Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Liberia: “Wanau Forest”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Banco Forest near Abidjan (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Ankasa National Park (Larsen, 2005a); Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Bia (Larsen, 2005a); Krokosua Hills (Larsen, 2005a); Tano Ofin (ABRI teste Larsen, 2005a).

Note: The female allotype of gongoa is actually C. weymeri mulatta (Larsen, 2005a).
Cymothoe herminia johnstoni (Butler, 1902)
Harma johnstoni Butler, 1902. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902: 47 (44-51).

Type locality: Uganda: “Toro”. [male only.]

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ntakatta Forest; Mpanda; Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).
confluens van Someren, 1939 (as female f. of Cymothoe herminia johnstoni). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 72 (15-100). Uganda: “Budongo Forest”.
bipartita van Someren, 1939 (as female f. of Cymothoe herminia johnstoni). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 72 (15-100). Uganda: “Kalizu Forest, W. Ankole”.
kakamega van Someren, 1939 (as female f. of Cymothoe herminia johnstoni). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 73 (15-100). Kenya: “Kakamega”.
budongo van Someren, 1939 (as female f. of Cymothoe herminia johnstoni). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 73 (15-100). Uganda: “Budongo”.
overlaeti Overlaet, 1942 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 183 (165-194). Uganda.
Cymothoe herminia katshokwe Overlaet, 1940
Cymothoe herminia race katshokwe Overlaet, 1940. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 164 (150-172).

Cymothoe herminia katshokwe. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 62mm. Teisokatunda, Katanga, Congo. 15.4.69. Dr Allard. (Henning collection - H221).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mutshindji-Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Kalene Hill, Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
kaluundu Overlaet, 1940 (as f. of Cymothoe herminia katshokwe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 165 (150-172). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba et de Kapanga”.
interrupta Overlaet, 1940 (as var. of Cymothoe herminia katshokwe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 168 (150-172). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mutshindji (Kapanga); Luiza (Kapanga)”.
diffusa Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe herminia katshokwe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 185 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mutshindji-Kapanga, Katanga”.
burgeoni Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe herminia katshokwe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 185 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba”.
praeformata Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe herminia katshokwe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 185 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba, Katanga”.

Cymothoe hesiodina Schultze, 1908
Cymothoe hesiodina Schultze, 1908. Societas Entomologica 23: 130 (130-131).

Cymothoe hesiodina male. Oban Hills, Nigeria, 1995. Digital photographs ex Torben Larsen.

Cymothoe hesiodina female. Oban Hills, Nigeria, 1995. Digital photographs ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Cameroon: “Urwald bei N’kore (Gebiet des oberen Cross-Flusses) in Nordwest-Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – northern half of the Oban Hills, near Itaka (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Forest at N’kore (TL).

Common name: Schultze’s lurid glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An exceedingly rare species that was known only from the type male until Larsen collected a pair in March, 1995 and a female in December, 1995 (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: The pair of Cymothoe illustrated as representing C. hesiodina by Boorman (1965) pertain to C. hesiodotus nigeriensis (Larsen, 2005a).

Cymothoe hesiodotus Staudinger, 1890
Cymothoe hesiodotus Staudinger, 1890. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 415 (412-422).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Orange lurid glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Subspecies nigeriensis may be common in suitable forests (Larsen, 2005a). Males defend territories from perches low down along forest paths and roads, after descending from the canopy at about 14:00 (Larsen, 2005a). Contesting males fly around each other slowly, in circles, much like the males of C. jodutta (Larsen, 2005a). Females are rarely seen (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (pupa).

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (eastern Cameroon)].
Cymothoe hesiodotus hesiodotus Staudinger, 1890
Cymothoe hesiodotus Staudinger, 1890. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 415 (412-422).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove”.

Distribution: Cameroon (east), Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (south-central).
Cymothoe hesiodotus nigeriensis Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe lurida var. nigeriensis Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 37 (1-50).

Synonym of Cymothoe lurida lurida (Butler, 1871). Ackery et al., 1995.



Cymothoe hesiodotus nigeriensis Overlaet, 1952. Larsen, 2005a: 354, stat. nov.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Nigerküste” [Warri (Larsen, 2005a)].

Distribution: Nigeria (mid-west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Warri (TL); near Benin City (Larsen, 2005a); Gambari (Larsen, 2005a); Sapoba (Larsen, 2005a); Okomu Nature Sanctuary (Larsen, 2005a).
Cymothoe hesiodotus clarior Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe hesiodotus clarior Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 17 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kindu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east - from Ituri Forest to Kindu).

