Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Cameroon: “Molundu, Süd-Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe rebeli Neustetter, 1912
Cymothoe rebeli Neustetter, 1912. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 182 (167-185).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae Holland, 1920
Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae Holland, 1920. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 201 (109-369).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Medje”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Central African Republic.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae reginaeelisabethae Holland, 1920
Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae Holland, 1920. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 201 (109-369).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Medje”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Ituri, north Kivu), Uganda (Toro).
dropsyi Overlaet, 1944 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 55 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Uele, Bambesa”.
Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae belgarum Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe reginaeelisabethae belgarum Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 34 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kotakoli”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north - Ubangi), Central African Republic, Cameroon.
similis Neustetter, 1912 (as ab. of Cymothoe coccinata). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 175 (167-185). Cameroon: “Kamerun”; “Congo-Gebiet”.

Cymothoe reinholdi (Plötz, 1880)
Harma reinholdi Plötz, 1880. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 194 (189-206).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bonjongo”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Reinhold’s creamy glider.

Habitat: Primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: An uncommon species that is widely distributed (Larsen, 2005a). Males defend territories from perches and females are most often encountered in the forest understorey while they are searching for host-plants on which to oviposit (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Caseria congoensis (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Cymothoe reinholdi reinholdi (Plötz, 1880)
Harma reinholdi Plötz, 1880. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 194 (189-206).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bonjongo”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Bonjongo (TL); Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
theodora Staudinger, 1890 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 417 (412-422). Cameroon: “Barombi-Station in Hinterland von Kamerun”.
Cymothoe reinholdi vitalis Rebel, 1914
Cymothoe reinholdi vitalis Rebel, 1914. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 250 (219-294).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Urwalde von Mawambi, Ukaika und Irumu”.

Distribution: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (central and north-east).

Cymothoe sangaris (Godart, 1824)
Nymphale sangaris Godart, 1824 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 337 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris.

Type locality: No locality given.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia.

Common name: Blood-red glider.

Habitat: Wetter forest, in good condition (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Where it is found this may be a common butterfly. Both sexes usually fly high up but males may come down to settle on paths and roads, and females may be found in the understorey searching for larval host-plants (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 1997.

Larval food:

Lasiodiscus mildbraedii (Rhamnaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast); Larsen (2005a) is sceptical about this record].

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Amiet, 1997].

Note: Larsen (2005a) treats C. sangaris as a species complex, with at least four species subsumed under the name sangaris. He also illustrates (Plate 71, 878A and 878B) and discusses (p.361) a male specimen caught in the Atewa Range by Maessen that appears to be a distinct species but refrains from naming it.
Cymothoe sangaris sangaris (Godart, 1824)
Nymphale sangaris Godart, 1824 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 337 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris.

Type locality: No locality given.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Mongala, Uele, north Kivu, Tshopo, Tshuapa, Equateur, Kinshasa, Kwango, Kasai, Sankuru, Maniema).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a); Nimba (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Banco (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Tano Ofin (Larsen, 2005a); Ankasa (Larsen, 2005a); Cape Three Points (Larsen, 2005a); Begoro (Larsen, 2005a).
uselda Hewitson, 1869 in Hewitson, 1867-71 (as sp. of Harma). Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 4: 52 ([118] pp.). London. “Congo”.
reuteri Strand, 1910 (as ab. of Cymothoe sangaris). Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 29: 32 (29-35). Cameroon: “Dume-Mündung in Kamerun”.
pallida Schultze, 1920 (as female ab. of Cymothoe sangaris). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1 (14): 696 (639-829). Cameroon: “M’peum (Süd-Kamerun)”.
pluviatilis Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe sangaris). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 274 (265-289). Congo: “Congo Français”.
extimata Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe sangaris reuteri). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 276 (265-289). Congo: “Haut N’Bomou, Congo Français”.
simplicior Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe sangaris reuteri). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 276 (265-289). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Gemena, Ubangi”.
rubrior Overlaet, 1945 (as female f. of Cymothoe sangaris reuteri). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 278 (265-289). Congo: “Etoumbi, Congo Français”.
Cymothoe sangaris luluana Overlaet, 1945
Cymothoe sangaris luluana Overlaet, 1945. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 276 (265-289).

