Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mubale”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by the virtual absence of white spots in the cell of the forewing (Kielland, 1990). Close to N. serena but the genitalia are distinctive (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Nigeria, to Ethiopia, to Democratic Republic of Congo, to Kenya, to Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Steele (1997) (Lees et al., 2003).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Throughout (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Kabompo River; Mufulira; Ndola; Lusaka; Kawambwa; Makutu Mountains; Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Wyliespoort (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953).

Common name: Common sailer; albizia sailer.

Habitat: Forest and woodland. In Tanzania from sea-level to 2 200 m (Kielland, 1990). In Nigeria it is a strictly sub-montane species (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Males defend territories from perches on the leaves of trees a few metres above the ground. The flight is floating, with occasional beats of the wings (Pringle, et al., 1994). Both sexes are fond of flowers, such as those of Lantana (Trimen & Bowker, 1887).

Flight period: All year.

Early stages:

Dickson, 1972: 35.
Clark, in Van Son, 1979: 94 (Plate 56) [as Neptis laeta].

“The eggs are laid singly on the tip of a leaf. They are 1 mm in diameter by 1,1 mm high, pale yellowish-green when laid, changing to pale watery green and later assuming a pale brownish tint at the top and bottom. The incubation period is seven days. The larva is 2,2 mm long at hatching and grows to 4 mm in ten days. Second instar grows to 6,5 mm, third to 10 mm, fourth to 16 mm, these three instars taking normally eight days each. The fifth instar takes 13 days, and the larva grows to 27 mm. The length of duration of instars is drawn out in cold weather. On hatching, the larvae are pale olive, but gradually assume a dull yellow colour. When feeding, the larva turns a dirty green. The larvae reat at the point of a leaf, and this spot is left uneaten. They cover themselves with their excreta and when at rest on the bared tip of the leaf they resemble a withered remnant of the leaf and are difficult to detect. They rest with the head tucked well under the body. Pupation takes place among leaves where the shape and colour of the pupa resembles a shrivelled leaf. The butterfly emerges after 15 days. The species is multivoltine.”


Larval food:

Dalbergia obovata E. Mey. (Fabaceae) [Dickson, 1965: 12].

Albizia zygia Macbride (Fabaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Acalypha species (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Son, 1979: 94].

Dalbergia armata E. Mey. (Fabaceae) [Pringle, et al., 1994: 110].

Brachystegia boehmii Taub. (Fabaceae) [Paré, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 110].

Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W.F. Wight (Fabaceae) [Mullin, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 110].
roberti Eltringham, 1929 (as sp.. of Neptis). In Eltringham, et al., 1929. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 488 (475-504). Uganda: “Mulange, Mabira Forest”. This taxon is a melanic aberration of N. laeta (Larsen, 2005a: 368).

Neptis larseni Wojtusiak & Pyrcz, 1997
Neptis larseni Wojtusiak & Pyrcz, 1997. Lambillionea 97 (1): 53 (53-63).

Type locality: Sao Tome and Principe: “Principe Island, Terreiro Velho, 28-31.XII.1993, leg. J. Wojtusiak and T.W. Pyrcz.” Holotype in NHM, London.

Distribution: Sao Tome and Principe (Principe Island).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis lermanni Aurivillius, 1896
Neptis lermanni Aurivillius, 1896. Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhlhandlingar. Stockholm 53: 431 (431-436).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Popokabaka (im Koango-Gebiete) 5° 45' s. Br., 16° 56' ö L. o. Greenw”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ubangi, Mongala, Uele, Tshopo, Equateur, Cataractes, Sankuru, Tanganika), Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
magnifica Dufrane, 1933 (as ab. of Neptis lermanni). Lambillionea 33: 166 (164-166). “Congo”.

Neptis liberti Pierre & Pierre-Baltus, 1998
Neptis liberti Pierre & Pierre-Baltus, 1998. Bulletin de la Societe francais d’Entomologie 103: ? (447-450).

Type locality: Gabon: “”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a), Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (including Ituri and Kivu).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills, Mkpot 1 (Larsen, 2005a); Idoma Division (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Ahoada (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Ikom (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a); Sapoba (Larsen, 2005a); Mamu Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Libert’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest in good condition (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A relatively common species (Larsen, 2005a). Contesting males have been noted flying at speeds much greater than normally associated with the genus (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Larsen, 2005a.

