Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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BUTTERFLIES AND SKIPPERS

OF THE AFROTROPICAL REGION
(PAPILIONOIDEA AND HESPERIOIDEA)
AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA
© Seventh edition (2008)

(Copyright Reserved)


FILE I – DANAINAE, NYMPHALINAE, APATURINAE, LIBYTHEINAE, BIBLIDINAE, CYRESTINAE (NYMPHALIDAE)

Compiled by Mark C. Williams


183 van der Merwe Street, Rietondale
PRETORIA 0001
E-mail: mark.williams@up.ac.za

FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE
Swainson, 1827



SUBFAMILY DANAINAE

Boisduval, 1833

The danaine clade

Subfamily Danainae Boisduval, 1833

Tribe Tellervini Fruhstorfer, 1910



Tribe Danaini Boisduval, 1833

Subtribe Danaina Boisduval, 1833

Subtribe Euploeina Moore, 1880

Tribe Ithomiini Godman & Salvin 1879




TRIBE DANAINI

Boisduval, 1833

SUBTRIBE DANAINA

Boisduval, 1833

Genus Danaus Kluk, 1780
Hist. nat. poczatki i gospodarstwo 84 (4 vols.). [2:2:11]

Type-species: Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Hemming, 1933. Entomologist 66: 222 (222-225).).


A cosmopolitan genus of 12 species, three which are found in the Afrotropical Region. Classification of the genus by Smith et al., 2005.

= Danaida Latreille, 1804. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle 24: 185, 189 (129-200). Type-species: Danaus plexippus Linnaeus, by monotypy.


= Limnas Hübner, 1806. Tentamen determinationis digestionis atque denomnationis singularum stirpium Lepidoptorum, peritis ad inspiciendum et dijudicandum communicatum [1] ([2] pp.). Augsburg. Type-species: Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus, by monotypy. [Placed on the Official List of Rejected and Invalid Names in Zoology; Opinion 278, 1954. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 6: 137-177.]
= Danais Latreille, 1807. Magazin für Insektenkunde (Illiger) 6: 292 (290-295). Type-species: Danaus plexippus Linnaeus, by monotypy.
= Danaus Latreille, 1809. Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum.....4: 201 (399 pp.). Parisiis & Argentorati. Type-species: Danaus plexippus Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1872. Report of the Peabody Academy of Science 1871: 28 (24-82).).
= Anosia Hübner, 1816. In: Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 16 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg.

Type-species: Papilio gilippus Cramer, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 113 (91-293).) [extralimital]. Synonymized with Danaus by Smith et al., 2005.


= Festivus Crotch, 1872. Cistula Entomologica 1: 62 (59-71). Type-species: Danaus plexippus Linnaeus, by original designation.
= Panlymnas Bryk, 1937. In: Bryk, F., Lepidopterorum Catalogus 28 (78): 56 (1-432). ‘s-Gravenhage. Type-species: Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus. [Replacement name for Limnas Hübner.]
Synonyms based on extralimital type-species: Tasitia Moore; Danamorpha Kremky.

Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 471 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type locality: U.S.A.: “New York State, Kendall”.

Distribution: Generally extralimital.

Habitat:

Early stages: ?

Larval food: ?
Danaus plexippus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 471 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type locality: U.S.A.: “New York State, Kendall”.

Distribution: Generally extralimital. Recorded from Mauritius in 1984 by Dr J.R. Williams of the Sugar Industry Research Institute of Mauritius (Davis & Barnes, 1991) and from Reunion in 1985 (Ackery, et al., 1995: 268).

Specific localities:

Mauritius – Curepipe (J.R. Williams; April 1984). By 1991 widesperead and fairly common (Davis & Barnes, 1991).

Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 471 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type locality: [China, Canton]: “Aegyptus, America”. [False locality; see Corbet, 1949.]

