Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Common name: Continuous sailer.

Habitat: Nothing published.

Habits: Nothing published.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
urungensis Strand, 1911 (as ab. of Neptis conspicua). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 287 (275-304). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kitungulu”.

Neptis najo Karsch, 1893
Neptis najo Karsch, 1893. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 38: 186 (1-266).

Synonym of N. continuata Holland, 1892. Ackery et al., 1995.



Neptis najo Karsch, 1893. Larsen, 2005a: 372.

Type locality: Togo: “Bismarckburg”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Condamin, 1964).

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a); Parc National du Haut Niger (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Banco (Larsen, 2005a); Man (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Bia (Larsen, 2005a); Kakum (Larsen, 2005a); Likpe area (Larsen, 2005a); Wli Falls (Larsen, 2005a).

Togo – Bismarckburg (TL).

Common name: Karsch’s sailer.

Habitat: Most types of forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis cormilloti Turlin, 1994
Neptis cormilloti Turlin, 1993 and 1994. Lambillionea 93 (4) (Tome I): 361 (345-361) and Lambillionea 94 (3) (Tome II): 380 (372-389).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Grande Comore, Nioumbadjou 505m VIII-1958 (P. Griveaud).” Holotype in MNHN, Paris.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis dentifera Schultze, 1920
Neptis dentifera Schultze, 1920. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1 (14): 787 (639-829).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: “Molundu”.

Distribution: Cameroon. Of doubtful provenance (see Usher, 1979: 204).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Known from a single specimen, which may be an aberration. It is doubtful that it is a good species. The specimen does not match the illustration in D’Abrera (1980) (T. B. Larsen, pers. comm., 2005).

Neptis dumetorum Boisduval, 1833
Neptis dumetorum deBoisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 198 (149-270).

Type locality: Réunion: “Bourbon”.

Distribution: Reunion.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Boisduval (1833), van Vollenhoven (1869) and Vinson (1938) (Lees et al., 2003).



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis eltringhami Joicey & Talbot, 1926
Neptis eltringhami Joicey & Talbot, 1926. Entomologist 59: 223 (220-226).

Type locality: Sao Tome and Principe: “Sao Thomé”.

Distribution: Sao Tome and Principe (island of Sao Tome).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis exaleuca Karsch, 1894
Neptis exaleuca Karsch, 1894. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 39: 9 (1-16).

Type locality: Cameroon: “deutschen Forschungsstation Yaúnde im Hinterlande von Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Neptis exaleuca exaleuca Karsch, 1894
Neptis exaleuca Karsch, 1894. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 39: 9 (1-16).

Type locality: Cameroon: “deutschen Forschungsstation Yaúnde im Hinterlande von Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon, to Democratic Republic of Congo (west).
Neptis exaleuca suffusa Rothschild, 1918
Neptis exaleuca suffusa Rothschild, 1918. Novitates Zoologicae 25: 341 (338-345).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Forest 95 km. west of Lake Albert Edward”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Buzenya Forest (rare) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
integra Eltringham, 1922 (as f. of Neptis exaleuca). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 555 (532-588). Uganda: “Toro”.

Neptis frobenia (Fabricius, 1798)
Papilio frobenia Fabricius, 1798. Supplementum entomologiae systematica 425 (572 pp.). Hafniae.

Type locality: Mauritius: “Isle de France”.

Distribution: Mauritius.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Boisduval (1833), van Vollenhoven (1869) and Vinson (1938) (Lees et al., 2003).



Habitat: Most common in the hills above the Black River Gorges and in the Maccabee forest (Davis & Barnes, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acalypha species (Euphorbiaceae) [Manders, 1908].

Erythrospermum mauritiana Baker (family?) [Manders, 1908].

Neptis goochii Trimen, 1879
Neptis goochii Trimen, 1879. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1879: 336 (323-346).

Neptis goochii. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Dondo, P.E.A. 12.8.57. H. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3618).
Type locality: South Africa: “Natal; Little Umhlanga”.

Diagnosis: See N. melicerta for differentiation from that species and N. agouale. The genitalia of N. goochi are distinctive (Kielland, 1978: 183).

Distribution: Sub Saharan Africa including, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Most forests in the western and eastern parts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Known from a male collected at the “Trial Forest Burning Plots” near Ndola and a female taken at Mutundu, Mufulira (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo; Amatongas; Posto de Catandica (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda; Witchwood Valley; Mutare (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Umhlanga, near Durban (Gooch; TL); Durban – Stella Bush (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); False Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Tugela mouth; Mtunzini; Hluhluwe; Eshowe; Dukuduku Forest; Kosi Bay; Emanguzi Forest; Richards Bay (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Common name: Streaked sailer.

