Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “BeniBendi, Sankuru”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-central - Sankuru).

Cymothoe euthalioides Kirby, 1889
Cymothoe euthalioides Kirby, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 249 (246-249).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, to Nigeria, Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe euthalioides euthalioides Kirby, 1889
Cymothoe euthalioides Kirby, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 249 (246-249).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon.
gerrescheimi Neustetter, 1912 (as ab. of Cymothoe sangaris). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 179 (167-185). Cameroon: “Kamerun (Bipindie)”; “Kongo-Gebiet”.
Cymothoe euthalioides albomarginata Neustetter, 1921
Cymothoe sangaris albomarginata Neustetter, 1921. Zeitschrift des Österreichischen Entomologen-Vereins, Wien 6: 27 (27, 34, 41-42, 47-48).

Type locality: Sierra Leone: [Congo].

Distribution: Sierra Leone, to Nigeria (west).

Cymothoe excelsa Neustetter, 1912
Cymothoe aramis excelsa Neustetter, 1912. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 174 (167-185).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”; “Kongo-Gebiet”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola.

Recorded, in error, from Ghana by Berger (1981) due to a misidentified C. coccinata (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Scalloped red glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A fairly common species in The Oban Hills area of Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes have been seen flying low down in the understorey of open forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe excelsa excelsa Neustetter, 1912
Cymothoe aramis excelsa Neustetter, 1912. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 174 (167-185).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”; “Kongo-Gebiet”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
schultzei Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 71 (40-74). Congo: “Etoumbi, Congo français”.
talboti Overlaet, 1952 (as [unnecessary] replacement name for Cymothoe caenis ab. schultzei). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 40 (1-50).
Cymothoe excelsa deltoides Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe excelsa deltoides Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 46 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba), Angola (southern Cabinda).
kapangae Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa deltoides). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 47 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
emundata Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa deltoides). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 48 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
Cymothoe excelsa regisleopoldi Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe excelsa regisleopoldi Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 71 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Stanleyville, Congo Belge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Mongala, Uele, Ituri, north Kivu, Tshopo, Equateur).
ueleana Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 72 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bambesa”.
rubricata Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 73 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bambesa”.
diffusa Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa regispoldi). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 74 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bambesa, Uele”.
hutereauae Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 74 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Zobia-Niapu-Poko”.
fontinalis Overlaet, 1952 (as ssp. of Cymothoe excelsa). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 32 (1-50). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sankuru”.

Cymothoe fontainei Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe fontainei Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 24 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lutahe”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe fontainei fontainei Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe fontainei Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 24 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lutahe”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Known only from the holotype.
Cymothoe fontainei debauchei Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe fontainei debauchei Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 24 (1-50).

Type locality: Congo” Etoumbi”.

Distribution: Congo, Cameroon. Known only from two females (Etoumbi) and a male (Nyong, Cameroon).

Cymothoe fumana (Westwood, 1850)
Harma fumana Westwood, 1850 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 288 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Scalloped yellow glider.

Habitat: Forest, including secondary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Both sexes of this fairly common but localized butterfly fly from two to five metres above the ground, males often perching even higher (Larsen, 2005a). Numbers were once noted feeding, together with other species of Cymothoe, on fermented sap oozing from debarked felled trees in Omo Forest by Larsen (2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (larva and pupa).

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe fumana fumana (Westwood, 1850)
Harma fumana Westwood, 1850 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 288 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana.
eburnea Neustetter, 1916 (as var. of Cymothoe fumana). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 105 (95-108). Liberia. Synonymized by Fox, 1968.
Cymothoe fumana balluca Fox & Howarth, 1968
Cymothoe fumana balluca Fox & Howarth, 1968 in Fox, 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 30: 1240 (1236-1280).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Efulen, Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Omo Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Congo – Ketta Forest; Mambili Forest.
mitella Birket-Smith, 1960 (as f. (?)of Cymothoe fumana). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 22: 929 (521-554, 924-983, 1259-1284). Cameroon: “Small path in secondary forest at the river Nyong just south of Makak station, French Cameroons”.
Cymothoe fumana villiersi Fox, 1968
Cymothoe fumana villiersi Fox, 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 30: 1242 (1236-1280).

Type locality: Congo: “Sibiti [monts du Chaillu]”.

Distribution: Congo. Apparently known only from the type locality.

Specific localities:

Congo – Monts Chaillu (TL).

