Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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partita Talbot, 1941 (as f. of Amauris niavius niavius). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 77: 210 (210-216). Sudan: “Didinga Mtns., Nagichot Sta.”.
Amauris (Amauris) niavius dominicanus Trimen, 1879
Amauris dominicanus Trimen, 1879. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1879: 323 (323-346).

Amauris niavius dominicanus. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 90mm. Durban. 10.8.1906. G.F. Leigh. (Transvaal Museum - TM3724).
Type locality: South Africa: “Natal”; Mozambique: “Quilimane”; “Zambesi”.

Diagnosis: Subspecies dominicanus is distinguished from the nominate subspecies by the more extensive white markings on the upperside of the hindwing (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Kenya (east of the Rift Valley), Tanzania (east, north, south-west), Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999). A single record from the Seychelles (Mahé island) (Legrand, 1965).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Marsabit; Nairobi; Shimba Hills (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Eastern, northern and south-western parts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Empangeni (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Sodwana Bay (Williams).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Note: Specimens in Trans-Nzoia, Kenya are transitional between ssp. niavius and dominicanus (Larsen, 1991).

Amauris (Amauris) tartarea Mabille, 1876
Amauris egialea var. tartarea Mabille, 1876. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 1: 199 (194-203, 274-281).

Amauris tartarea tartarea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 81mm. Angola (?). (Transvaal Museum - TM3727).
Type locality: Angola [Cabinda]: “Landana”.

Diagnosis: The amount of white on the hindwing upperside is extremely variable (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia.

Common names: Monk; dusky friar.

Habitat: Forest of various types, from wet to dry. Also in woodland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from 800 to 1 700 m; ssp. damoclides from sea-level to 2 000 m; ssp. tukuyuensis is found from 1 100 to 1 600 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Not particularly common but not as scarce as A. hecate (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is slow and leisurely but often high up in the tree-tops. Males may be found mud-puddling (Pringle, et al., 1994). Both sexes are attracted to flowers (Larsen, 2005a). Larsen (1991) noted hundreds in a communal roost in Nigeria, during the dry season. There were also lesser numbers of two other species of Amauris, Tirumala petiverana and Danaus chrysippus present in this roost. Males imbibe pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium (Boraginaceae), especially from the roots of dug-up plants (Larsen, 2005a). It is mimicked by Hypolimnas anthedon (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Ackery and Vane-Wright, 1984 [larva].
Larval food:

Asclepiadaceae [Kielland, 1990: 75].



Brassica species (Brassicaceae) [(Burkina Faso). Probably erroneous (Larsen, 2005a)].
Amauris (Amauris) tartarea tartarea Mabille, 1876
Amauris egialea var. tartarea Mabille, 1876. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 1: 199 (194-203, 274-281).

Amauris tartarea tartarea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 81mm. Angola (?). (Transvaal Museum - TM3727).
Type locality: Angola [Cabinda]: “Landana”.

Distribution: Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Mbini), Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia, Botswana (single record from north-east), Namibia (single record).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Ankasa (Larsen, 2005a).

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – From Mpanda to the Ugandan border (Kielland, 1990).

Nambia – Kombat (Braine; single specimen – probably a dispersant).