The larva resembles that of N. melicerta.



Larval food:

Tetrapleura thoningii (Fbaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Gabon)].

Neptis livingstonei Suffert, 1904
Neptis livingstonei Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 126 (124-132).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Lukuledi. Deutsch-Ost-Africa”.

Distribution: Tanzania. Known only from the type locality.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Probably not a valid species (T. B. Larsen, pers. comm., 2005).

Neptis lugubris Rebel, 1914

Neptis lugubris Rebel, 1914. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 241 (219-294).

Type locality: “Tanganyika-See”.

Distribution: Uganda (south-west), Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo (east).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis marci Collins & Larsen, 1998
Neptis marci Collins and Larsen, 1998. Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 110 (7-8): 161.

Type locality: DRC: “Butuohe, Kivu, Zaïre, 2000 m, vii.1987 (S.C. Collins).” In ABRI, Nairobi.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Rwanda? Known only from the holotype.

Habitat: Montane forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis matilei Pierre-Balthus, 2000
Neptis matilei Pierre-Balthus, 2000. Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (Nouvelle Serie) 22: 245 (245-248).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ipassa”.

Distribution: Gabon, Cameroon.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis mayottensis Oberthür, 1890
Neptis mayottensis Oberthür, 1890. Études d’Entomologie 13: 14 (9-15).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Iles Comores”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis melicerta (Drury, 1773)
Papilio melicerta Drury, 1773. Illustrations of Natural History 2: index et 34 (90 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west).

Recorded, in error, from Senegal by Condamin (1964) and from Kenya by Larsen (1991) (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Original club-dot sailer.

Habitat: Forest of all types (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Relatively uncommon (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus, 1978 [larva; Ivory Coast].

Larval food:

Abrus canescens (Fabaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978; Ivory Coast].

Acacia ataxacantha (Fabaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978; Ivory Coast].

Dalbergia hostilis (Fabaceae) [Pierre-Baltus, 1978; Ivory Coast].

Abrus pulabellus (Fabaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 128].

Allophylus species (Sapindaceae) [Larsen, 1999].

Note: Van Someren (1974) and Sevastopulo (1975) give Acalypha species (Euphorbiaceae) and Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) as larval hosts but, according to Kielland (1990: 128), these records probably refer to N. goochi.
blandina Stoll, 1780 in Stoll, [1780-2] (as sp. of Papilio). Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia, Africa en America 4 [part]: 76 (29-252). Amsteldam & Utrecht. Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leona”.
melinoe Godart, 1824 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824] (as sp. of Nymphalis). Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 432 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris. Sierra Leone.

Neptis metanira Holland, 1892
Neptis metanira Holland, 1892. Entomological News 3: 249 (248-250).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove Valley”.

Distribution: Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo?, Uganda?.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Kakum (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Holland’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest in good condition (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Larsen (2005a) observed two males contesting a territory for 10 minutes in Kakum, Ghana. The flight was very fast, something not so far seen in the genus, and more akin to the flight speed of a species of Pseudathyma.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis metella (Doubleday, 1848)
Limenitis metella Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 35 [1848], 272 [1850] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania.

Common name: Yellow-base sailer.

Habitat: Forest, especially disturbed areas (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: The flight is slightly more powerful than in N. saclava or N. nemetes, with which it often flies in West Africa (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens are found flying along forest paths and roads, as well as high up in the trees (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acalypha neptunica pubescens (Euphorbiaceae) [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 44; Tanzania].
Neptis metella metella (Doubleday, 1848)
Limenitis metella Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 35 [1848], 272 [1850] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west), Sudan (south), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Kikuru Forest; Munene Forest (common in all) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
gratilla Mabille, 1880 (as sp. of Neptis). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 23: 106 (104-109). [West Africa]: “Madagascar”. [False locality.] Synonymized with Neptis metella by Larsen, 2005a, syn. nov.
brunni Schultze, 1916 (as ab. of Neptis metella). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.12.): 140 (136-142). Cameroon: “Molundu (Südost-Kamerun)”.
vinalli Eltringham, 1929 in Eltringham, et al., 1929 (as f. of Neptis metella). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 77: 486 (475-504). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Baolongo, a village 40 miles W. of Bongandanga, Basankusu, Belgian Congo”.
Neptis metella flavimacula Jackson, 1951
Neptis metella flavimacula Jackson, 1951. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 20: (95) 91-105.