Note: Larsen (2005a) states that this subspecies may not be valid.

Cymothoe haimodia (Grose-Smith, 1887)
Harma haimodia Grose-Smith, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 64 (62-66).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Haimodia red glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A generally rare butterfly. Males appear to keep to the forest canopy but females can be found searching for food plants on which to oviposit, two to five metres above the ground. The females, when so engaged, closely resemble Aletis species moths, of which they appear to be mimics (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].

Cymothoe harmilla (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma harmilla Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 274 (274).

Type locality: Cameroon: “West Africa (Cameroons)”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Bouyer & Joly, 1995: 526).

Given, in error, for Nigeria on numerous occasions (Larsen, 2005a).



Habitat:

Early stages:

Bouyer & Joly, 1995.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe harmilla harmilla (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma harmilla Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 274 (274).

Type locality: Cameroon: “West Africa (Cameroons)”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon (south-west), Gabon (Bouyer and Joly, 1995: 526).
serpentina Kirby, 1889 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 248 (246-249). Cameroon: “Cameroons”.
major Neustetter, 1912 (as ab. of Cymothoe ogowa [sic]). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 26: 181 (167-185). Cameroon: “Kamerun”.
rubescens Holland, 1920 (as f. of Cymothoe ogova). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 203 (109-369). Gabon: “Kangvé on the Ogové River”.
dunkeli Audeoud, 1936 (as female f. of Cymothoe herminia). Bulletin de la Société Lépidoptérologique de Genève 7: 185 (184-187). Cameroon: “Lolodorf”.
straelini Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe ogova). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 281 (265-289). “Boma Sundi”.
Cymothoe harmilla kraepelini Schultze, 1912
Cymothoe kraepelini Schultze, 1912. Entomologische Rundschau 29: 91 (91-93).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Molundu (Süd-Kamerun)”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south-east) (Bouyer & Joly, 1995: 526).
[Given as Cymothoe kraepelini Schultze in Ackery, et al., 1995: 379; downgraded to Cymothoe harmilla kraepelini by Bouyer & Joly, 1995 (Lambillionea 95 (4) (Tome I): 529 (526-532).).]
Cymothoe harmilla micans Bouyer & Joly, 1995
Cymothoe harmilla micans Bouyer & Joly, 1995. Lambillionea 95 (4) (Tome I): 529 (526-532).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Zaïre, Kivu, Irangi 15-V-89 (coll. E. Joly).” Holotype in MRAC, Tervuren.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east) (Bouyer & Joly, 1995: 526).

Cymothoe hartigi Belcastro, 1990
Cymothoe hartigi Belcastro, 1990. Problemi Attuali di Scienza e di Cultura Quaderno 265: 72 (69-78).

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Southern Province, Tiwai Island on the Moa River, m 100".

Distribution: Guinea (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast.

Common name: Hartig’s red glider.

Habitat: Primary forest.

Habits: A somewhat localized butterfly that may, however, be quite common (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe hartigi hartigi Belcastro, 1990
Cymothoe hartigi Belcastro, 1990. Problemi Attuali di Scienza e di Cultura Quaderno 265: 72 (69-78).

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Southern Province, Tiwai Island on the Moa River, m 100".

Distribution: Guinea (east) (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Sierra Leone (south-east), Liberia (west).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Djeke (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Tiwai Island (TL).
tiwaiensis Belcastro, 1990 (as f. of Cymothoe hartigi). Problemi Attuali di Scienza e di Cultura Quaderno 265: 73 (69-78). Sierra Leone: “Southern Province, Tiwai Island on the Moa River, m 100".
Cymothoe hartigi vanessae Warren-Gash, 2003
Cymothoe hartigi vanessae Warren-Gash, 2003. Metamorphosis 14 (3): 97 (63-110).

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “Monogaga Forest, western coast, 2.ix.2000”. Holotype (male) in African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi.

General remarks: Named for Vanessa Warren-Gash, daughter of Haydon, who has collected butterflies in Ivory Coast, including the Monogaga Forest (Collins et al., 2003).

Distribution: Ivory Coast (south-west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Monogaga Forest (TL); Bereby Forest (Warren-Gash vide Collins et al., 2003).