Cymothoe sangaris luluana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 60mm. Isombo, Ikelenge, Zambia. 27 March, 1981. A.J. & M.W. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).

Cymothoe sangaris luluana. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 66mm. Lisombo, Ikelenge, Zambia. 31/iii/1977. Fisher. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba, Katanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Lomami), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
orchymonti Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe sangaris luluana). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 277 (265-289). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba”.

Cymothoe sassiana Schouteden, 1912
Cymothoe sassiana Schouteden, 1912. Revue de Zoologie Africaine 1: 394 (389-396).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sassa”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe sassiana sassiana Schouteden, 1912
Cymothoe sassiana Schouteden, 1912. Revue de Zoologie Africaine 1: 394 (389-396).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sassa”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east).
Cymothoe sassiana intermedia Neustetter, 1912
Cymothoe cyclades intermedia Neustetter, 1912. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 169 (167-185).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kassai (Kongo-Gebiet)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-central).

Cymothoe teita van Someren, 1939
Cymothoe teita van Someren, 1939. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 77 (15-100).

Type locality: Kenya: “Bura, 5,000 feet”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east - Teita Hills).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe vumbui Bethune-Baker, 1926
Cymothoe vumbui Bethune-Baker, 1926. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 17: 386 (38-402).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Vumba Mountains, 6500 ft., S. Rhodesia”. The female was described by Stevenson (1934).

Diagnosis: Female similar to that of C. coranus but the apex of the forewing is more pointed (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Zimbabwe (eastern border), Mozambique.

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Posto de Catandica (Pennington)

Zimbabwe – Vumba Mountains; Bunga Forest (Vumba); Butler North; Mount Selinda (Pringle, et al., 1994); Chimanimani district (Mullin).

Common name: Vumba glider.

Habitat: Montane forest.

Habits: Males normally fly about the forest canopy but will come down to mud-puddle. Both sexes are attracted by fermenting fruit (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: Double-brooded, flying from September to November and again from February to April (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:

Mullin, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 103 [as Cymothoe vumbui; Vumba, Zimbabwe].

Larval food:

Rawsonia lucida Harv. and Sond. (Flacourtiaceae) [Mullin, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 103].

Cymothoe weymeri Suffert, 1904
Cymothoe weymeri Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 119 (108-123).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camerun”.

Distribution: Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Weymer’s glider.

Habitat: High quality forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A rare butterfly in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Flacourtiaceae [Amiet and Achoudong, 1996].


Cymothoe weymeri weymeri Suffert, 1904
Cymothoe weymeri Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 119 (108-123).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (north).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Okomu (Larsen, 2005a); Omo (Larsen, 2005a); Delta (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).
defasciatus Rydon, 1981 (as ab. of Cymothoe weymeri). Lambillionea 81: 2 (2-4). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Uele, Isiro (Paulis)”.
Cymothoe weymeri mulatta Belcastro, 1990
Cymothoe weymeri mulatta Belcastro, 1990. Problemi Attuali di Scienza e di Cultura Quaderno 265: 75 (69-78).

Type locality: Ghana: “Eastern Region, Apapam on Atewa Ridge near Kibi, m 400”.

Distribution: Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Wanau Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Issia (Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a); Monogaga (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Tano Ofin (Larsen, 2005a); Bia (Larsen, 2005a); Dixcove (Larsen, 2005a); Cape Three Points (Larsen, 2005a); Krokosua Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cymothoe zenkeri Richelmann, 1913
Cymothoe zenkeri Richelmann, 1913. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 7: 105 (105-106).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (R. St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Zenker’s glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Very rare in Nigeria (R. St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
stetteni Bryk, 1915 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A) (4): 12 (1-16). Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun, Molundu”.
langi Holland, 1920 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 197 (109-369). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Medje”.
mariae Dufrane, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe langi). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 103 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.

Cymothoe zombana Bethune-Baker, 1926
Cymothoe zombana Bethune-Baker, 1926. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 17: 385 (384-402).

Type locality: Malawi: “Zomba, Nyassaland”.

Distribution: Malawi (Zomba and Nyika plateaus).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Genus Kumothales Overlaet, 1940
Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 170 (150-172).

Type-species: Kumothales inexpectata Overlaet, by original designation.


An Afrotropical genus containing a single species.