Habitat: Forest. In Tanzania from near sea-level to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is slow, weak, and gliding but the isect is alert and wary. Males defend territories, sometimes from perches, at the edge of the forest. They are often found feeding from flowers (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acalypha species (Euphorbiaceae) [Platt, 1921: 102].

Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 64].

Dalbergia species (Fabaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 64].

Neptis gratiosa Overlaet, 1955
Neptis gratiosa Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 95 (1-106).

Neptis gratiosa. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Mwekera Kiwe, Zambia. 10 January, 1982. A.J. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “gorges de la Pelenge”.

Diagnosis: Closely related to N. alta, N. serena and N. laeta (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Sankuru, Shaba), Zambia (north), Mozambique, Tanzania (north-west), Kenya.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Highlands of Mpanda and Kigoma (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; 40 km east of Mwinilunga; Chingola; Mufulira; Kitwe; Ndola; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Grassy woodland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania at altitudes from 1 500 to 1 700 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis incongrua Butler, 1896
Neptis incongrua Butler, 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 112 (108-136).

Neptis incongrua incongrua. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Thyolo, Malawi. 23 April, 1973. A.J. & M.W. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Malawi: “Kantorongondo Mt., Nyika”.

Diagnosis: Differs from N. aurivillii in that it has three white spots in the cell on the underside of the forewing; two of these spots are apparent on the upperside; the two white postdiscal spots in spaces 2 and 3 are less obiquely placed (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya (south-east).

Habitat: Submontane to montane forest. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies occurs at altitudes from 1 200 to 2 700 m; ssp. izidoro from 1 400 to 2150 m; ssp. nguru from 2 000 to 2 300 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Specimens fly high up in the trees, tending to congregate on mountain tops. Occasionally they may be observed flying lower down (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Wisteria sinensis (Fabaceae) [Congdon, vide Kielland, 1990: 127].

Dombeya species (Sterculiaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 64].

Neptis incongrua incongrua Butler, 1896
Neptis incongrua Butler, 1896. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1896: 112 (108-136).

Neptis incongrua incongrua. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Thyolo, Malawi. 23 April, 1973. A.J. & M.W. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Malawi: “Kantorongondo Mt., Nyika”.

Diagnosis: Compared to the other subspecies the underside is blotchy (pale bronze-grey patches) (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania (south and east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Southern Highlands; Iringa; Mbeya; Rukwa; Kitesa Forest at Songea; Uzungwa Range; Ukaguru Mountains; Rubeho Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
Neptis incongrua isidoro Kielland, 1985
Neptis incongrua isidoro Kielland, 1985. Lambillionea 87: 72 (62-76).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Morogoro, Uluguru Mt., Bondwa Mt. (2100 m)”.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies as follows: larger; underside not blotchy; all white markings smaller (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Endemic to the Uluguru Mountains (Kielland, 1990).
Neptis incongrua nguru Kielland, 1987
Neptis incongrua nguru Kielland, 1987. Lambillionea 87: 75 (38-45, 75-79).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mambega Mt. near Maskati Mission in the Nguru Mts”.

Diagnosis: Underside as in ssp. izidoro but paler; white markings on forewing upperside larger than in izidoro but smaller than in the nominate subspecies (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Endemic to the Nguru Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Neptis infusa Birket-Smith, 1960
Neptis infusa Birket-Smith, 1960. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 22: 950 (521-554, 924-983, 1259-1284).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Greater, grassy clearing at Case du Nyong 16 km South of Makak station (Loc. 174), French Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon. Known only from the holotype female.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis jamesoni Godman & Salvin, 1890
Neptis jamesoni Godman & Salvin, 1890. In: Jameson, J.J., Story of the rear column of the Emin Pasha relief expedition: 436 (426-445).

Type locality: “Congo Valley”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Recorded, in error, from Guinea by De Fleury (1926) (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Jameson’s large sailer.

Habitat:

Habits: A rare species of the forest canopy, conspicuous because of its large size (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis jordani Neave, 1910
Neptis jordani Neave, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 33 (2-86).

Neptis jordani. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 42mm. Pungwe River, S. Rhodesia. 12.IV.1959. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3626).
Type locality: Zambia: “Chishi Island, Lake Bangweolo”.

