Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge, Urwald”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Tshuapa, Mai-Ndombe, Kinshasa, Kwango, Kasai, Sankuru).
Cymothoe jodutta mostinckxi Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe jodutta mostinckxi Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 43 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Molegbwe”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Mongala, Uele, Ituri, Kivu, Tshopo), Uganda (west - Bwamba Valley).

Cymothoe lambertoni Oberthür, 1923
Cymothoe lambertoni Oberthür, 1923. Études de Lépidoptérologie Comparée 21: 125 (119-155).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Tsaratanana, au nord de Madagascar”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
lux Le Cerf, 1928 (as f. indiv. of Cymothoe lambertoni). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 3: 121 (117-126). Madagascar: “Sud-Est de Madagascar”.
turlini Viette, 1971 (as seasonal f. of Cymothoe lambertoni lambertoni). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 76: 34 (32-34). Madagascar: “Sambirano, Ambanja”.
Cymothoe dujardini Viette, 1971
Cymothoe lambertoni dujardini Viette, 1971. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 76: 33 (32-34).

Cymothoe dujardini Viette, 1971. Stat. nov. Lees et al., 2003.

Type locality: Madagascar: “Madagascar Est, région de Brickaville, Ranamofana-Est”.

General remarks: This very localized species is seriously threatened by extensive lowland forest destruction in its area of distribution (Lees et al., 2003).

Distribution: Madagascar (east).

Specific localities:

Madagascar – Region de Brickaville, Ranamofana-Est (TL); Andekaleka (= Rogez) (Lees et al., 2003).

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe lucasii (Doumet, 1859)
Nymphalis lucasii Doumet, 1859. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2) 11: 262 (260-267).

Type locality: Gabon.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Fiery yellow glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe lucasii lucasii (Doumet, 1859)
Nymphalis lucasii Doumet, 1859. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2) 11: 262 (260-267).

Type locality: Gabon.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (west).
Cymothoe lucasii binotorum Darge, 1985
Cymothoe lucasii binotorum Darge, 1985. Lambillionea 85: 119 (119-122).

Type locality: Congo: “Ouesso”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo (parts of), Central African Republic.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Old Calabar (Larsen, 2005a; a record from the 19th century)
Cymothoe lucasii cloetensi Seeldrayers, 1896
Cymothoe cloetensi Seeldrayers, 1896. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40: 501 (499-505).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Beni-Bendi sur le Sankourou”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Ituri, Kwngo, Sankuru).
Cymothoe lucasii minigorum Darge, 1985
Cymothoe lucasii minigorum Darge, 1985. Lambillionea 85: 121 (119-122).

Type locality: Congo: “Congo: M’Bé”.

Distribution: Congo (Brazzaville district).

Note: Larsen, (2005a) doubts that minigorum is a valid subspecies.

Cymothoe lurida (Butler, 1871)
Harma lurida Butler, 1871. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 80 (79-83).

Type locality: Ghana: “Fantee, Cape Coast”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Common name: Lurid glider.

Habitat: Lowland to submontane forest, including riparian forest. In Tanzania ssp. azumai is found at altitudes varying from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Very rare west of the Dahomey Gap but not uncommon in the Cross River loop, Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). Usually keeps to the deep shade of the forest, flying low down just above the ground, and settling on the ground or low vegetation in sunny spots on the forest floor (Kielland, 1990). Larsen (2005a) states that they also fly in the forest canopy. Males defend territories from perches that range from a metre above the ground to almost canopy height (Larsen, 2005a). Males are known to mud puddle (Kielland, 1990). Occasionally attracted to fermenting bananas (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Dovyalis species (Flacourtiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 115].

Rawsonia species (Flacourtiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 115].

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe lurida lurida (Butler, 1871)
Harma lurida Butler, 1871. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 80 (79-83).

Type locality: Ghana: “Fantee, Cape Coast”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Yapo (Larsen, 2005a); Alepe (Larsen, 2005a); Agboville (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Fantee, Cape Coast (TL); Koforidua (Larsen, 2005a); Assin Foso (Larsen, 2005a); Enchi (Larsen, 2005a); Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); near Aburi (Larsen, 2005a).
Cymothoe lurida hesione Weymer, 1907
Cymothoe hesione Weymer, 1907. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 20: 40 (1-51).