Botswana – Shakawe (Duke; single specimen – probably a dispersant).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kasangezhi; Mufulira; Ndola (Heath, et al., 2002).
psyttalea Plötz, 1880 (as sp. of Amauris). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 189 (189-206). Ghana: “Aburi”.
gabunica Aurivillius, 1881 (as var. of Amauris damocles). Entomologisk Tidskrift 2: 39 (38-47). Gabon: “Fran Gaboon”.
bulbifera Grose-Smith, 1887 (as sp. of Amauris). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 369 (369). Cameroon: “Cameroons”.
albidior Staudinger, 1896 (as var. of Amauris damocles). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 8: 368 (366-379). Gabon: “Gabun”.
mozarti Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Amauris). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 13 (12-107). Cameroon: “Ebea, Camerun”.
reata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Amauris tartarea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 13 (12-107). Cameroon: “Camerun”; Togo.
intermedia Grünberg, 1911 (as ab. of Amauris psyttalea). Wissenschaftliche Ergibnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1907-1908. 3 (17): 506 (506-560), 4 pls. Leipzig. Uganda: “W. Victoria-Nyanza, Budda-Wald”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kiwu See, Insel Kwidschwi”.
bibundana Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Amauris damocles). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.7.): 140 (138-151). Cameroon: “Bibundi”.
tartaroides Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Amauris damocles). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.7.): 140 (138-151). Cameroon: “Unikum von Bibundi”; Equatorial Guinea: “Makomo, Campogebiet, Alen Benitogebiet”.
bassana Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Amauris damocles). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.7.): 140 (138-151). Cameroon: “Bakoko-Bassagebiet”.
psyttaloides Strand, 1913 (as ab. of Amauris damocles). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.7.): 140 (138-151). Cameroon: “Makomo und Bibundi”.
vansomereni Bryk, 1937 (as ssp. of Amauris psyttalea). In: Bryk, F., Lepidopterorum Catalogus 28 (78): 203 (1-432). ‘s-Gravenhage. No locality given.
lagai Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Amauris psyttalea vansomereni). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Djamba, Uélé”.
palisotea Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Amauris tartarea). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [2] ([3 pp.]). No locality given.
steropes Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Amauris tartarea). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [2] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Malawa Forest”.
Amauris (Amauris) tartarea damoclides Staudinger, 1896
Amauris damocles var. damoclides Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 8: 367 (366-379).

Amauris tartarea damoclides. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 81mm. Naching’-Anda, Malawi. 14 Oct 1982. R.J. Dowsett No. 465. (Henning collection - H156).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Dar-es-Salam”.

Diagnosis: Upperside hindwing white patch larger than in nomonate subspecies and shows little variation in extent (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya (south-east), Tanzania (east and north), Malawi, Zambia (north-east).

Specific localities:

TanzaniaRau Groundwater Forest Reserve, Moshi; Kahe Forest Reserve, south of Moshi (Cordeiro, 1995).

Zambia – Mbala; Chinsali; Lufubu River (Heath, et al., 2002).
lecerfi Boullet, 1913 (as sp. of Amauris). Bulletin de Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris 19: 342 (342-343). Tanzania: “Afrique orientale allemande”.
amplificata Joicey and Talbot, 1925 (as ab. of Amauris damocles damoclides). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 16: 643 (633-653). Tanzania: “Lindi”.
Amauris (Amauris) tartarea tukuyuensis Kielland, 1990
Amauris tartarea tukuyuensis Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 75 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Tukuyu, Musekera”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

Male. H.w. white area larger than in ssp. tartarea, and smaller than in ssp. damoclides, extending from one-third to half-way of the length of vein 2 from its base (in tartarea at the most less than one-third; in damoclides in most cases over half-way); the extent of the white area covers less than half the length of vein 4 from its base (in damoclides half the length or over; in tartarea at the most one-third of the length, but usually much less). Androconial patch as in the other races. The narrow white sub-basal spot in space 1b of the f.w. reduced to almost lacking in the males; the long white streak in 1a prominent as in damoclides. Length of f.w. 43.5 mm. Female. As the male, but f.w. white streak in 1a prominent. Length of f.w. 43 mm.”



Diagnosis: Extent of upperside hindwing white patch intermediate between the nominate subspecies and ssp. damoclides, and showing very little variation in extent (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (south-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Musekera Tea Plantation south of Tukuyu; Rungwe Mission in Tukuyu Diatrict (Kielland, 1990).

Note: Larsen (2005a) states that ssp. tukuyuensis is doubtfully distinct from ssp. damoclides

Subgenus Amaura Geyer, [1837]
In: Hübner, J., Zuträge sur Sammlung exotische Schmetterlinge 5: 39 (52 pp.). Rennes.