Taxonomy: Talbot (1943) divided the Afrotropical populations of D. chrysippus into three subspecies, viz. ssp. alcippus in West Africa, ssp. dorippus in the horn of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and ssp. chrysippus in the rest of Africa. Ackery et al. (1995) do not list this publication in their bibliography and, therefore, apparently missed it. Lushai et al. (2003 and 2005) not only recognize Talbot’s subspecific treatment but suggest that ssp. alcippus should probably be accorded specific status. They do not, however, formally raise it to species level. Smith et al. (2005) recognize three subspecies: chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758), alcippus (Cramer, 1777) and orientis (Aurivillius, 1909). The taxon dorippus (Klug, 1845) has been elevated to a full species (Smith et al., 2005) (see next entry).

Distribution: Throughout the Afrotropical Region, including Cape Verde Islands, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Macias Nguema = Fernando Po), Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Arabia (Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates), Madagascar, Comoro Islands, Mauritius, Rodriques, Reunion, Bourbon, Seychelles, Aldabra, St Helena.

Extralimitally (as the nominate subspecies) in China, Taiwan, Japan, Indo-China, Philippines, Borneo, Malay Peninsula (Kedah & Langkawi Island), Thailand, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Malta, Greece, Italy, Spain, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Canary Islands, Arabia, Egypt (Smith et al., 2005). Recently recorded from Great Britain (Jersey) (Long, 2006).



Common name: African monarch. Known as the plain tiger or common tiger in the Oriental Region.

Habitat: A variety of habitats, excluding dense forest, from sea-level to high mountains. Even dense primary forest can be temporarily penetrated during the dry season (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Because they are distasteful to vertebrate predators, the flight is slow. Both sexes often feed from flowers and males will occasionally mud-puddle; rarely males are also attracted to carnivore dung. Males are often noted imbibing pyrrolizidine alkaloids from suitable plant material (e.g. Heliotropium sp.) (Larsen, 2005a). In Botswana Larsen (1991) saw numbers attracted to scarabs that had been crushed on a road in the Kalahari. Sometimes small clusters can be found roosting on grass or dry plants. Migrations are common; often they form part of mixed migrations (Larsen, 1968, 1978, 1992; Samraoui, 1993). North-bound migrations in West Africa are probably the source of records of numbers of white-hindwing individuals in North Africa and Malta (Larsen, 1986; 2005a). Brower, et al. (1978) found that 40% of Kenyan specimens contained cardenolides. In West African populations this is apparently much lower (Larsen, 1991). Two successful mimics are the females of Hypolimnas misippus and Pseudacraea poggei. Curiously, in West Africa all D. chrysippus have white hindwings, whereas the females of H. misippus usually have brown hindwings (Larsen, 2005a).

In Mauritius specimens have been noted imbibing exudations from the ends of broken branches lying on the ground, belonging to the tree Tournefortia argentea L. (Boraginaceae), presumably for the pyrollizidine alkaloids that may be present in the exudations (Davis & Barnes, 1991).

There are a number of papers dealing with female-biased sex ratios in east African populations. This is the result of infection by bacteria belonging to the genus Spiroplasma, which specifically kills male embryos (Smith, 1975f, 1976a; Gordon et al., 1999; Jiggins et al., 2000).

Flight period: All year.

Early stages:
Horsfield & Moore, 1857 (Cat. Lep.E.I.C. Mus. Volume 1, plate 4, ff. 7,7a) [Java]
Trimen, 1862: 89 and 90 (Rhop. Afr. Aus., Vol. 1). [South Africa]
Trimen, 1866: plate 1, figs 3, 3a (Rhop. Afr. Aus., Vol. 2). [South Africa]
Moore, 1880 (Lep. Ceylon, p.7, pl. 3, f. 1b) [Ceylon]
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 53 [as Danais Chrysippus (L.)].