Synonym of Cymothoe lurida lurida (Butler, 1871). Ackery et al., 1995.



Cymothoe lurida hesione Weymer, 1907. Larsen, 2005a: 353, stat. nov.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola (north), Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
congoensis Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 115 (108-123). “Congo”.
rufobrunnea Neustetter, 1912 (as female ab. of Cymothoe lurida var. butleri). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 167 (167-185). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kassaifluss im Kongostaat”.
Cymothoe lurida azumai Carcasson, 1964
Cymothoe lurida azumai Carcasson, 1964. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society & Coryndon Museum 24 (4): 63 (62-67).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Makuyu, Kigoma, Tanganyika”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-west ), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda; Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).
dubia Schouteden, 1912 (as var. of Cymothoe butleri). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 1: 394 (389-396). Zambia: “Msisi; Mukenge”.
Cymothoe lurida butleri Grünberg, 1908
Cymothoe butleri Grünberg, 1908. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908: 55 (50-62).

Type locality: Uganda.

Diagnosis: Male much paler than ssp. azumai and female with a much narrower subapical band in the forewing (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
Cymothoe lurida centralis Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe lurida centralis Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 16 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “riv. Luakile, afll. de gauce du Lubudi, ancien territoire de Kinda, Katanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (central – Lualaba, Kasai, Lomami, Sankuru).
sublustris Overlaet, 1952 (as f. of Cymothoe lurida centralis). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 16 (1-50). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Source Kansense, chefferie Kabondo-Monga, ancien territoire de Kinda”.
Cymothoe lurida sublurida Fruhstorfer, 1903
Cymothoe lurida sublurida Fruhstorfer, 1903. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 64: 359 (359-361).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).
Cymothoe lurida tristis Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe lurida tristis Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 15 (1-50).

Type locality: “Sassa”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa, Mongala, Uele, Ituri, Kivu), Uganda (west - Bwamba, Toro).

Cymothoe mabillei Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe mabillei Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 61 (40-74).

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “d’Assinie”.

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana (west of the Volta River).

Records from Nigeria are probably erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Assinie (TL).

Common name: Western red glider.

Habitat: Forest, including somewhat disturbed forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A common butterfly west of the Volta River, Ghana (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
aralus Mabille, 1890 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 10: 22 (17-51). Ivory Coast: “d’Assinie”. [female only.]
leonis Aurivillius, 1912 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as female ab. of Cymothoe anitorgis). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 153 (614 pp.). No locality given.
testui Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe mabillei). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 64 (40-74). Gabon: “Tshibanga”. This taxon must refer to some other species since mabillei does not occur east of Ghana (MCW).

Cymothoe magambae Rydon, 1980
Cymothoe magambae Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 272 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “W. Usambara Mts, Lushoto, Magamba Forest, 7000 ft”.

Diagnosis: Similar to C. aurivillii and C. amaniensis but male with less produced forewing apex; forewing cream patch not broken up (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania.

Habitat: Montane forest at altitudes from 1 700 to 2 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A shy species. Males fast-flighted and highly territorial, perching on exposed leaves (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe magambae magambae Rydon, 1980
Cymothoe magambae Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 272 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “W. Usambara Mts, Lushoto, Magamba Forest, 7000 ft”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north - Magamba Forest).
Cymothoe magambae pareensis Rydon, 1996
Cymothoe magambae pareensis Rydon, 1996. Lambillionea 96 (Numero Special): 10 (8-14).

Type locality: Tanzania: “S. Pare Mts. Choma, 12.iv.1976 (1900m) (J. Kielland).” Place of deposition of holotype not given.

Distribution: Tanzania (South Pare Mountains).

Cymothoe magnus Joicey & Talbot, 1928
Cymothoe magnus Joicey & Talbot, 1928. Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 2: 23 (19-27).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “North Congo: Oso-Lowa Watershed”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe melanjae Bethune-Baker, 1926
Cymothoe melanjae Bethune-Baker, 1926. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9) 17: 385 (384-402).

Type locality: Malawi: “Nyassaland into Melanje”.