Type-species: Danais phaedone Godart, by subsequent designation (Hemming, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 23 (23-30).).


= Conoploea Guenée, 1865. In: Vinson, A., Voyage à Madagascar au Couronnement de Radama II 27 (25-48). Paris. Type-species: Danais phaedone Godart, by monotypy.
= Cadytis Moore, 1883. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883: 226 (201-324). Type-species: Danais vashti Butler, by monotypy.
= Berethis Moore, 1883. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883: 228 (201-324). Type-species: Papilio phoedon Fabricius, by monotypy.
= Nebroda Moore, 1883. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883: 228 (201-324). Type-species: Papilio echeria Stoll, by original designation.
= Amaurina Aurivillius, 1910. In: Sjöstedt, B. Y., Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schweidischen zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den umgebeden Massaisteppen Deutsch-OstAfrikas 1905-1906. 2 (9): 2 (56 pp.). Stockholm. Type-species: Amauris ansorgei Sharpe, by subsequent designation (Bryk, 1937. In: Bryk, F., Lepidopterorum Catalogus 28 (78): 183 (1-432). ‘s-Gravenhage.). [Invalid; junior homonym of Amaurina Kolbe, 1895.]
= Panamauris Bryk, 1937. In: Bryk, F., Lepidopterorum Catalogus 28 (78): 183 (1-432). ‘s-Gravenhage. [Replacement name for Amaurina Aurivillius.]
= Egialea Hemming, 1964. Annotationes lepidopterologicae (Part 4): 145 (145-146). Type-species: Papilio damocles Fabricius, by original designation.

Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata Butler, 1875

Amauris echeria var. albimaculata Butler, 1875. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 16: 394 (394-420).

Type locality: South Africa: “Natal”.

Diagnosis: As the specific name implies, the forewing spots are always pure white; those in A. echeria often have an ochreous tinge. In addition the palps, below, have a white stripe in albimaculata and a white spot in echeria (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Layman; Layman friar.

Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania ssp. hanningtoni occurs at altitudes from 800 to 1 800 m, ssp. interposita from 1 200 to 2 600 m, and ssp. latifascia from 1 000 to 2 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is slow and lazy, unless it is disturbed. It normally flies high up but comes down to feed from flowers. Males mud-puddle and are also attracted by animal dung (Larsen, 1991). Males often select perches to which they return following short flights (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year. In southern Africa they are commonest in the late summer months (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Rogers and Van Someren, 1925.
Clark, in Van Son, 1955: 14.

Egg – laid in neat clusters of 3-40 or more depending on size of foodplant; colour cream, changing to yellow and later to pale brown with a black top; 15-19 longitudinal ribs cross-braced by 16-17 fine ribs; size variable but average 1.0 mm diameter by 1.5 mm high; egg stage about 7 days. 1st instar larva – eats way out of shell near top and consumes shell; 3 mm long; pale chocolate with black spines and black head and a pair of dark brown elongated moles on each of segments 2, 3, 5, 10 and 11; shortly after consuming shell larva develops a sudorsal row of yellow dots; larvae cluster together and feed on surface of leaf; grow to 5 mm in 4 days. 2nd instar larva – still gregarious but feed on edge of leaf; black with black head; subdorsal row of spots; spot on first wrinkle small and white, no spot on second; third, fourth an fifth each with a yellow spot; these spots modified or displaced on segments that bear the black processes (which have developed from the elongated moles of the 1st instar); grow to 8.5 mm in 4 days. 3rd instar larva grows to 16 mm in 3-4 days. 4th instar larva grows to 22 mm in 3-6 days. 5th (final) instar larva grows to 33 mm (males) or 36 mm (females) in 6 days. Pupa – 20-22 mm long; pale yellow with greyish brown markings dorsally and a row of brown spots laterally; pupal stage about 15 days.


Larval food:

Cynanchum chirindense S. Moore (Asclepiadaceae) [Swynnerton, cited by Platt, 1921?].

