Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop and east), Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Tshopo, Sankuru).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Golden glider.

Habitat: Primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A scarce species (Larsen, 2005a). Males have been seen flying along river courses in primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe caprina Aurivillius, 1897
Cymothoe caprina Aurivillius, 1897. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm 54: 284 (279-286).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Beni-Bendi”. Description of the female by Beaurain, 2004: 262.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (south-central).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe coccinata (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma coccinata Hewitson, 1874 in Hewitson, 1872-7. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 5: 41 (127 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”; Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Records from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia are in error for C. mabillei (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Common red glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A species that occurs in somewhat localized colonies, but it may be numerous where it is found (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rinorea oblongifolia (Violaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast). This record may refer to C. mabillei (Larsen, 2005a)].
Cymothoe coccinata coccinata (Hewitson, 1874)
Harma coccinata Hewitson, 1874 in Hewitson, 1872-7. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 5: 41 (127 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”; Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Tshopo, Equateur).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Prah-Suhien Forest (Larsen, 2005a); Hans Cottage near Cape Coast (a stray) (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
sangaris Godart; Hewitson, 1866 in Hewitson, 1862-6 (as sp. of Harma). Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 54 (124 pp.). London. [Misidentification]
zickzack Strand, 1912 (as ab. of Cymothoe coccinata). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 120 (107-123). Cameroon: “Diebo”.
lecerfi Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe coccinata). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 66 (40-74). Ghana: “Ashanti”.
spatiosa Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsior). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 267 (265-289). Cameroon: “Mokundange, Kamerun”.
Cymothoe coccinata vrydaghi Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe coccinata vrydaghi Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 66 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bambesa (Buta) Bas-Uele”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Mongala, Uele, Kivu).
bergeri Overlaet, 1952 (as ssp. of Cymothoe coccinata). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 31 (1-50). Congo: “Etoumbi”.

Cymothoe collarti Overlaet, 1942
Cymothoe collarti Overlaet, 1942. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 189 (165-194).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Djuga, Ituri, 1800 m”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe collarti collarti Overlaet, 1942
Cymothoe collarti Overlaet, 1942. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 36: 189 (165-194).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Djuga, Ituri, 1800 m”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri).
Cymothoe collarti werneri Beaurain, 1984
Cymothoe collarti werneri Beaurain, 1984. Lambillionea 84: 20 (17-23).

Type locality: Rwanda: “forêt de Nyungwe, 1800 m”.

Distribution: Rwanda.

Cymothoe collinsi Rydon, 1980
Cymothoe collinsi Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 272 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “W. Kilimanjaro, Maua Ltd, 6000 ft”. Description of the female of Cymothoe collinsi Rydon, and first time figured; Rydon, 1996 (Lambillionea 96 (Numero Special): 10 (8-14).).

Distribution: Tanzania (north). Known only from the type locality.

Habitat: Montane forest, at 1 800 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe colmanti Aurivillius, 1898
Cymothoe colmanti Aurivillius, 1898. Entomologisk Tidskrift 19: 180 (177-186).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sassa am oberen Ubangi”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (north), Central African Republic.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe consanguis Aurivillius, 1896
Cymothoe consanguis Aurivillius, 1896. Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhlhandlingar. Stockholm 53: 435 (431-436).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kitta, Bonge”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon.

Recorded in error from west of the Dahomey Gap by Carcasson (1981) (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Cameroon – Kitta, Bonge (TL); Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Cream glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An uncommon species that usually flies high up but which often descends to lower levels to bask, or to search for fallen fruit (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
amphicede (Cramer); Aurivillius, 1894. Entomologisk Tidskrift 15: 307 (273-314). [Misidentification.]

Cymothoe coranus Grose-Smith, 1889
Cymothoe coranus Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 133 (121-137).

Type locality: Kenya: “in the neighbourhood of Mombasa”.

Diagnosis: Similar to C. caenis but dark markings less extensive (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Common name: Blonde glider; coast glider.

Habitat: Coastal, lowland and submontane forest. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from sea-level to 300 m and ssp. kiellandi from 800 to 1 450 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males are often seen perched, with open wings, high up on the leaf of a tree. Females, on the other hand, usually fly low down, in forest glades or along roads. Both sexes are attracted to fermenting fruit and muddy patches (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: September to June; commonest from February to April (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Van Son, 1979: 113.

“Although Swanepoel (in litt.) mentions that collectors in Natal have reared this species from larvae, no records have been published so far. Mr D.C.M. Plowes sent the present author a male pupal case found by him in Ngoye Forest, in January 1960. The shape is very similar to that of alcimeda, but considerably larger in size.”