“Larva. Pale bluish-grey; on the back transversely barred with bright pale-yellow and streaked with black. Yellow bar on front of each segment from 3rd to 12th (both inclusive), edged with black both anteriorly and posteriorly, and usually divided mesially by a short black streak uniting the black edges; three thin black streaks across each of these segments in its middle and posterior portion, and three similar streaks also on 2nd and last segments; front of head with a black horseshoe-shaped streak; spiracular stripe bright-yellow, rather suffused; legs bluish-grey barred with black. Three pairs of moderately long, black, flexible filaments, springing from the back of the 3rd, 6th, and 12th segments respectively, in each case from near the extremities of the transverse yellow bar; all these filaments are crimson just at the base, and the front pair longer than the others. Length, 1 in. 6-9 lin.” “Pupa. Semi-translucent; either green or pinkish, and sometimes of a tint including both hues. A raised golden spot on each eye, at the base of the wings, and about the middle of the costal edge of the wings; also two similar spots on each side of back of thorax. On fourth segment of abdomen, dorsally and laterally, a thin blackish tuberculated ridge, edged posteriorly by a continuous row of golden dots. Attached to twigs of the larva’s food-plant. Usual period of development into imago, fourteen to twenty days.”


Rogers and Van Someren, 1925: 28 (J. E. Afr. Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc. 21: 28).

Eggs laid singly on upper- or underside of leaves; occasionally four or five eggs scattered on a single leaf. Sometimes eggs are laid on other vegetation near the foodplant. Egg is oval; rather pointed at top end; flattened at base; longitudinally ribbed with ridges between the ribs. Larvae may emerge in as little as three days. First instar 3 mm long; greyish brown in colour; translucent, with faint indications of cross bars. Growth is very rapid. Second instar coloration similar to final instar but ornamentation less pronounced. Final instar reaches 40-50 mm in length; bluish grey dorsally; finely barred transeversely with black; each segment, except first, dorsally ornamented with two contiguous oval orange or yellow spots; purplish black ventrally, separated from the bluish grey of the upper parts by a somewhat diffuse spiracular line. Head greyish with frontal horseshoe-shaped line of black. Dorsum of 2nd, 5th and 11th segments with a pair of long flexible filaments arising from the extremities of the yellow spots; bases of filaments reddish; anterior pair are the longest. Just before pupation the dorsal yellow marks become less pronounced and the yellow body-line becomes more distinct; larvae becomes translucent purplish. Larva suspends itself from the posterior end and pupates within 48 hours. Pupa translucent pale pink or pale green, slightly more opaque in the region of the wing cases; ornamented dorsally with golden spots at the line of angulation of the abdominal segments; abdominal spiracles denoted by faint yellowish dots. Pupal period 10 days to 3 weeks. Larvae heavily parasitised by several species of fly.


Clark, in Van Son, 1955: 7.

Egg 0.9 mm in diameter; 1.4 mm high; 19-21 longitudinal ribs of which 10-12 reach micropyle; 23-25 (occasionally 30) cross-ridges; pale yellow or white. Five larval instars lasting about one month. First instar dirty yellow or grey, with dull yellow or purplish red protuberances and black head; darkens later to pale olive with protuberances brown; densely setose. Second instar glabrous; protuberances more elongated; colour a little darker and beginning to show variegation apparent in the later instars.


Dickson, 1972.
Carcasson, 1981 [larva and pupa].
Ackery and Vane-Wright, 1984 [larva].
Larval food:

Antirrhinum species (Scrophulariaceae) [Van Son, 1955: 7].

Araujia sericifera Brot. (Asclepiadaceae) (exotic) [Williams, 1996: 131; Onderstepoort, Pretoria district, Gauteng].

Gomphocarpus fruticosus (= Asclepias fruticosa L.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 53; Cape Town?, Western Cape, and M. E. Barber, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 53; Grahamstown, Eastern Cape].

Asclepias meyeriana (Asclepiadaceae) [Kroon, 1999].

Gomphocarpus physocarpus (= Asclepias physocarpa (E. Mey.) Schltr.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Aspidoglossum interruptum Bull. (= Schizoglossum massaicum) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Calotropis procera or gigantea [Larsen, 2005a; Accra, Ghana].

Caraluma spp. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Ceropegia barberae Harv. (Asclepiadaceae) [M. E. Barber, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 53; Trans-Kei, Eastern Cape].

Ceropegia bulbosa var lushii (Grah.) Hook. F. (Asclepiadaceae) [Patil and Almeida, 1996; India].