Cymothoe haynae Dewitz, 1887
Cymothoe haynae Dewitz, 1887. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 30: 302 (301-302).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe haynae haynae Dewitz, 1887
Cymothoe haynae Dewitz, 1887. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 30: 302 (301-302).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south).
umbrosa Overlaet, 1942 (as ssp. of Cymothoe haynae). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 191 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga, Katanga”.
luazae Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe haynae umbrosa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 192 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga, Katanga”.
decorata Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe haynae umbrosa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 193 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
aurantiana Overlaet, 1942 (as f. of Cymothoe haynae umbrosa). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 193 (165-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga, Katanga”.
Cymothoe haynae diphyia Karsch, 1894
Cymothoe diphyia Karsch, 1894. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 20: 211 (209-240).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Issango-Fähre (N. Albert Edward See, 0° 49')”; “Urwalde, N.W. Runssóro”.

Distribution: Cameroon (east), Congo (north), Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Ruwenzori, Kivu), Uganda (western border).
kamitugensis Dufrane, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe diphyia). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 102 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.
Cymothoe haynae fumosa Staudinger, 1896
Cymothoe fumosa Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 9: 215 (193-240).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mocquerys am Kuilu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Known only from the type locality.
Cymothoe haynae superba Aurivillius, 1899
Cymothoe superba Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 213 (1-561).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: Lolodorf”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south and west), Gabon.
Cymothoe haynae vosiana Overlaet, 1942
Cymothoe vosiana Overlaet, 1942. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 194 (165-194).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kasai”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-central - Kasai Valley).

Cymothoe heliada (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma heliada Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 274 (274).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Small scalloped glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A seemingly rare and localized species, at least in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (larva).

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe heliada heliada (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma heliada Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 274 (274).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Congo.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a); Ikom (Larsen, 2005a).
heliadina Schultze, 1916 (as var. of Cymothoe heliada). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.7.): 159 (159-167). Cameroon: “bei Feintschang im Gebiet des oberen Crossflusses (N.-W.-Kamerun)”.
Cymothoe heliada liberatorum Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe heliada liberatorum Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 23 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Komi, Sankuru”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (central - Sankuru).
liberatorum Overlaet, 1945 (as female f. of Cymothoe heliada). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 284 (265-289). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Komi, Sankuru, Congo Belge”.
Cymothoe heliada mutshindji Overlaet, 1940
Cymothoe mutshindji Overlaet, 1940. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 169 (150-172).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “à la riv. Mutshindji (Territoire de Kapanga)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Kabinda).
luizana Overlaet, 1940 (as f. of Cymothoe mutshindji). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 33: 169 (150-172). Democratic Republic of Congo: “riv. Mutshindji, affluent de gauche de la riv. Luiza”.
seydeli Overlaet, 1945 (as ssp. of Cymothoe heliada). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 283 (265-289). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mwene-Ditu, Katanga”.

Cymothoe herminia (Grose-Smith, 1887)
Harma herminia Grose-Smith, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 63 (62-66).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroon Mountains”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia.

Common name: Herminia glider.

Habitat: Lowland to submontane forest (Kielland, 1990). Wet forests of good quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Scarce west of the Dahomey Gap (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens are often found settling on leaves, low down. Strongly attracted by fermented fruit (Kielland, 1990; Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000 (pupa).

Larval food:

Dovyalis species (Flacourtiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 115].

Rawsonia species (Flacourtiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 115].

Dasylepis species (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Cymothoe herminia herminia (Grose-Smith, 1887)
Harma herminia Grose-Smith, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 63 (62-66).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroon Mountains”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri Forest).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Awka Forest near Onitsha (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – above the village of Toko (1,100 m) in Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
sultani Bryk, 1915 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A) (4): 14 (1-16). Cameroon: “Kamerun, wahrscheinlich Akoafim”.
siegfriedi Bryk, 1915 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A) (4): 15 (1-16). Cameroon: “Kamerun, wahrscheinlich Akoafim”.
poensis Holland, 1920 (as var. of Cymothoe herminia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 196 (109-369). Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po”.
vulcanica Schultze, 1920 (as female var. of Cymothoe herminia). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1 (14): 667 (639-829). Equatorial Guinea: “San Carlos (Fernando Po)”.
Cymothoe herminia gongoa Fox, 1965
Cymothoe herminia gongoa Fox, 1965 in Fox, et al., 1965. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society No. 19: 210 (438 pp.).
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