Pringle, et al., 1994: 103.
Larval food:

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. (Bignoniaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 318].

Kigelia moosa Sprague (Bignoniaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 318].

Heterophragma (syn. Ferdinandoa) magnifica Seem. (Bignoniaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 318].

Rawsonia lucida Harv. and Sond. (Flacourtiaceae) [Plowes, D., in Van Son, 1979: 113; Ngoye Forest, KwaZulu-Natal].

Vismia orientalis (Guttiferae) [Kielland, 1990: 114].
Cymothoe coranus coranus Grose-Smith, 1889
Cymothoe coranus Grose-Smith, 1889. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 3: 133 (121-137).

Type locality: Kenya: “in the neighbourhood of Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (east), Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Magombera Forest in the Kilombero Valley; Kimboza Forest at Morogoro; Pemba Island (Kielland, 1990).

Mozambique – Amatongas Forest (Paré).

Mpumalanga – near Malelane (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Pinetown (Bowker); Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umdoni Park (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Tugela River Mouth (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953).
Cymothoe coranus dowsetti Beaurain, 1988
Cymothoe coranus dowsetti Beaurain, 1988. Lambillionea 88: 44 (39-47).

Type locality: Malawi: “Kasitu Rock, Dzalanyama Forest, 5200 ft”.

Distribution: Malawi (west - Kasitu Rock).
Cymothoe coranus kiellandi Beaurain, 1988
Cymothoe coranus kiellandi Beaurain, 1988. Lambillionea 88: 40 (39-47).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Ititye, Kigoma, Tanzanie”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by a distinct brown postdiscal wavy line on the hind wing upperside and brown postdiscal markings in spaces 1a and 1 b of the forewing upperside; forewing distal margins more concave than in the nominate subspecies; apex more produced in both sexes; forewing underside wavy line in spaces 4 to 6 further from the markings at the end of the cell than in the nominate subspecies (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda; Kigoma; Gombe Stream (Kielland, 1990).
Cymothoe coranus murphyi Beaurain, 1988
Cymothoe coranus murphyi Beaurain, 1988. Lambillionea 88: 45 (39-47).

Type locality: Malawi: “R. Ruo, Mont Mulanje, 3500 ft”.

Distribution: Malawi (Mount Mlanje).

Cymothoe cottrelli Rydon, 1980
Cymothoe cottrelli Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 274 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Cymothoe cottrelli cottrelli. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Chimalira, Malawi. 5 Nov 82. R. Dowsett. (Henning collection - H222).
Type locality: Zambia: “Nyika Plateau”.

Diagnosis: Very similar to C. aurivillii but on upperside the submarginal cream spots are less sickle-shaped (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia (Kielland).

Habitat: Forest. Subspecies njombe occurs at 2 100 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males spend most of the time above the forest canopy (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rawsonia lucida (Flacourtiaceae) [Congdon & Collins, 1998: 46].

Dovyalis species (Flacourtiaceae) [Heath et al., 2002: 64].
Cymothoe cottrelli cottrelli Rydon, 1980
Cymothoe cottrelli Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 274 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Cymothoe cottrelli cottrelli. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Chimalira, Malawi. 5 Nov 82. R. Dowsett. (Henning collection - H222).
Type locality: Zambia: “Nyika Plateau”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south-west), Malawi, Zambia (western Nyika Plateau) (Kielland, 1990).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bundali Hills, just across the Malawi border from the Misuku Hills (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Malawi – Nyika Plateau; Zomba Mountain (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Makutu Mountains; Mafinga Mountains; Nyika (Heath et al., 2002).
Cymothoe cottrelli njombe Rydon, 1996
Cymothoe cottrelli njombe Rydon, 1996. Lambillionea 96 (Numero Special): 10 (8-14).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Njombe, Iboma Forest, 2160m, 28.iii.1986 (J. Kielland).” Place of deposition of holotype not given.

Distribution: Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Known only from the type locality, Iboma Forest, about 8 km south-east of Njombe town (Kielland, 1990).
Cymothoe cottrelli livingstonensis Darge, 2006
Cymothoe cottrelli livingstonensis Darge, 2006. Entomologia Africana 11 (2): 5 (5-6).

Type locality: Tanzania: Livingstone Mountains.

Distribution: Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Known only from the type locality, Livingstone Mountains.