Cynanchum abyssinicum Dacnesni (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Cynanchum altoscadens Schum. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Cynanchum obtusifolium L. f. (Asclepiadaceae) [Pringle, et al., 1994: 48].

Dyerophytum indicum (Plumbaginaceae) [Larsen (1975) teste Granville-White. This is probably erroneous (Larsen, 2005a)].

Gomphocarpus kaesneri Brown (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Gomphocarpus semilunata Rich. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Gomphocarpus stenophyllus Oliv. (= leucocarpa) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Huernia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Son, 1955: 7].

Huernia hystrix (Asclepiadaceae) [Nichols, 1995].

Huernia zebrina (Asclepiadaceae) [Nichols teste Botha & Botha, 2006].

Kanahia glaberrima (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Kanahia lasiflora Forsk. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Orbea variegata (Asclepiadaceae) [Nichols teste Botha & Botha, 2006].

Pachycarpus dealbatus (Asclepiadaceae) [Kroon, 1999].

Pergularia extensa (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Periploca linarifolia (Periplocaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Rosa species (Rosaceae) [Van Son, 1955: 7].

Secamone platystigma (= africana Oliv.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Stapelia species (Asclepaidaceae) [Bowker, in Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 53; near King William's Town, Eastern Cape].

Stathmostelma gigantiflorum Schum. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Stathmostelma pedunculatum Decnesi (= macrantha) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Xysmalobium undulatum (Asclepiadaceae) [Nichols teste Botha & Botha].

Relevant literature:

Pringle, E. 2003. Metamorphosis 14 (1): 33-34.


Danaus chrysippus chrysippus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Papilio chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 471 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Type locality: [China, Canton]: “Aegyptus, America”. [False locality; see Corbet, 1949.]

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya (Smith et al., 2005).

Extralimitally in China, Taiwan, Japan, Indo-China, Philippines, Borneo, Malay Peninsula (Kedah & Langkawi Island), Thailand, Burma, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Malta, Greece, Italy, Spain, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Canary Islands, Arabia, Egypt (Smith et al., 2005). Recently recorded from Great Britain (Jersey) (Long, 2006).



Specific localities:
aegyptius Von Schreber, 1759 (as sp. of Papilio). Novae Species Insectorum 12 (16 pp.). [Available as facsimile in Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History 1: 221-240.]. Egypt: “Aegypto”. Synonymized with chrysippus by Lushai et al., 2005.
asclepiadis Gagliardi, 1811 (as sp. of Papilio). Atti del Reale Istituto d’Incorraggiamento alle Scienze Naturali di Napoli 1: 160 (155-161). “India Orientali vel Aegypto”.
alcippoides Moore, 1883 (as sp. of Limnas). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883: 238 (201-324). Nepal. [Based on extralimital material, but applied to a form of the African subspecies (Ackery, et al., 1995: 268).]
albinus Lanz, 1896 (as ab. of Danais dorippus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 130 (113-147). Tanzania: “Parumbira”.
infumata Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9 (as ab. of Danaida dorippus). Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 33 (1-561). Sudan: “Nubia”.
transiens Suffert, 1900 (as ab. of Danaus dorippus). Berliner Entomologischer Zeitschrift 45: 116 (115-116). Deutsche-Ostafrika bis Arabien”.
semialbinus Strand, 1910 (as ab. of Danaida dorippus). Societas Entomologica 25: 5 (5-6). Tanzania: “Amani”.
praealbata Froreich, 1928 (as ab. of Danais chrysippus). Societas Entomologica 43: 39 (39). South Africa: “Fort Napier, Südafrika (Kapland)”.
impunctata Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Léopoldville”.
bipunctata Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge”.
duplicata Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Léopoldville”.
anomala Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Léopoldville”.
reducta Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge”.
subreducta Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kipushi, Haut-Katanga”.
completa Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Léopoldville”.
duponti Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “les environs de la mission norvégienne de Kikwendi, à environs 100 Km. S-O. De Costermansville, Kivu”.
deficiens Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Léopoldville”.
radiata Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Danaus (Limnas) chrysippus). Miscellanea Entomologica 45: 50 (49-51). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kilo-Moto”.
witteellus Overlaet, 1955 (as f. of Danaus (Panlymnas) chrysippus liboria). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 7 (1-106). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Ganza”.
hypermnestra Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Danaus chrysippus). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [1] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Karuna, near Nairobi”; Uganda: “Bombo”.
Danaus chrysippus alcippus (Cramer, 1777)
Papilio alcippus Cramer, 1777. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America 2: 45 (151 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht.