Type locality: Uganda: “Mbale, Uganda”.

Distribution: Uganda (east - western slopes of Mt Elgon), Kenya (west).

Neptis mixophyes Holland, 1892
Neptis mixophyes Holland, 1892. Entomological News 3: 249 (248-250).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove Valley”.

Diagnosis: Diagnostic characters discussed by Pierre-Baltus (2003).

Distribution: Sierra Leone (east), Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Cape Three Points (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Holland’s clubbed sailer.

Habitat: Wetter forest in good condition (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A very scarce species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus & Amiet, 1999.

Amiet, 2000. (larva and pupa).

Larval food:

Dalhousiea africana (Fababceae) [Pierre-Baltus & Amiet, 1999 (Gabon)].

Petersianthus (= Combretodendron) species (Lecythidaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].
nicodice Grünberg, 1910 (as sp. of Neptis). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 470 (469-480). Equatorial Guinea: “Alcu, Span. Guinea”.

Neptis morosa Overlaet, 1955

Neptis morosa Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 97 (1-106).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kanonga”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. jordani but forewing subapical band wider and not indented at the costa (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda, Burundi, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Bukoba Region (Kielland, 1990).

Common name: Savanna sailer.

Habitat: Moist areas and forest margins (Kielland, 1990). In West Africa it is found in tall grass savanna, often together with N. kiriakoffi, and in clear-felled areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A common species (Larsen, 2005a). Early in the morning males may be found imbibing dew from the stems of tall grasses (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis nebrodes Hewitson, 1874
Neptis nebrodes Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 206 (205-206).

Type locality: Angola.

Distribution: Guinea? (De Fleury, 1926; as N. jamesoni), Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mayumbe).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Boabeng-Fiema (Larsen, 2005a); Kintampo Falls (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Broken-club sailer.

Habitat: Forest, mostly of good quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A scarce species that usually flies high up (Larsen, 2005a). Males mud-puddle, and according to R. St Leger, also come to banana-baited traps (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis nemetes Hewitson, 1868
Neptis nemetes Hewitson, 1868 in Hewitson, 1867-71. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 4: 45 ([118] pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina-Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia.

Common name: Nemetes sailer.

Habitat: Lowland forest and riverine thicket (Kielland, 1990). In West Africa it occurs mainly in disturbed forest (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania it flies at altitudes from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is weak and close to the ground (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Alchornea cordifolia Schaum. (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Asteraceae [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 44; as Compositae].



Macaranga species (Euphorbiaceae) [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 44].

Alchornea species (Euphorbiaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].
Neptis nemetes nemetes Hewitson, 1868
Neptis nemetes Hewitson, 1868 in Hewitson, 1867-71. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 4: 45 ([118] pp.). London.

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina-Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon (west) to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Sudan (south), Kenya (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
Neptis nemetes margueriteae Fox, 1968
Neptis nemetes margueriteae Fox, 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 30: 1249 (1236-1280).

Neptis nemetes margueriteae. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Lisombo, Mwinilunga, Zambia. 01/V/2001. A.J. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Lolodorf, Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon south), Gabon, Equatorial Guinea (Mbini), Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Wanzizi in Mpanda to the Ugandan border (Kielland, 1990); Minziro; Rumanyika Game Reserve (common) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
Neptis nemetes obtusa Rothschild & Jordan, 1903
Neptis nemetes obtusa Rothschild & Jordan, 1903. Novitates Zoologicae 10: 536 (491-542).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Scheko”.

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Neptis nicobule Holland, 1892
Neptis nicobule Holland, 1892. Entomological News 3: 249 (248-250).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove Valley”.

Diagnosis: Differs from N. metella in the wider forewing cell bar and wider hindwing discal band. Differs from N. nicoteles, on the forewing upperside, in having a small triangular white spot in area 4 and a more solid white streak in the cell (Congdon and Collins, 1998). Diagnostic characters discussed by Pierre-Baltus (2003).