Cymothoe hobarti Butler, 1900
Cymothoe hobarti Butler, 1900. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1899: 976 (976-978).

Type locality: Uganda: “Nandi District, Uganda Protectorate, Eastern side of Lake Victoria”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat: Lowland to submontane forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania ssp. lactanganyika occurs from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Often seen sunning itself on an exposed leaf. Males mud puddle and both sexes are attracted to fermenting fruit (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 115].
Cymothoe hobarti hobarti Butler, 1900
Cymothoe hobarti Butler, 1900. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1899: 976 (976-978).

Type locality: Uganda: “Nandi District, Uganda Protectorate, Eastern side of Lake Victoria”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
Cymothoe hobarti candidata Overlaet, 1954
Cymothoe euthalioides candidata Overlaet, 1954. Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 90: 33 (32-33).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bambesa”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north), Central African Republic (south).
Cymothoe hobarti lactanganyikae Collins, 1990
Cymothoe hobarti lactanganyikae Collins, 1990 in Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 339 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Ntakatta, Mpanda, W. Tanzania 1.73 J. Kielland”. Holotype (female) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Original description:

“In this population of Cymothoe hobarti the females are consistently different to specimens from Shaba Zaire or Eastern Zaire. The main character on the recto surface is the area at the base of the wings which is a more orange colour than specimens from Central Zaire and Shaba which are much more crimson. Also on the forewing the white markings which occur distally to the margin are more developed than in other races. On the hindwing the orange markings extend to the submargin and are not broken by brownish-grey crescent lunules as in other races. The males are indistinguishable from other races.”



Diagnosis: Females are characterized on the upperside of the wings by the orange colouration at the base of the wings and the better developed white distal markings on the forewing; on the hindwing the orange markings extend to the submargin and are not broken by brownish-grey crescent-shaped lunules. The males are indistinguishable from those of the other subspecies.

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ntakatta (TL); Lubalizi; Kasye; Wanzizi in Mpanda (Kielland, 1990); Kigoma; Mpanda (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Cymothoe hobarti mwamikazi Overlaet, 1952

Cymothoe sangaris mwamikazi Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 35 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Beni”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu, Kibali, Ituri).

Cymothoe howarthi Rydon, 1981
Cymothoe howarthi Rydon, 1981. Lambillionea 81: 4 (4-10).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Middle Lowa Valley, nr. Walikali”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe hyarbita (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma hyarbita Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 57 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Creamy yellow glider.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Dichapetalum species (Dichapetalaceae) [Fontaine, 1983 (Democratic Republic of Congo)].

Caloncoba species (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Cymothoe hyarbita hyarbita (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma hyarbita Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 57 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Old Calabar (TL).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
hora Distant, 1880 (as sp. of Paradiadema). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1879: 704 (703-709). Cameroon: “Camaroons”.
buchholzi Plötz, 1880 (as sp. of Aterica). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 41: 193 (189-206). Cameroon: “Mungo”.
electrinos Birket-Smith, 1960 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 22: 927 (521-554, 924-983, 1259-1284). Cameroon: “river Nyong just south of Makak station, French Cameroons”.
Cymothoe hyarbita hyarbitina Aurivillius, 1897
Cymothoe hyarbitina Aurivillius, 1897. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm 54: 283 (279-286).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Beni-Bendi”.

Distribution: Congo (east), Democratic Republic of Congo.

Cymothoe hypatha (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma hypatha Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 58 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo.

The record from Ghana (Moschler, 1887) and other records from Ghana and Ivory Coast are probably erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Large lurid glider.

Habitat: Primary forest.

Habits: Subspecies okomu is not uncommon in the mid-west of Nigeria but the nominate species appears to be rare in the Cross River loop in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. [larva].

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe hypatha hypatha (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma hypatha Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 58 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (north).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
hesiodus Hewitson, 1869 in Hewitson, 1867-71 (as ?). Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 4: 52 ([118] pp.). London. “Congo”.
alexander Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 117 (108-123). Angola: “Pungo Andongo, Loanda”.
lucida Overlaet, 1952 (as f. of Cymothoe hesiodus). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 18 18 (1-50). No locality given.
Cymothoe hypatha okomu Hecq & Larsen, 1997
Cymothoe hypatha okomu Hecq & Larsen, 1997. Lambillionea 97 (1) (Tome II): 102 (101-104).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Okomu Nature Sanctuary, Nigeria, xi. 1996 (T.B. Larsen leg.).” Holotype in MRAC, Tervuren.