Danaus chrysippus alcippus Lushai et al., 2003.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Cote de Guinée, Sierra Leona”.

Distribution: Cape Verde Islands, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Macias Nguema = Fernando Po), Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Yemen, Oman (Smith et al., 2005).

Specific localities:

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).
chrysippellus Strand, 1909 (as ab. of Danaida chrysippus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 75 (1.3.): 373 (367-386). Cameroon: “Barombi-Station in Kamerun”.
Danaus chrysippus orientis (Aurivillius, 1909)
Danaida chrysippus var. orientis Aurivillius, 1909. In: Voeltzkow, A., Reise in Ostafrika in den Jahren 1903-1905 2: 310 (309-348). Stuttgart.

Danaus chrysippus orientis (Aurivillius); Smith et al., 2005.

Danaus chrysippus orientis. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 75mm. Nylsvley, Naboomspruit, Rep. S. Afr. SE 24 28 Da, 1100 m. Savanna Ecosystem Research Project, C.S.I.R. 26/4/84. (Transvaal Museum - TM3717).
Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Comoren”; Madagascar: “Madagaskar”; Seychelles: “Aldabra”.

Distribution: Gabon, Congo, Angola, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, North West Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State Province, Eastern Cape Province, Western Cape Province, Northern Cape Province), Swaziland, Lesotho, Madagascar, Comoro Islands, Seychelles, Aldabra, Mauritius, Reunion, Bourbon, Rodriguez, St Helena.

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Sterkspruit Nature Reserve (Williams); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams) ; Mountain Sanctuary N.R. (Williams).

Gauteng – Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001); Buffelsdrif Conservancy (Williams).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Mauritius – Common and widespread (Davis & Barnes, 1991).
liboria Hulstaert, 1931 (as ssp. of Danaus chrysippus). Genera Insectorum (193) 28 (213 pp.). “Inde continent, Afrique orientale”. Synonymized with D. chrysippus orientis by Lushai et al., 2005.

Danaus dorippus (Klug, 1845)

Euploea dorippus Klug, 1845. In Klug, 1829-45. In: Ehrenburg, C.G., Symbolae Physicae, seu icones et descriptiones corporum naturalium novarum aut minus cognitorum pl. 48 ([183] pp.).

Limnas dorippus (Klug, 1845). Moore, 1883.

Danaus chrysippus (L.) aegyptius (Schreber, 1759) f. dorippus (Klug, 1845). Talbot, 1943.

Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus (L.) f. dorippus (Klug, 1845). Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984.

Danaus chrysippus dorippus (Klug, 1845). Lushai et al., 2003.

Danaus dorippus (Klug, 1845). Smith et al., 2005.

Type locality: Sudan: “Dongala, Ambukohl”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Arabia. Occasional dispersing individuals are recorded as far south as South Africa (Swanepoel, 1953; Pringle et al., 1994).

Extralimitally in Iran, Pakistan (Baluchistan), India (Sind, Kutch) [ssp. dorippus]. Subspecies bataviana (Moore, 1883) occurs in the Oriental Region (see Smith et al., 2005).



Habitat:

Habits: D. dorippus appears to fly somewhat faster and higher than D. chrysippus (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages:

Larval food:
klugii Butler, 1886 (as sp. of Limnas). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1885: 758 (756-776). Somalia: “Inland, South of Berbera”.
evanescens Storace, 1949 (as ab. of Danaus chrysippus dorippus). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (di Genova) Giacomo Doria 64: 20 (12-29). Somalia: “Belet Amin”.
Danaus dorippus dorippus (Klug, 1845)
Euploea dorippus Klug, 1845. In Klug, 1829-45. In: Ehrenburg, C.G., Symbolae Physicae, seu icones et descriptiones corporum naturalium novarum aut minus cognitorum pl. 48 ([183] pp.).