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Lualaba), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bulembe in Minziro Forest; Kikuru Forest; Munene Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Common name: Scarce clubbed sailer.

Habitat: Wet, good quality forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Much less common than N. nicoteles, but not especially rare (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Pierre-Baltus & Amiet, 1999.

Larval food:

Cnestis ferruginea (Connaraceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Ivory Coast)].

Tetrapleura species (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Gabon)].

Swartzia species (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Gabon)].

Neptis nicomedes Hewitson, 1874
Neptis nicomedes Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 205 (205-206).

Type locality: Angola.

Distribution: Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west).

Common name: Petty sailer.

Habitat: Forest? (nothing published).

Habits: Much scarcer and less widespread than the closely related N. quintilla (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
puelloides Eltringham, 1922 (as f. of Neptis nicomedes). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 578, 579 (532-588). Nigeria: “Oni, Lagos”.

Neptis quintilla Mabille, 1890
Neptis quintilla Mabille, 1890. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6) 10: 21 (17-51).

Synonym of N. nicomedes Hewitson, 1874. Ackery et al., 1995.



Neptis quintilla Mabille, 1890. Larsen, 2005a: 374, stat. nov.

Type locality: Ivory Coast: “Assinie”.

Distribution: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Assinie (TL).

Common name: Angled petty sailer.

Habitat: Open areas in wet forest, but only where canopy cover remains (Larsen, 2005a). It flies rather weakly, low down (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: May be common but tends to be very localized and somewhat seasonal (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acacia species (Fabaceae) [Schultze, 1920 (Cameroon); a forest creeper also used by Charaxes pleione].

Neptis nicoteles Hewitson, 1874
Neptis nicoteles Hewitson, 1874. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 206 (205-206).

Neptis nicoteles. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 37mm. Lisombo, Mwinilunga dist., Zambia. 2/V/2001. A.J. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Angola.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. melicerta, from which it differs in the absence of the postcellular white spot in the forewing; no postdiscal spot in space 4; genitalia distinctive (Kielland, 1978).

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Ntakatta Forest; Mukuyu (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Clubbed sailer.

Habitat: Lowland forest, and most other types of forest, including secondary habitats (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Widespread but never numerous (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens rarely fly high up (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:

Amiet, 2000. (pupa)

Larval food:

Milletia species (Fabaceae) [Amiet, 2000 (Cameroon)].

Neptis nina Staudinger, 1896
Neptis nina Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 8: 369 (366-379).

Neptis nina. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 32mm. Mafinga, Zambia. 20 September, 1981. A. Heath. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Usagara, Deutsch-Ost-Afrika”.

Diagnosis: Closest to N. puella (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (east), Kenya (south-east), Zambia (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Usambaras; Kimboza; Uluguru; Nguu; Nguru; Mwanihana; Mufindi; Ukaguru; Pugu Hills; Ulanga District (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Makutu Mountains; Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania it occurs from near sea-level to 2 140 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is weak and specimens circle aroud bushes anfd trees, sometimes high up (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis nysiades Hewitson, 1868
Neptis nysiades Hewitson, 1868 in Hewitson, 1867-71. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 4: 45 ([118] pp.). London.

Neptis nysiades. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Isombu, Ikelenge, Zambia. 12.III.76. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi). [NOT nysiades – see Larsen, 2005a: 373]
Type locality: Nigeria: “Old Calabar”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. nina and N. puella but larger (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Ntakatta; Luntampa; Lubalizi; Kemfu; Mihumu (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Zambezi Bridge, Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Variable sailer.

Habitat: Forest and riparian forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it flies at altitudes from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990). In West Africa in semi-deciduous forest and secondary growth in wetter forests (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A relatively uncommon species

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Paullinia pinnata (Sapindaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 128].

Neptis occidentalis Rothschild, 1918
Neptis incongrus occidentalis Rothschild, 1918. Novitates Zoologicae 25: 342 (338-345).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Forest 90 km. west of Lake Albert Edward”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. aurivillii and N. incongrua but upperside paler; cilia plain brown; underside of wings golden; genitalia distinctive (Kielland, 1978).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mweze Highland; Mahale Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Common name: Mountain sailer.