Kumothales inexpectata Overlaet, 1940
Kumothales inexpectata Overlaet, 1940. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 171 (150-172).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mongbwalu, Congo Belge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu-Ruwenzori area), Uganda (south-west - Kigezi), Rwanda.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Genus Pseudoneptis Snellen, 1882
Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 25: 221 (215-234).

Type-species: Papilio coenobita Fabricius, by monotypy.


An Afrotropical genus containing a single species. Although Pseudoneptis is not closely related to Neptis the flight pattern is similar to that of the latter (Larsen, 2005a). The early stages indicate that the genus probably belongs between Cymothoe and Pseudacraea (Amiet, 2002).

Pseudoneptis bugandensis Stoneham, 1935
Pseudoneptis coenobita bugandensis Stoneham, 1935. Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (25): [2] ([2 pp.]).

Type locality: Uganda: “Iganga Forest”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia.

Common name: Blue sailer; blue sergeant.

Habitat: Forest, including dry and disturbed forest, so long as canopy is present (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Keeps to damp shady places in the forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998), flying from two to three metres above the ground (Larsen, 2005a). The flight pattern is very much like that of species of Neptis (Larsen, 2005a). Very occasionally specimens enter bait traps (Fermon teste Larsen, 2005a). Specimens can sometimes be seen resting on a leaf in a sunny spot, with the wings held two-thirds open (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2002 [Cameroon].

Larval food:

Antiaris toxicaria Leschenault (Moraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Ritchiea capparioides (Capparaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979; Ivory Coast].

Antiaris africana (Moraceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979; Ivory Coast].

Ficus species (Moraceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979; Ivory Coast].

Ficus asperifolia (Moraceae) [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 47; Tanzania].
Pseudoneptis bugandensis bugandensis Stoneham, 1935
Pseudoneptis coenobita bugandensis Stoneham, 1935. Bulletin of the Stoneham Museum (25): [2] ([2 pp.]).

Type locality: Uganda: “Iganga Forest”.

Distribution: Uganda (east), Kenya (west), Sudan (south), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (common); Kikuru Forest (uncommon) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
Pseudoneptis bugandensis ianthe Hemming, 1964
Pseudoneptis ianthe Hemming, 1964. Annotationes lepidopterologicae (Part 4): 144 (144).

Pseudoneptis bugandensis ianthe. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Bangui, R.C.A. Jan ‘66. (Henning collection - H224).
Type locality: [Africa]: “in Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Nzerekore (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Kalene Hill. Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
coenobita Fabricius, 1793 (as sp. of Papilio). Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta 3 (1): 247 (488 pp.). [Africa]: “in Indiis”. [False locality.] [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Papilio coenobita Cramer, [1780] [Nymphalidae].]

Genus Pseudacraea Westwood, 1850
In: Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 281 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type-species: Papilio hirce Drury, by subsequent designation (Scudder, 1875. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 10: 258 (91-293).).


= Panopea Hübner, 1819 in Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 39 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg. Type-species: Papilio semire Cramer, by subsequent designation (Hemming, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 28 (23-30).). [Invalid; junior homonym of Panopea Ménard de la Groye, 1807.]
= Chloropoea Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 174 (1-561). [Replacement name for Panopea Hübner.]
An Afrotropical genus containing 16 species.

Pseudacraea acholica Riley, 1932
Pseudacraea acholica Riley, 1932. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 10: 139 (137-152).

Type locality: Sudan: “(Mongalla Prov.), Lotti, in the Acholi Hills”.

Distribution: Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pseudacraea acholica acholica Riley, 1932
Pseudacraea acholica Riley, 1932. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (10) 10: 139 (137-152).

Type locality: Sudan: “(Mongalla Prov.), Lotti, in the Acholi Hills”.

Distribution: Sudan. Known only from the holotype.
Pseudacraea acholica mayenceae Hecq, 1987
Pseudacraea acholica mayenceae Hecq, 1987. Lambillionea 87: 74 (73-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kivu, Irangi”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Known only from the holotype.

Pseudacraea annakae Knoop, 1988
Pseudacraea annakae Knoop, 1988. Lambillionea 88: 48 (47-49).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Obudu Plateau, 1500 m”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria: Odudu Plateau (TL); Gotel Mountains (1 500-1 900 m), Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Montane false acraea.

Habitat: Submontane forest.

Habits: A rare and local species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.
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