Cymothoe crocea Schultze, 1917
Cymothoe crocea Schultze, 1917. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 82 (A.3.): 34 (34-39).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Molundu, Assamba, Yukaduma, Nemayong”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Cymothoe cyclades (Ward, 1871)
Harma cyclades Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 119 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (east).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
bonnyi Grose-Smith, 1890 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 470 (463-473). “From Yambuya on the Aruwimi River through the Great Forest of Central Africa”.

Cymothoe distincta Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe excelsior distincta Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 48 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kambaza, Katanga”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe distincta distincta Overlaet, 1944
Cymothoe excelsior distincta Overlaet, 1944. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 48 (40-74).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kambaza, Katanga”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.
kambazae Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsior distincta). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 50 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga, Katanga”.
trolliae Overlaet, 1944 (as ssp. of Cymothoe excelsior). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 51 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kasai”.
caeca Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsior distincta). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 52 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga”.
aramoides Overlaet, 1944 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 53 (40-74). Congo: “Congo français”.
neustetteri Overlaet, 1945 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsior). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 267 (265-289). Congo: “Etoumbi, Congo Français”.
Cymothoe distincta kivuensis Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe distincta kivuensis Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 33 (1-50).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kivu, Congo Belge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda (west - Bwamba Valley).
kivuensis Overlaet, 1944 (as f. of Cymothoe excelsior). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 38: 54 (40-74). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kivu, Congo Belge”.

Cymothoe egesta (Cramer, 1775)
Papilio egesta Cramer, 1775 in Cramer, [1775-6]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 1: 72 (16 + 155 pp.). Amsteldam and Utrecht.

Type locality: [West Africa]: “Surinamen”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania.

Common name: Common yellow glider.

Habitat: Lowland to submontane forest, including secondary growth (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania ssp. confusa occurs at altitudes from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A relatively common species (Larsen, 2005a). Both sexes appear to remain close to the ground and females are often seen flying in dense undergrowth (Larsen, 2005a). Males are known to mud-puddle and both sexes are occasionally attracted to fermenting fruit (Kielland, 1990). Larsen (1994) saw many specimens feeding from the flowers of Cleistopholis patens, together with other Cymothoe and Euryphura species, at Kakum, Ghana; most probably the nectar in these flowers had fermented.

Early stages:

Amiet, 1997 [larva and pupa (Cameroon)].

Amiet, 2000 [larva and pupa (Cameroon)].

Larval food:

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Cameroon)].
Cymothoe egesta egesta (Cramer, 1775)
Papilio egesta Cramer, 1775 in Cramer, [1775-6]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 1: 72 (16 + 155 pp.). Amsteldam and Utrecht.

Type locality: [West Africa]: “Surinamen”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, to Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Yapo (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Kakum (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Agege (Larsen, 2005a).
Cymothoe egesta confusa Aurivillius, 1887
Cymothoe confusa Aurivillius, 1887. Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm 5: 310 (305-314).

Type locality: Congo: “Brazzaville”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – From Wanzizi in Mpanda to Gombe Stream, north of Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).
degesta Staudinger, 1890 (as var. of Cymothoe egesta). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 418 (412-422). Sierra Leone.

Cymothoe megaesta Staudinger, 1890
Cymothoe egesta var. megaesta Studinger, 1890. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 418 (412-422).

Synonym of C. egesta (Cramer, 1775). Ackery et al., 1995.



Cymothoe megaesta Staudinger, 1890. Larsen, 2005a.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun (Barombi-Station)”.

Diagnosis: Smaller than C. egesta, with a more orange tone on the upperside. Wing margins more strongly scalloped; female darker (Larsen, 2005a); larva different (Amiet, 1997).

Distribution: Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages:

Amiet, 1997. (larva)

Larval food:

Rinorea lepidobotrys (Violaceae) [Amiet, 1997].

Cymothoe eris Aurivillius, 1896
Cymothoe eris Aurivillius, 1896. Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhlhandlingar. Stockholm 53: 434 (431-436).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bangala (Congo superior)”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Cymothoe eris eris Aurivillius, 1896
Cymothoe eris Aurivillius, 1896. Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhlhandlingar. Stockholm 53: 434 (431-436).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bangala (Congo superior)”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi).
Cymothoe eris capellides Holland, 1920
Cymothoe capellides Holland, 1920. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 198 (109-369).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Medje”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Tshopo, Maniema).
Cymothoe eris sankuruana Overlaet, 1952
Cymothoe eris sankuruana Overlaet, 1952. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (8) Sciences zoologiques 14: 29 (1-50).
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