Distribution: Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Okomu Nature Sanctuary (TL); Omo Forest (Larsen, 2005a)

Cymothoe indamora (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma indamora Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 54 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Common name: Indamora glider.

Habitat: Mainly in the transition zone between primary and secondary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A localized but not necessarily uncommon species (Larsen, 2005a). Males perch on the edge of clearings, usually three to five metres above the ground. They often come to fallen fruit (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000 (larva and pupa).

Larval food:

Flacourtiaceae [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].


Cymothoe indamora indamora (Hewitson, 1866)
Harma indamora Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 54 (124 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Old Calabar (TL).

Cmeroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
hewitsoni Staudinger, 1890.b (as sp. of Cymothoe). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 419 (412-422). Cameroon: “Hinterlande von Kamerun (Barombi-Station)”.
staudingeri Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9 (as ?). Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 213 (1-561). Cameroon: “Kamerun: Barombi-Station”.
Cymothoe indamora amorinda van Someren, 1939
Cymothoe indamora amorinda van Someren, 1939. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 79 (15-100).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kalinzu, W. Ankole”.

Distribution: Uganda (west - Kalinzu Forest).
damora van Someren, 1939 (as f. of Cymothoe indamora amorinda). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 80 (15-100). Uganda: “Kalinzu, W. Ankole”.
Cymothoe indamora canui Beaurain, 1985
Cymothoe indamora canui Beaurain, 1985. Lambillionea 85: 89 (87-95).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Sud Pic Central, 1300 m, Bioko”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko).
annamariae Beaurain, 1985 (as female f. of Cymothoe indamora canui). Lambillionea 85: 93 (87-95). Equatorial Guinea: “Sud Pic Central, 1300 m, Bioko”.
nathaliae Beaurain, 1985 (as female f. of Cymothoe indamora canui). Lambillionea 85: 93 (87-95). Equatorial Guinea: “Sud Pic Central, 1300 m, Bioko”.

Cymothoe isiro Rydon, 1981
Cymothoe isiro Rydon, 1981. Lambillionea 81: 83 (83-93).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Isiro”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
albidior Rydon, 1981 (as female f. of Cymothoe isiro). Lambillionea 81: 92 (83-93). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Uele, Isiro”.

Cymothoe jodutta (Westwood, 1850)
Harma jodutta Westwood, 1850 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 289 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Common name: Jodutta glider.

Habitat: Wet forest of reasonable quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A relatively common species in West Africa, except in the Cross River loop, where it is scarce (Larsen, 2005a). Males defend perches in sunlit spots (Larsen, 2005a). Contesting males fly in tight circles, facing in the same direction, almost wing-tip to wing-tip. The wings are held horizontally and forward motion is achieved by quivering movements of the wings. These contests may last for several minutes until one individual flies off, chased furiously by the victor. Identical behaviour has been noted in C. beckeri (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (larva and pupa).

Larval food:

Caloncoba species (Flacourtiaceae) [Fontaine, 1983 (Democratic Republic of Congo)].
Cymothoe jodutta jodutta (Westwood, 1850)
Harma jodutta Westwood, 1850 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 289 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Ankasa National Park (Larsen, 2005a).
aralus Mabille, 1890 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 10: 22 (17-51). Ivory Coast: “d’Assinie”. [male only.]
Cymothoe jodutta ciceronis (Ward, 1871)
Harma ciceronis Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 119 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east of Niger), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mayumbe).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Note: Berger (1981) treats ciceronis as a distinct species but Larsen (2005a) considers it to be a subspecies of jodutta.
cyriades Ward, 1871 (as sp. of Harma). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 120 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122). Cameroon: “Camaroons”; Ghana: “Cape Coast Castle”.
seneca Kirby, 1889 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 249 (246-249). Cameroon: “Cameroons”.
intermedia Gaede, 1916 (as var. of Cymothoe ehmkei). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 109 (105-106, 109-112, 125-126). Cameroon: “Jaunde-Bezirk, Kamerun”.
Cymothoe jodutta ehmckei Dewitz, 1887
Cymothoe ehmckei Dewitz, 1887. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 30: 302 (301-302).
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