Tylophora anomala N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) [Platt (1921) cited by Van Son, 1955: 16; Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Tylophora stolzii (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia racemosa (= latifolia Schum.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia angolensis N.E. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Gymnema species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Secamone species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 261].

Cynanchum natalitium Schltr. (Asclepiadaceae) [Williams, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 49].

Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata albimaculata Butler, 1875
Amauris echeria var. albimaculata Butler, 1875. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 16: 394 (394-420).

Type locality: South Africa: “Natal”.

Diagnosis: Compared to the nominate subspecies ssp. chirindana has the yellow band on the hindwing a little narrower (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Mozambique (south), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata chirindana Talbot, 1941
Amauris albimaculata chirindana Talbot, 1941. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 77: 211 (210-216).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Gazaland, Melstetter, 3800 ft, Mt Chirinda (forest)”.

Diagnosis: Compared to the nominate subspecies ssp. chirindana has the yellow band on the hindwing a little narrower (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Mozambique (west), Zimbabwe (east).

Specific localities:

Zimbabwe – Trelawney (Pringle, et al., 1994).
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata hanningtoni Butler, 1888
Amauris hanningtoni Butler, 1888. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 91 (91-98).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Hills of Terta”.

Diagnosis: Hindwing upperside band whitish (seldom yellowish) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Somalia (south), Kenya (east, south-east), Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Teita Hills; Mt Sagala; Chyulu Hills; Kasigau; Dabida; Voi; coast (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Usambara Mountains; North and South Pare Mountains (Kielland, 1990).
virginalis Köhler, 1923 (as sp. of Hirsutis). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie 18 (Sonderbeilage): 19 (34 pp.). [East Africa]: “Missiones”. [False locality.]
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata intermedians Hulstaert, 1926
Amauris intermedians Hulstaert, 1926. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 14: 60 (60-63).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon.
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata interposita Talbot, 1940
Amauris albimaculata interposita Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 327 (319-336).

Type locality: Tanzania: “West Kilimanjaro”.

Diagnosis: Hindwing upperside band yellowish and relatively narrow (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya (central and west), Tanzania (north - Mt Meru and western Kilimanjaro).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Northern Highlands, including Mount Kwaraha, the Mbulu Mountains, Oldeani-Ngorongoro, Mount Meru, Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Longido (Kielland, 1990).
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata latifascia Talbot, 1940
Amauris albimaculata latifascia Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 327 (319-336).

Amauris albimaculata latifascia. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 66mm. N.E. Zambia. Mbala. 29.III.1970. J.C. Little. (Newport Collection).

Amauris albimaculata latifascia. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Tanzania. Mufindi, Kigoga. 25.III.1982. Jan Kielland. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: Malawi: “Mt Mlange”.

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia (north).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Southern and eastern Tanzania (excluding the Usambara and Pare Mountains), inland to the Rubeho Mountains, Ukaguru Mountains, Nguru Mountains and Nguu Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Kundalila Falls; Kanona; Mpika; Shiwa Ngandu; Bwingi Mfumu; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata magnimacula Rebel, 1914
Amauris albimaculata f. magnimacula Rebel, 1914. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 231 (219-294).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Rutschuru-Ebene, Urwalde Beni”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Ituri, Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania (north-west).
similis Joicey and Talbot, 1921 (as ssp. of Amauris egialea). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 46 (40-166). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Rutschuri River, N. Kivu”.
impar Aurivillius, 1922 (as var. of Amauris ?egialea). In: Rothschild, M., Extrait du voyage de M. le Baron Maurice de Rothschild en Ethiopie et Afrique Orientale Anglaise 335 (333-386). Paris. Uganda.
semifascia Talbot, 1941 (as f. of Amauris albimaculata magnimacula). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 77: 212 (210-216). Uganda: “Mabira Forest”.
Amauris (Amaura) albimaculata sudanica Talbot, 1940
Amauris albimaculata sudanica Talbot, 1940. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 328 (319-336).
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