Limnas dorippus (Klug, 1845). Moore, 1883.

Danaus chrysippus (L.) aegyptius (Schreber, 1759) f. dorippus (Klug, 1845). Talbot, 1943.

Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus (L.) f. dorippus (Klug, 1845). Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984.

Danaus chrysippus dorippus (Klug, 1845). Lushai et al., 2003.

Danaus dorippus (Klug, 1845). Smith et al., 2005.

Type locality: Sudan: “Dongala, Ambukohl”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Arabia. Occasional dispersing individuals are recorded as far south as South Africa (Swanepoel, 1953; Pringle et al., 1994).

Extralimitally in Iran, Pakistan (Baluchistan), India (Sind, Kutch) [ssp. dorippus]. Subspecies bataviana (Moore, 1883) occurs in the Oriental Region (see Smith et al., 2005).



Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Great Saltpan (Williams, unpublished, 1978).

KwaZulu-Natal – Durban (Trimen & Bowker, 1887).

Genus Tirumala Moore, 1880
In: Moore, [1880-2]. The lepidoptera of Ceylon 1: 4 (190 pp.). London.

Type-species: Papilio limniace Cramer, by original designation [extralimital].


= Melinda Moore, 1883. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1883: 229 (201-324). Type-species: Danais formosa Godman, by monotypy. [Invalid; junior homonym of Melinda Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830.]
= Elsa Honrath, 1892. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36: 436 (429-440). Type-species: Elsa morgeni Honrath, by monotypy.
An Old World genus of nine species, two of which are Afrotropical.

Tirumala formosa (Godman, 1880)
Danais formosa Godman, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 183 (182-185).

Tirumala formosa formosa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Volgo F., Boure, 45k SW. Jimma, W. Ethiopia. 11/13.7.95. S. Collins. (Curle Trust Collection - 58).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Gnuru Hills, East Africa”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia.

Common name: Beautiful tiger; large tiger.

Habitat: Semi-montane forest. Rarely found below 1 500 in Kenya and Nigeria (Larsen, 1991; Larsen, 2005a) and up to 2 300 m in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990). At 1 100 m in Korup, Cameroon. Occasionally as low as 300 m (Sanje, in Tanzania) (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Normally flies high up in the forest canopy, with a slow, gliding flight, unless disturbed. Specimens regularly come down to feed from flowers. Males have been seen imbibing pyrrolizidine alkaloids from species of Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) (Larsen, 1991). Males congregate to mud-puddle (Congdon and Collins, 1998). Kielland (teste Larsen, 2005a) noted a northward migration in Tanzania, but migrations are probably unusual for this species. Mimicked by the much larger Papilio rex, the subspecies even mimicking those of its model (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Rogers and Van Someren, 1925.
Larval food:

Cryptolepis spp. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Secamone platystigma (= africana (Oliv.( Bull.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Secamone micranda (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Secamone punctulata Decnesni (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323; Congdon and Collins, 1998: 35; Tanzania; oviposition only; as Secamone punctata].

Secamone zambesiaca (= parvifolia (Oliv.) Bull.) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Periploca linearifolia (Periplocaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Tirumala formosa formosa (Godman, 1880)
Danais formosa Godman, 1880 in Godman and Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1880: 183 (182-185).

Tirumala formosa formosa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 74mm. Volgo F., Boure, 45k SW. Jimma, W. Ethiopia. 11/13.7.95. S. Collins. (Curle Trust Collection - 58).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Gnuru Hills, East Africa”.

Distribution: Kenya (highlands east of Rift Valley), Tanzania (north-east and western highlands), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Kenya – central highlands; Nairobi; Teita Hills; Chyulu Hills; Namanga; Mt Sagala (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Mountains of the north and north-east, south to Mufindi, inland to Rubeho Mountains; Mpanda and Kigoma; Kasoge; Sanje; Lufisi River, in the Rubeho Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Known from a single specimen from the Mafinga Mountains, collected by Heath (Heath, et al., 2002).