Habitat: Montane and riparian forest (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania the nominate subspecies flies at altitudes between 1 600 and 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Nothing published.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Neptis occidentalis occidentalis Rothschild, 1918
Neptis incongrus occidentalis Rothschild, 1918. Novitates Zoologicae 25: 342 (338-345).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Forest 90 km. west of Lake Albert Edward”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Kivu), Sudan (south), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania (west).
Neptis occidentalis batesii Hall, 1930
Neptis incongrus batesii Hall, 1930. Entomologist 63: 158 (156-160).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Nigeria, Kumbo”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Kumbo (TL).

Cameroon – Rumpi Hills (T. Helps teste Larsen, 2005a).

Neptis ochracea Neave, 1904
Neptis ochracea Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 330 (323-363).

Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. woodwardi but cilia plain brown (chequered with white in woodwardi) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania.

Common name: Yellow mountain sailer.

Habitat: Montane forest. In Tanzania ssp. reductata flies at altitudes from 1 500 to 2 000m; ssp. uluguru from 850 to 2 300 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A decidedly scarce butterfly, at least in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). Males fly high among the trees, with a slow and floating motion, while patrolling their territories (Congdon and Collins, 1998). Male perches are three to four metres above the ground (Larsen, 2005a). Females have been seen ovipositing on brambles (Rubus sp.) and preferred older, mature leaves on drooping stems, free of other vegetation (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rubus species (Rosaceae) (brambles; exotic) [Congdon and Collins, 1998: 45; Tanzania].
Neptis ochracea ochracea Neave, 1904
Neptis ochracea Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 330 (323-363).

Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri), Uganda (west and central), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Kikuru Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
Neptis ochracea lualabae Berger, 1981
Neptis ochracea lualabae Berger, 1981. Les Papillons du Zaire 172 (543 pp.). Bruxelles.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kafakumba”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba).
Neptis ochracea mildbraedi Gaede, 1915
Neptis mildbraedi Gaede, 1915. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 38 (38-40, 71-74).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Dengdeng, N. Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Mambilla Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Deng Deng (TL); Rumpi Hills (T. Helps teste Larsen, 2005a).
Neptis ochracea ochreata Gaede, 1915
Neptis ochreata Gaede, 1915. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 9: 38 (38-40, 71-74).

Type locality: No locality given.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda (west).
parvimacula Rothschild, 1918 (as ssp. of Neptis ochracea). Novitates Zoologicae 25: 341 (338-345). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kwidgwi Island, Lake Kivu”.
Neptis ochracea reductata Larsen, 1995
Neptis ochracea reductata Larsen, 1995 in Ackery et al., 1995: 368.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mpanda, Mt. Sitebi, 2000 m”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in that the male has no streak, or only a faint indication of one, in space 1 of the forewing; in females the spots are reduced (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mahale Mountains; Mweze Highland; Ntakatta; Sitebi Mountain; Kampisa (Kielland, 1990).
reducta Kielland, 1978 (as ssp. of Neptis ochracea). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 121: 182 (147-237). Tanzania: “Mpanda, Mt. Sitebi, 2000 m”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Neptis mahendra reducta Fruhstorfer, 1908 [Nymphalidae] [extralimital].]
Neptis ochracea uluguru Kielland, 1985
Neptis ochracea uluguru Kielland, 1985. Lambillionea 87: 69 (62-76).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Uluguru, Bondwa Mt. (2140 m)”.

Diagnosis: Differs from ssp. reductata in that the forewing subapical spots are reduced; the hind wing median band is wider and with a less well defined outer margin (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bondwa Mountain in the Ulugurus (TL); Ukaguru Mountains; Uzungwa Range (Kielland, 1990).
usungwa Kielland, 1985 (as ssp. of Neptis ochracea). Lambillionea 87: 70 (62-76). Tanzania: “Tansania [sic], Iringa, Usungwa Mt. Range, Nyumbenitu Mt. (1800 m)”. Synonymized with uluguru by Kielland, 1990.

Neptis paula Staudinger, 1896
Neptis paula Staudinger, 1896. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 8: 368 (366-379).

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Larsen, 2005a).

