Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Zimbabwe – Mutare; Mount Selinda (Pringle, et al., 1994); Vumba; Chimanimani (Mullin).

Common name: Swynnerton’s sailer.

Habitat: Montane forest.

Habits: Flies slowly, with an occasional beat of the wings, along the edge of bush or in glades. Settles frequently, a few metres up, on the leaves of trees. Females are rarely seen (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: September to May (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Macaranga mellifera Prain. (Euphorbiaceae) [Bampton, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 109].
neavei Rothschild, 1918 (as sp. of Neptis). Novitates Zoologicae 25: 342 (338-345). Malawi: “Mlanje, Nyassaland”.

Neptis trigonophora Butler, 1878
Neptis trigonophora Butler, 1878. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 2: 177 (177-179).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Masasi, East Africa”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by a small triangular white mark in the discal band of the forewing upperside (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa.

Common name: Barred sailer; regular club-dot sailer.

Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from sea-level to 1 200 m and ssp. melicertula from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990). Found in a variety of forest types in West Africa, extending into Guinea savanna along riverine forest corridors (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: In West Africa this is not a very common butterfly (Larsen, 2005a). Individuals fly high up with the typical flicking flight of the genus. They often settle on the leaves of trees. Males are territorial. Sometimes they fly low down on the edge of the forest, occasionally feeding from flowers (Pringle, et al., 1994). Males are also known to mud puddle (Kielland, 1990).

Flight period: August to May; scarce fron November to February. Specimens in the the Eastern Cape populations are commonest in March and April (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus, 1978 [larva].

Larval food:

Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321; East Africa; (ssp. trigonophora)].

Blighia unijugata (Sapindaceae) [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 45].

Grewia carpinifolia (Tiliaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Baphia pubescens (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Millettia species (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Pterocarpus santalinoides (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Ventilago species (Rhamnaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].

Sterculia tragacantha (Sterculiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
Neptis trigonophora trigonophora Butler, 1878
Neptis trigonophora Butler, 1878. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 2: 177 (177-179).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Masasi, East Africa”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania (east), Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Eastern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Coastal forests; East Usambara; Ulugurus; Turiani; Uzungwa Rift; Masagati south of Ifakara (Kielland, 1990).

Mozambique – Savane; Dondo; Xiluvo, Amatongas; Buzi River; Maronga Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Vumba Mountains; Mount Selinda (Pringle, et al., 1994); Bikita (Carcasson).

Eastern Cape Province – Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Embotyi Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).
Neptis trigonophora melicertula Strand, 1912
Neptis melicerta var. melicertula Strand, 1912. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77 (1.4. Supplementhefte): 116 (107-123).

Neptis trigonophora melicertula. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Mufulira, Zambia. 5/6/71. Alan Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Nlohe”.

Diagnosis: Discal white spots on forewing narrower and more widely spaced than in the nominate subspecies; white marking in cell of forewing more or less well developed (obsolete in nominate subspecies) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania (north-west), Zambia (north).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Mpanda and Kigoma Districts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mufulira; Luapula Valley; Lumangwe Falls; Kapweshi Forest Reserve (Heath, et al., 2002).
intermedia Schultze, 1920 (as sp. of Neptis). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1 (14): 791 (639-829). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belg. Kongo: Kimuenza”.
vansomereni Eltringham, 1929 in Eltringham, et al., 1929 (as f. of Neptis trigonophora). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 487 (475-504). Uganda: “Jinja”.
vansomereni d’Abrera, 1980 (as ssp. of Neptis trigonophora). Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 252 (593 pp.). Melbourne. [Uganda: “Jinja”.]

Neptis troundi Pierre-Baltus, 1978
Neptis troundi Pierre-Baltus, 1978. Lambillionea 78: 36 (33-44).

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “à la Station d’Ecologie Equatoriale de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire)”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Lamto (TL).

Common name: Constricted club-dot sailer.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A fairly common species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus, 1978 [larva].

Larval food:

Millettia zechiana (Fabaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Paullinia pinnata (Sapindaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Grewia carpinifolia (Tiliaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Millettia species (Fabaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].

Allophylus species (Sapindaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].

Neptis vindo Pierre-Baltus, 1978
Neptis vindo Pierre-Baltus, 1978. Lambillionea 78: 42 (33-44).

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “à la Station d’Ecologie Equatoriale de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire)”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast. Only known, with certainty, from the type locality (Larsen, 2005a).

Specific localites:

Ivory Coast – Lamto (TL).

Common name: Claude’s club-dot sailer.

Habitat:

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus, 1978 [larva].

Larval food:

Lasiodiscus species (Rhamnaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978].

Neptis vingerhoedti Pierre-Baltus, 2003
Neptis vingerhoedti Pierre-Baltus, 2003. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 108 (5): 440 (440).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis woodwardi Sharpe, 1899
Neptis woodwardi Sharpe, 1899. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 3: 243 (243-244).

Type locality: Uganda: “Nandi, Uganda Protectorate”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Neptis woodwardi woodwardi Sharpe, 1899
Neptis woodwardi Sharpe, 1899. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 3: 243 (243-244).

Type locality: Uganda: “Nandi, Uganda Protectorate”.

Distribution: Kenya (west of the Rift Valley), Uganda (east).
Neptis woodwardi translima Collins & Larsen, 1991
Neptis woodwardi translima d'Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 255 (593 pp.). Melbourne. Ackery et al., 1995. Not a valid description (T.B. Larsen, pers. comm., 2005).

Neptis woodwardi translima Collins & Larsen 1991. In Larsen, 1991. In: The butterflies of Kenya and their natural history 332, 444 (490 pp.). Oxford.

Type locality: Kenya: “Katamayu, Aberdare Mountains”.

Distribution: Kenya (central highlands).
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