Note: Specimens from Kakamega forest tend to be transitional between the nominate subspecies and ssp. mercedonia (Larsen, 1991).
Tirumala formosa mercedonia (Karsch, 1894)
Melinda mercedonia Karsch, 1894. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 20: 225 (209-240).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Deutsch-Ostafrika, See Kirima, Karewia, Ukondja und Mtarika”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in that, on the forewing upperside, the red basal areas are absent and on the hindwing upperside the hyaline basal areas and spotting are reduced (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, north Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya (west of the Rift Valley), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Kitale; Kericho (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Munene Forest; Rumanyika Game Reserve (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
yala Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Danaus formosa). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [2] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Yala”.
Tirumala formosa morgeni (Honrath, 1892)
Elsa morgeni Honrath, 1892. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36: 436 (429-440).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun centr.”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
Tirumala formosa neumanni (Rothschild, 1902)
Danaus formosa neumanni Rothschild, 1902. Novitates Zoologicae 9: 596 (595-598).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Kaffa”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Ethiopia, Somalia.

Tirumala petiverana (Doubleday, 1847)
Danais limniace var. petiverana Doubleday, 1847 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 93 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Tirumala petiverana (Doubleday, 1847). Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984.

Tirumala petiverana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 86mm. Lundi, S. Rh. 12-16.IV.1963. G. van Son. (Transvaal Museum - TM3723).
Type locality: “Africa”.

Diagnosis: Closest [superficially] to the Oriental species T. limniace (Cramer) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Namibia (north), Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, to Zimbabwe (north), Mozambique, Botswana, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Gauteng - single records for both provinces).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Rumpi Hills (Helps teste Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – East, north and west (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Kabompo River; Mwinilunga; Mpongwe; Mufulira; Mwekera; Ndola; Mumbwa; Chisamaba; Mount Makulu (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Dichwe Farm, near Chinhoyi (Pringle, et al., 1994); Hibernian Mine (Stevenson); Hwange (Stevenson); Lomagundi (Stevenson); Mutare (Sheppard); Penhalonga (Pinhey); Harare (Pinhey); Rutenga (Van Son); lower Vumba Mountains (Paré).

Namibia – Katima Mulilo in the Caprivi (Pringle, et al., 1994); Kombat (S. Braine); Andara (Gaerdes).

Limpopo Province – near Chuniespoort (Stevenson); Pietersburg (Wannenburg).

Gauteng – Randburg (Thamm).

Common names: Dappled monarch; blue monarch; African blue tiger.

Habitat: Open forest, disturbed areas in the main forest zone and moist savanna. In Tanzania, at altitudes from 400 to 1 600 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is usually high above the gound, fairly slow and relaxed, and swooping. Males mud-puddle and are sometimes also found on carnivore scats (Pringle, et al., 1994). Together with D. chrysippus, large numbers are sometimes found feeding from flowering acacia trees (Larsen, 1991). A frequent participant in mixed migrations (Larsen, 1968). Stoneham (1960) records regular east-west migrations in Trans-Nzoia, Kenya, in the early months of the year, just before the rains. Gregarious roosting is known to occur (Pringle, et al., 1994). Groups of up to thirty, together with species of Amauris, quasi-aestivate during extended dry periods (Larsen, 2005a). They have sometimes been caught in banana-baited traps, probably in search of water rather than alcohol (Larsen, 2005a). Graphium leonidas and Euxanthe eurinome are probably mimics of Tirumala petiverana (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: Southern African records are for February to May (Pringle, et al., 1994) but further north it flies in every month of the year.

Early stages:
Rogers and Van Someren, 1925: 30 (J. E. Afr. Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc. 21: 30).