Liberia – Ganta (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Tai (Larsen, 2005a); Abidjan area (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Takoradi (Larsen, 2005a); Kibi (Larsen, 2005a); Kakum (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Agege (Larsen, 2005a); Gambari (Larsen, 2005a); Okomu (Larsen, 2005a); Mamu (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Paula’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is a scarce species, which probably spends most of the time in the forest canopy (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis penningtoni van Son, 1977
Neptis penningtoni van Son, 1977. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 30: 157 (157-160).

Neptis penningtoni. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Dondo, P.E.A. 7.8.57. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3625).
Type locality: Mozambique: “Mozambique, Amatongas”.

Diagnosis: Cannot be separated from N. laeta except by examination of the genitalia. Also similar to N. serena (Kielland, 1990). Also easily confused with N. kiriakoffi but in kiriakoffi the white bands are more deeply indented by the black veins; in the forewing this almost breaks the band in two (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Kenya (south-east), Tanzania (west), Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Teita Hills.

Tanzania – Mpanda and Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mufulira; Mpongwe; Lusaka; mid Luangwa Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo; Amatongas; Maronga Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Runde River; Bazeley Bridge; Nyanga; Mutare; Bomponi; Harare; Bindura (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Limpopo Province – Eastern Soutpansberg (Pringle, 2000).

Common name: Pennington’s sailer.

Habitat: Brachstegia woodland, especially on wooded hills (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it occurs at altitudes from 900 to 1 700 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Nothing published.

Flight period: April; July to December (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages:

Paré in Pringle et al., 1994: 110.



According to Paré larvae tend to feed on freshly emerged shoots of the food plant.

Larval food:

Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) Troupin (Fabaceae) [Paré, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 110; Bindura (Zimbabwe)].

Neptis poultoni Eltringham, 1921
Neptis poultoni Eltringham, 1921. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 57: 26 (26-30).

Type locality: Uganda: “Chigwe, Mabira Forest, nr. Kampala”.

Distribution: Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lomami, Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Clerodendron sp. (Verbenaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Paullinia sp. nr pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Neptis puella Aurivillius, 1894
Neptis puella Aurivillius, 1894. Entomologisk Tidskrift 15: 285 (273-314).

Neptis puella. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Chiloma, Mwinilunga, Zambia. 24/iii/1977. Fisher. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Cameroon: “N’Dian”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. nina but larger and with a more extensive white patch in space 1 on the forewing upperside (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Zambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Ackery et al., 1995).

Nigeria – Kagoro Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Mount Sitebi; Ntakatta Forest; Mugondozi River; Lubalizi River (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – A single specimen taken 80 km south of Mwinilunga (figured above) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Little sailer.

Habitat: Cryptosepalum woodland (Heath, et al., 2002). In Tanzania it is said to occur in evergreen forest at altitudes from 900 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A scarce species in West Africa, but a little commoner in eastern Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
lucayensis Schultze, 1916 (as sp. of Neptis). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.12.): 140 (136-142). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kimuenza (Belgisch-Congo)”.

Neptis rogersi Eltringham, 1921
Neptis rogersi Eltringham, 1921. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 57: 29 (26-30).

Type locality: Kenya: “Rabai”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kiono Forest Reserve near Sadani (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Coastal forest. In Tanzania it occurs at an altitude of about 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 129].

Neptis rothschildi Eltringham, 1921
Neptis rothschildi Eltringham, 1921. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 57: 28 (26-30).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kigour Forest, Manyema, Congo Free State”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kisangani region).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis saclava Boisduval, 1833
Neptis saclava Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 197 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Tamatave”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, to Ethiopia, to Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland, Madagascar.

Common name: Spotted sailer; small spotted sailer.

Habitat: Woodland (Heath, et al., 2002) and forest (Pringle, et al., 1994). In Tanzania ssp. marpessa occurs from sea-level to 2 2 00 m (Kielland, 1990). In Madagascar the nominate subspecies occurs in forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Habits: Indiciduals are usually encountered in well-wooded glades, flying among the trees. Males defend territories from perches on the leaves of trees. The flight is floating, with occasional beats of the wings. They are attracted to fermenting fruit and to sap exuding from tree trunks (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year.

Early stages:

Clark, in Van Son, 1979: 89 (Plate 55) [as Neptis saclava marpessa].