Distribution: Malawi (Mt Mlanje).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe meridionalis Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe meridionalis Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 41 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe meridionalis meridionalis Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe meridionalis Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 41 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south - southern Kabinda, west Lualaba).
vermaki Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe meridionalis). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 43 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
ornata Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe meridionalis). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 45 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
diffusa Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe meridionalis). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 45 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
Cymothoe meridionalis ghesquierei Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe meridionalis ghesquierei Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 46 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Stanleyville”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - Maniema, Tshopo).

Cymothoe ochreata Grose-Smith, 1890

Cymothoe ochreata Grose-Smith, 1890. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 471 (463-473).

Type locality: “from Yambuya on the Aruwimi River through the great forest of central Africa”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda (west).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
cycladina Grünberg, 1908 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908: 55 (50-62). Uganda.
vicina Hulstaert, 1926 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 14: 61 (60-63). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lesse”.
hulstaerti Overlaet, 1952 (as f. of Cymothoe ochreata). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 19 (1-50). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Boga à Lesse; Kivu; Iroumou, Itouri”; Uganda: “Afr. Or. Angl.”.
normalis Overlaet, 1952 (as f. of Cymothoe ochreata). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 19 (1-50). No locality given.

Cymothoe oemilius (Doumet, 1859)
Nymphalis oemilius Doumet, 1859. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2) 11: 260 (260-267).

Type locality: Gabon.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Striped glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A reasonably common butterfly that usually flies from one to two metres above the ground (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is gliding, with measured wing beats. Individuals often settle on leaves in order to bask (Larsen, 2005a). Males occasionally mudpuddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (larva and pupa).

Larval food:

Caloncoba species (Flacourtiaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe oemilius oemilius (Doumet, 1859)
Nymphalis oemilius Doumet, 1859. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2) 11: 260 (260-267).

Type locality: Gabon.

Distribution: Nigeria (east and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
hemeresia Hewitson, 1864 in Hewitson, 1862-6 (as sp. of Harma). Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 55 (124 pp.). London. Nigeria: “Calabar”.
frederica Distant, 1880 (as sp. of Harma). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1879: 707 (703-709). Nigeria: “Calabar district”.
achillides Schultze, 1916 (as ab. of Cymothoe oemilius). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.12.): 137 (136-142). Cameroon: “Urwald bei N’Gola-Gebiet des oberen Djah (Süd-Kamerun)”.
Cymothoe oemilius fernandina Hall, 1929
Cymothoe oemilius fernandina Hall, 1929. Entomologist 62: 133 (130-134).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).

Cymothoe ogova (Plötz, 1880)
Harma ogova Plötz, 1880. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 193 (189-206).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogova”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Gabon – Ogova (TL).

Common name: Elegant red glider.

Habitat: Forest in good condition (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A rare buttterfly that seems to keep mostly to the forest canopy. Males may come down occasionally to fallen fruit (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (pupa).

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].

Cymothoe orphnina Karsch, 1894
Cymothoe orphnina Karsch, 1894. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 20: 213 (209-240).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Albert Njansa (Ituri Fähre)”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Orphnina glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An uncommon and local species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe orphnina orphnina Karsch, 1894
Cymothoe orphnina Karsch, 1894. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 20: 213 (209-240).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Albert Njansa (Ituri Fähre)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east - Kivu to Ituri Forest and Aruwiumi River).
infuscata Joicey and Talbot, 1928 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 2: 24 (19-27). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo, West Semliki Valley, 3,500 feet”.
Cymothoe orphnina suavis Schultze, 1913
Cymothoe suavis Schultze, 1913. Societas Entomologica 28: 50 (50-51).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Akók (Süd-Kamerun)”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (south-west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Davey Collection ex ABRI, teste Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Akok (TL).

Cymothoe owassae Schultze, 1916
Cymothoe owassae Schultze, 1916. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.12.): 137 (136-142).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Nebelwalde des O-Wassa (Fernando Po)”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).

Recorded, in error, from “West Africa” by Carcasson (1981) (Larsen, 2005a).



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe preussi Staudinger, 1890
Cymothoe preussi Staudinger, 1890. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 412 (412-422).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Barombi Station im Hinterlande von Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Preuss’ orange glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A rare butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Females are mimics of moths belonging to the genus Aletis and may be seen in the understorey of open forest while in search of larval host-plants (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe radialis Gaede, 1916
Cymothoe radialis Gaede, 1916. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 109 (105-106, 109-112, 125-126).
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