Diagnosis: The forewing submarginal lines in areas 3, 4 and 6 are clearly interrupted by dark veins and the white band is narrowed towards the costa, giving the outer edge a kink (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Angola, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Shaba), Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia (north), Botswana (north), South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal).

Misattributed to the West African fauna by Usher (1979) and Belcastro (1990) (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda; Kigoma; Masagati Forest; Uzungwa Range; Mwanihana Forest (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Mwinilunga; Katambora; Chingola; Mufulira; Ndola; Chishi Island, Lake Bangweulu (TL) (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo; Buzi River; Moribane Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls; Katimbora; Harare; Gweru; Mutare; Vumba; Nyanga; Pungwe River; Bazeley Bridge (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Botswana – Chobe River (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Namibia – Kavango River (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Emanguzi Forest (Ficq); Tembe Elephant Reserve (Pringle, 1998).

Common name: Jordan’s sailer.

Habitat: Along rivers and in grassy marshes (Heath, et al., 2002). In Tanzania it flies at altitudes from 400 to 1 800 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Flies slowly and usually not high above the ground, frequently settling on low vegetation, close to the waters edge (Van Son, 1979).

Flight period: January, February and April to September (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Polygonum strigonum (Polygonaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 63].

Neptis katama Collins & Larsen, 1991
Neptis katama Collins and Larsen, 1991. In Larsen, 1991. The butterflies of Kenya and their natural history 326, 442 (490 pp.). Oxford.

Type locality: Kenya: “Katamayu, Aberdare Mountains (South Kinangop)”.

Distribution: Kenya (Aberdare Mountains, Nyambeni Hills).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis kikideli Boisduval, 1833
Neptis kikideli Boisduval, 1833. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris 2: 198 (149-270).

Type locality: Madagascar: “à Sainte-Marie et à Tamatave [Toamasina]”.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Habitat: Forest (Lees et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis kikuyuensis Jackson, 1951

Neptis incongrua kikuyuensis Jackson, 1951. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 20: 102 (91-105).

Type locality: Kenya: “B.E.A., Aberdare Mts”.

Diagnosis: Similar to N. aurivillii but with a white spot in space 4 on the forewing (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya (Kikuyu Escarpment, Aberdare Mountains), Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Loliondo north of Ngorongoro (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Montane forest. In Tanzania it is found at altitudes above 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis kiriakoffi Overlaet, 1955
Neptis kiriakoffi Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 94 (1-106).

Neptis kiriakoffi. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Dondo, P.E.A. 1.VIII.1957. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3624).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kaswabilenga”.

Diagnosis: Characterized by the forewing cell on the upperside containing a number of white dots and dashes (Pringle, et al., 1994). Close to N. laeta but genitalia distinctive (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal).

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Steele (1997) (Lees et al., 2003).



Specific localities:

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Widespread but commoner in the western parts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Kabompo River; mid Lunga River; Mufulira; Ndola; Kapiri Mposhi; Mkushi; mid- and upper Luangwa Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Amatongas (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Bikita; Runde River; Nyanyadzi River; Mana Pools (Pringle, et al., 1994).

KwaZulu-Natal – Tembe Elephant Park (Woodhall, 2005: 122).

Common name: Kiriakoff’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest and Brachystegia woodland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it occurs at altitudes from near sea-level to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990). In West Africa it is a butterfly of the Guinea savanna and disturbed areas in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Similar to those evinced by N. laeta and N. penningtoni (Pringle, et al., 1994). Individuals have been noted imbibing dew from the stems of long grass (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: August to October (in southern Africa).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Acalypha racemosa Wall. ex Baill. (syn. paniculata Miq.) (Euphorbiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Pilea engleri Rendle (Urticaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Australina species (Urticaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Pilea species (Urticaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Paullinia species (Sapindaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Acalypha species (Euphorbiaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Pterocarpus erinaceus (Fabaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Albizia zygia (Fabaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Pilea usambarensis (Urticaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 62].
overlaeti Pennington, 1962 (as sp. of Neptis). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 25: 266 (266-286). Mozambique: “Dondo Forest (Cheringoma Distr., Moçambique)”.

Neptis laeta Overlaet, 1955
Neptis laeta Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 91 (1-106) [as replacement name for agatha Stoll, 1780 (see discussion in Larsen, 2005a: 368)].

Neptis laeta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Bomponi, S.R. 20:6:63. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3620).

Neptis laeta. Male (aberration). Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 50mm. Zambia, N.W. Province, Kasangeji, 11°40'S; 24°25'E. 1500 m. 11-III-1997. F.M. Kayombo. (Newport Collection).
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