“The eggs are laid singly either on the extreme tip of a leaf, or hidden in a young cluster of leaves. It is 0,8 mm in diameter and height, pale green with rows of hexagonal indentations, the intersections bearing a short whitish spine. The larva hatches after five to six days. It eats its way out near the top and devours the shell, either partially, or entirely, and is 1,8 mm long at hatching. It feeds at the edge of the leaf and deposits excreta on its back as camouflage. At first it eats little slots in the leaf edge fitting its own size. It rests with the first five segments arched up, and the head down; it grows to 4 mm in five to eight days. In the second instar some larvae have a broad yellow dorsal line extending to the moles, others are plain pale grey. When disturbed, the larvae raise their anterior segments and tuck their head under. They feed at the edge of the leaf. The instar lasts five to six days and the larvae grow to 6 mm. The third instar lasts five to seven days and the larvae attain a length of 8,5 mm. In the fourth instar the larvae crawl with a noticeable backward and forward swing. The instar lasts some six days and the larvae grow to 13,5 mm. The colour varies slightly in all instars. The colour patch on segment 11 in the final instar is very prominent, and may be white, yellow or pale green. In the resting position with the forward segments raised and the head down the larva resembles a spider when viewed from in front. Sometimes the larva rests doubled up. The final instar lasts some 10 days and the larvae grow to 21 mm. The pupa is suspended by cremastral hooks from a twig or leaf. It is 13,5 mm long. Emergence takes place after 14-15 days.”


Larval food:

Acalypha glabrata Thunb. (Euphorbiaceae) [Platt, 1921: 102; (ssp. marpessa)].

Combretum bracteosum Hochst. (Combretaceae) [Platt, 1921: 102; (ssp. marpessa)].

Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) (exotic) [Dickson, 1965: 12; (ssp. marpessa)].

Quisqualis sp. (Combretaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Australina acuminata Welw. (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Acalypha paniculata (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Quisqualis indica Blanco (Combretaceae) [Clark, in Van Son, 1979: 89; (ssp. marpessa)].

Pilea species (Urticaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 129].

Didymodoxa caffra (Urticaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 62].

Baphiopsis parviflora (Fabaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 62].
Neptis saclava saclava Boisduval, 1833
Neptis saclava Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 197 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “Tamatave [Toamasina]”.

Distribution: Madagascar.
Neptis saclava marpessa Hopffer, 1855
Neptis marpessa Hopffer, 1855. Berichte über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855: 640 (639-643).

Neptis saclava marpessa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Rustenburg Natuurresevaat. 5-8.IV.1976. Potgieter & Scoble. (Transvaal Museum - TM3615).
Type locality: Mozambique: “Mossambique”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, to Ethiopia, to Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Olokemeji Forest near Ibadan (Larsen, 2005a); Kagoro Forest near Kafanchan (Larsen, 2005a); Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a); Gashaka-Gumpti (Larsen, 2005a); Old Ekuri in the Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Rumpi Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Throughout (Kielland, 1990).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Duiwelskloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Mokeetsi (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Magaliesberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Marico (Swanepoel, 1953); Kgaswane Mountain Reserve (Williams).

Gauteng – Krugersdorp (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Margate (Swanepoel, 1953); Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Suurberg (Pringle, et al., 1994).
pasteuri Snellen, 1882 (as ssp. of Neptis nemetes). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 25: 221 (215-234). Congo?: “Quanza-rivier”.
sheppardi Stevenson, 1940 (as ab. of Neptis saclava marpessa). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 94 (88-108). Zimbabwe: “Meikles Jungle near Umtali”.

Neptis seeldrayersi Aurivillius, 1895
Neptis seeldrayersi Aurivillius, 1895. Entomologisches Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 379 (379-382).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Banana. Congo inferior”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast? (Vuattoux & Blandin, 1979), Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Atewa Range (Maessen teste Larsen, 2005a); Kyabobo National Park (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Benin City (Larsen, 2005a); Cross River loop (R. St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Seeldrayer’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A very rare butterfly in West Africa, which appears to be commoner in equatorial Africa (Larsen, 2005a). The species seems to spend most of the time in the forest canopy. (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
barnsi Eltringham, 1921 (as sp. of Neptis). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 57: 27 (26-30). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belgian Congo, between Ituri and Epulu Rivers”.

