourth wrinkle very elongate and none present on second wrinkle; a lateral row of yellow spots, one per segment, and on the ridge there are two shoe-shaped spots; ventral portion dull yellow; prolegs with a brown shield; conical projections have now developed into long, fleshy, black processes covered with fine setae, giving them a velvety appearance; larva feeds on edge of leaf; grows to 9 or 10 mm in 5-7 days. 3rd instar larva – very similar to 2nd but there are more spots; a very small white spot has developed on the second wrinkle on the subdorsal line; grows to 15-16 mm in 5-7 days. 4th instar larva – a further development of the spots; grows to 23-24 mm in 7 days. 5th (final) instar larva – spots now clearly set out, those on second wrinkle white, the remainder yellow except for two large white spots on the dorsum of segment 1; grows to 35-38 mm in 7-13 days; before pupating larva spins a silk pad, inserts cremastral hooks and hangs down in a loop. Pupa – about 20 mm long (female pupa slightly larger than male pupa); at first watery yellow with pale brown markings but after 2 days yellow portion acquires a mirror-like surface with a slight blue tint; some pupa have a gold colour; pupal stage about 16 days.


Larval food:

Tylophora anomala N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) [Platt (1921) cited by Van Son, 1955: 18].

Cynanchum chirendense S. Moore (Asclepiadaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921?].

Tylophora stolzii (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia racemosa (= latifolia Schum.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia angolensis N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Bull. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Secamone africana (Oliv.) Bull. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.) Bull. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Gongronema species (Asclepiadaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 49].

Hoya species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Amauris (Amaura) echeria echeria (Stoll, 1790)
Papilio echeria Stoll, 1790 in Stoll, [1787-90]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America [Supplement]: 135 [184 pp.]. Amsterdam.

Type locality: South Africa: “Pais de Caffres”.

Diagnosis: Subspecies lobengula has the hindwing yellow band broader than in the nominate subspecies (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Zoutpansberg Forests (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Margate (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953)Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953).

Western Cape Province – Knysna (Swanepoel, 1953); George (Bridges).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).
vaillantiana Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824] (as sp. of Danais). Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 183 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris. South Africa: “Cafrerie”.
vaal Talbot, 1940 (as ssp. of Amauris echeria). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 328 (319-336). South Africa: “Eastern Transvaal”.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria abessinica Schmidt, 1921
Amauris lobengula abessinica Schmidt, 1921. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 35: 32 (32-51).

Type locality: Ethiopia [Eritrea]: “Asmara, Erytraea”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (north), Eritrea.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria chyuluensis van Someren, 1939
Amauris echeria chyuluensis van Someren, 1939. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 137 (130-151).

Type locality: Kenya: “Chyulu Hills”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Chyulu Hills; Teita Hills; Mt Sagala; Emali; Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (Larsen, 1991).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria contracta Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria contracta Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 330 ( 319-336).

Type locality: Kenya: “Hoey’s Bridge, nr. Cherangani Hills”.

Distribution: Kenya (north-west).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Mt Elgon; Cherangani Hills; Nandi Escarpment; Kitale district (Larsen, 1991).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria fernandina Schultze, 1914
Amauris fernandina Schultze, 1914. Entomologische Rundschau 31: 47 (47-48).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Meeresstrande bei San Carlos im Süden der Insel Fernando-Poo”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria jacksoni Sharpe, 1892
Amauris jacksoni Sharpe, 1892. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 633 (633-638).

Type locality: Kenya: “Sotik, Kavirondo”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-west), Uganda.

Specific localities:

Kenya – South Kavirondo; Kakamega Forest (Larsen, 1991).
luxuriosa Talbot, 1940 (as f. of Amauris echeria jacksoni). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 329 (319-336). Uganda: “Lake Niri”.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria katangae Neave, 1910
Amauris lobengula katangae Neave, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 8 (2-86).

Amauris echeria katangae. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 70mm. Biano, Shaba, Zaire [D.R.C.]. 5/86. Th. Bouyer. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kambove, Katanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south - Shaba), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Only known form a sight record by Heath, 100 km west of Kitwe (Heath, et al., 2002).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria kikuyu Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria kikuyu Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 329 (319-336).

Type locality: Kenya: “Mt. Kenya, Manyuki to Meru”.

Distribution: Kenya (central highlands).

Specific localities:

KenyaMt Kenya; Aberdares; Katamayu; Meru Forest; Nyambeni Hills (Larsen, 1991).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria lobengula (Sharpe, 1890)
Nebroda lobengula Sharpe, 1890. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 6: 346 (346-350).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Matabele Land”.

Diagnosis: Subspecies lobengula has the hindwing yellow band broader than in the nominate subspecies (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Zimbabwe, Botswana (single record), Mozambique (south), Malawi (south - Mlanje).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria meruensis Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria meruensis Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 330 (319-336).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mt. Meru”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-central).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kilimanjaro; Mount Meru; Oldeani-Ngorongoro Highlands; Mbulu forests; Mount Kwaraha; Mount Lolkisale; Mount Longido (Kielland, 1990); Arusha; Moshi.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria mongallensis Carpenter, 1928
Amauris lobengula mongallensis Carpenter, 1928. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 76: 35 (25-54).

Type locality: Sudan: “Didinga”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Uganda (extreme north).
imatongensis Talbot, 1941 (as ssp. of Amauris echeria). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 77: 213 (210-216). Sudan: “Lotti Forest”.
Amauris (Amaura) echeria mpala Talbot, 1940
Amauris echeria mpala Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 329 (319-336).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mpala, west of Lake Tanganyika”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Tanganika).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria occidentalis Schmidt, 1921
Amauris echeria occidentalis Schmidt, 1921. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 35: 33 (32-51).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Nordwest-Kamerun, Babanki und Babungo”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).
Amauris (Amaura) echeria septentrionis Poulton, 1924
Amauris lobengula septentrionis Poulton, 1924. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1924: 26 (25-29).
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