Egg pale creamy white; laid on underside of leaves of a “creeper”; tall, oval; longitudinal ribs and transverse ridges. Larva from 2nd instar whitish with narrow brownish transverse lines; each segment with broad white band at anterior edge; legs blackish, each with a couple of large white spots at their bases; head black with a white trident; two pairs of fleshy filaments, placed on 3rd (2nd, vide Van Son, 1955: 8) and 11th segments, dorsally, as in D. chrysippus (incorrect vide Van Son, 1955: 8 – chrysippus has three pairs of processes). Pupa pale translucent green, similar in shape to other danaines but more angled dorsally; golden spots along the line of the abdominal angle, dorsothoracic ridge, wing cases and head case; once imago has emerged pupal case is clear and transparent.


Ackery and Vane-Wright, 1984 [larva].
Larval food:

Pergularia extensa (= Daemia extensa) (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Hoya species (Asclepiadaceae) [Sevastopulo, cited by Pringle, et al., 1994: 48].

Marsdenia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Daemia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
leonora Butler, 1866 (as sp. of Danais). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 51 (43-59). Angola.
phrynichus Fruhstorfer, 1910 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as ssp. of Danaida melissa). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 203 (614 pp.). [Africa]: “Collingwood Bay, in the northern part of British New Guinea”. [False locality.]
septentrionides Stoneham, 1958 (as f. of Danais limniace). Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (71): [1] ([3 pp.]). Kenya: “Malindi, Kenya Coast”.

Genus Amauris Hübner, 1816
In: Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 14 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg.

Type-species: Papilio niavius Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 108 (91-293).).


An exclusively Afrotropical genus containing 16 species.

Subgenus Amauris Hübner, 1816
In: Hübner, [1816-26]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 14 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg.

Type-species: Papilio niavius Linnaeus, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 108 (91-293).).




Amauris (Amauris) niavius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Papilio niavius Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 470 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Amauris niavius niavius. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 84mm. Kinda, Katanga, Congo Belge. April 1959. R. Badham. (Transvaal Museum - TM3723).
Type locality: [West Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999). There is also a single record for the Seychelles (Legrand, 1965).

Common name: Friar; common friar.

Habitat: Drier forest and disturbed areas in the rainforest zone, penetrating savanna in riverine vegetation. Occasionally in primary rainforest (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from 800 to 1 600 m and ssp. dominicanus from sea-level to 2 340 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is slow and gliding. Males are strongly attracted to Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) from which they imbibe pyrrolizidine alkaloids, especially from the roots of plants that have been dug up (Sevastopulo, 1974; Larsen, 2005a). Gynura (Asteraceae) and Gliricidia (Fabaceae) are also used by males as a source of alkaloids (Larsen, 2005a). Larsen (1991; 2005a) notes communal roosting, during dry periods, of a few individuals with larger numbers of A. ochlea in the Shimba Hills, Kenya. Both sexes are strongly attracted to flowers and males sometimes come to water, excrement and carrion. Important mimics are females of Papilio dardanus and both sexes of Hypolimnas anthedon.

Flight period: All year.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Bull. (Asclepiadaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 324].

Marsdenia species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Cynanchum species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Secamone species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].

Tylophora species (Asclepiadaceae) [Larsen, 1991: 259].
Amauris (Amauris) niavius niavius (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio niavius Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 470 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Amauris niavius niavius. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 84mm. Kinda, Katanga, Congo Belge. April 1959. R. Badham. (Transvaal Museum - TM3723).
Type locality: [West Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Diagnosis: The subspecies dominicanus is distinguished from the nominate subspecies by the more extensive white markings on the upperside of the hindwing (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west and central), Tanzania (west), Zambia (north), Namibia (north).

Specific localities:

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Western portions of Mpanda, Kigoma and Bukoba (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mufulira; Luongo River; Kalungwishi River; Lake Mweru; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Nambia – Namutoni (Ficq; single record).
obliterata Dufrane, 1948 (as ab. of Amauris niavius niavius). Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 17: 193 (192-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo belge”.
Amauris (Amauris) niavius aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Amauris niavius aethiops Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novitates Zoologicae 10: 503 (491-542).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Anderatscha”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Uganda (north), Ethiopia.
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