Neptis serena Overlaet, 1955
Neptis serena Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 89 (1-106).

Neptis serena serena. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Victoria Falls, S. Rhodesia. 22.1.47. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3623).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kaziba”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by the relatively broad white bands on the upperside of both wings (Pringle, et al., 1994). Closest to N. kiriakoffi (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zambia, Botswana (north), Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa. Also in Yemen.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Steele (1997) (Lees et al., 2003).



Common name: Serene sailer; river sailer.

Habitat: Prefers open, grassy banks of streams and rivers (Van Son, 1979). Forest but also in heavy woodland, coastal bush and savanna (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it occurs from sea-level to over 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Males occasionally mud-puddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: January and April to October are the months recorded for it (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Cycina sp. (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].
Neptis serena serena Overlaet, 1955
Neptis serena Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 89 (1-106).

Neptis serena serena. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Victoria Falls, S. Rhodesia. 22.1.47. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3623).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kaziba”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zambia, Botswana (north), Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Dakar (Larsen, 2005a); Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – in most parts of the country (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Kabompo River; mid Lunga River; Sesheke; Katambora; Victoria Falls; Mufulira; Kapiri Mposhi; Lasaka; Lumangwe Falls (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Gogói; Xiluvo; Dondo; Savane; Maronga Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls; Mana Pools; Holdenby Reserve on the lower Pungwe River; Katimbora; Vumba; Runde River (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Botswana – Kabulabula; Kasane (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Sodwana Bay (Greyling; single record).
lativittata Strand, 1909 (as ab. of Neptis agatha). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 75 (1.3.): 305 (303-311). Guinea: “Boola”. This is NOT an available name (see Larsen, 2005a: 368).
latvitta Strand; d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 250 (593 pp.). Melbourne. [Lapsus for lativittata Strand]
Neptis serena annah Larsen, 1982

Neptis serena annah Larsen, 1982. Biologiske Skrifter 23 (3): 31 (76 pp.).

Type locality: Yemen: “Udayin, 1400 m, Wadi Annah”.

Distribution: Yemen.

Neptis sextilla Mabille, 1882
Neptis sextilla Mabille, 1882. Naturaliste 4: 99 (99-100).

Type locality: [West Africa?]: “Madagascar”. [False locality?]. Type possibly lost (not found in the NHM, London or MNHN) (Lees et al., 2003). The description suggests that although it may well have been recorded from Madagascar, it is either an aberration or a hybrid between N. kikideli and N. saclava (Lees et al., 2003). Larsen (2005a: 366) states that sextilla is a re-description of one of the agatha species-group taxa from the African mainland.

Distribution: Of doubtful provenance (Ackery, et al., 1995: 369).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis strigata Aurivillius, 1894
Neptis biafra var. strigata Aurivillius, 1894. Entomologisk Tidskrift 15: 284 (273-314).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kitta”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Common name: Strigate sailer.

Habitat: Dense forest. In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990). Specimens have been seen in cocoa plantations near Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A scarce butterfly in West Africa, becoming commoner in Cameroon (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is strong but usually only a few metres above the ground (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Clerodendrum capitatum Schaum. (Verbenaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].
Neptis strigata strigata Aurivillius, 1894
Neptis biafra var. strigata Aurivillius, 1894. Entomologisk Tidskrift 15: 284 (273-314).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kitta”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Banco (Larsen, 2005a); Bossematie (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a); Kakum (Larsen, 2005a); Bia (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Agege (Larsen, 2005a); Okomu (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Kitta (TL); Korup (Lees, 1989).
Neptis strigata kakamega Collins & Larsen, 1996
Neptis strigata kakamega Collins & Larsen, 1996. In: Larsen, 1996. The butterflies of Kenya and their natural history. Second edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 496 (i-xxii, 1-500).

Type locality: Kenya.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Neptis swynnertoni Trimen, 1912
Neptis swynnertoni Trimen, 1912. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 28 (28-31).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Chirinda”.

Diagnosis: Distinguished by the reddish brown underside (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Malawi (south), Mozambique (west central); Zimbabwe (east).

Specific localities:
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