Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Baphia pubescens (Fabaceae) [Pierre-Baltus vide Kielland, 1990: 126].


Grewia carpinifolia (Tiliaceae) [Pierre-Baltus vide Kielland, 1990: 126].

Sterculia tragacantha (Sterculiaceae) [Pierre-Baltus vide Kielland, 1990: 126].

Ventilago species (Rhamnaceae) [Pierre-Baltus vide Kielland, 1990: 126].

Acacia pennata (Fabaceae) [Larsen, 2005a (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Cameroon, Rwanda)].
Neptis agouale agouale Pierre-Baltus, 1978
Neptis agouale Pierre-Baltus, 1978. Lambillionea 78: 40 (33-44).

Neptis agouale agouale. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 38mm. Isombo, Ikelenge, Zambia. 6.III.77. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Ivory Coast: “à la Station d’Ecologie Equatorial de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire)”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania (west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Lamto (TL).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Kigoma: Mukuyu Forest; Kemfu Forest; Kasye Forest; Mihumu Forest; Mugondozi (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Kalene Hill, Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).
Neptis agouale parallela Collins & Larsen, 1996
Neptis agouale parallela Collins and Larsen, 1996. In: Larsen, 1996. The butterflies of Kenya and their natural history. Second edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 498 (i-xxii, 1-500).

Type locality: Kenya.

Diagnosis: Differs from the nominate subspecies in the much wider bands and the fused forewing spots (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kivu), Uganda (east), Ethiopia, Kenya (west), Rwanda, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bukoba Region (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Neptis alta Overlaet, 1955
Neptis alta Overlaet, 1955. Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 90 (1-106).

Neptis alta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 49mm. Lundi, S. Rhod. 23.IX.1961. G. van Son. (Transvaal Museum - TM3622).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga, Sakania”.

Diagnosis: Belongs to the laeta group, which is characterized by three white spots in the forewing cell and a contiguous white discal band from space 2 to the costa (Kielland, 1990). Similar to N. laeta but it is slightly larger and the forewing apex is more pointed (Pringle, et al., 1994). In N. alta the underside white markings are better developed than in related species; the genitalia are distinctive (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (south), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana (north).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (Larsen, 2005a).

Guinea – Parc National de Haut Niger (Larsen, 2005a).

Tanzania – Western, central and eastern parts (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mwinilunga; Solwezi; Mufulira; Victoria Falls; 79 km south of Kawambwa; Kasama (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo; Amatongas; Buzi River; Maronga Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994)

Zimbabwe – Harare; Bikita; Mutare; Rutenga; Bazeley Bridge; Vumba Mountains (Pringle, et al., 1994); Mana Pools (Hancock); Victoria Falls (Ficq).

Common name: Old sailer; high sailer.

Habitat: Brachystegia woodland (Kielland, 1990). In Tanzania it is found at altitudes from 300 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990). In West Africa it is found in forests, including some that are relatively dry (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Specimens often fly and settle high up but, especially in the morning, may be seen resting on the ground (Pringle, et al., 1994). In the dry season it is known to mud-puddle (Larsen, 2005a).

Flight period: August to October and April-May (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Larsen (2005a) strongly suspects that West African populations ascribed to N. alta represent an undescribed species.

Neptis aurivillii Schultze, 1913
Neptis incongrua var. aurivillii Schultze, 1913. Entomologische Rundschau 30: 124 (123-124).

Neptis aurivillii aurivillii. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Nyika N.R., Zambia. 5/ix/1978. Fisher. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Usambara”.

Diagnosis: Very close to N. incongrua but genitalia distinctive (Kielland, 1985: 74).

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Habitat: Montane and submontane forest. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies flies at altitudes betweeen 800 and 2 400 m and ssp. ufipa at 2 200 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Specimens are usually observed flying high up in the trees (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Macaranga sp. (Euphorbiaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Mufindi, Tanzania].

Urera hypselodendron (Urticaceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Magamba, Tanzania].
Neptis aurivillii aurivillii Schultze, 1913
Neptis incongrua var. aurivillii Schultze, 1913. Entomologische Rundschau 30: 124 (123-124).

Neptis aurivillii aurivillii. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Nyika N.R., Zambia. 5/ix/1978. Fisher. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Usambara”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east), Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mufundi; Mwanihana; Image Mountain; Rubeho Mountains; Kiboriani Mountain; Njoge Mountain; Ukaguru Mountains; Uluguru Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Usambaras; Northern Highlands; Mount Longido; Mount Lossoganeu; Pare Mountains (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Makutu Mountains; Mafinga Mountains; Nyika (Heath, et al., 2002).
Neptis aurivillii ufipa Kielland, 1990
Neptis aurivillii ufipa Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 126 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Ufipa, Bizi Mt., 2200 m, Oct. 1987, K. Kalumile”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London.

Description:

Male. White patches of upperside f.w. considerably larger than in the corresponding sex of the nominate race; spots in spaces 2 and 3 conjoined (in ssp. aurivillii there is usually a space between them); white band of h.w. wide, confluent, without or with faintly blackened veins only; distal margin slightly incised and with black veins (in ssp. aurivillii the band is strongly incised). Underside ground colour as in aurivillii. Length of f.w. 27 mm. Female. As the male, but larger, and white markings wider. Length of f.w. 27-30 mm. Genitalia as in ssp. aurivillii.”



Diagnosis: Differs fom the nominate subspecies in the wider, confluent hind wing white band large white spots on the forewing (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania (west - Ufipa district).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Bizi Mountain (Kielland, 1990).

Neptis biafra Ward, 1871
Neptis biafra Ward, 1871. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 8: 121 (34-36, 58-60, 81-82, 118-122).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Camaroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south and Cross River loop), Cameroon (west).

Records from Liberia (Fox, 1965) and Ghana are probably erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Biafran sailer.

Habitat:

Habits: A scarce species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis camarensis Schultze, 1920
Neptis camarensis Schultze, 1920. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1 (14): 789 (639-829).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: Yukaduma”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (west and central).

Specific localities:

Cameroon – Yakaduma (TL).

Common name: Schultze’s sailer.

Habitat: Primary forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A very scarce species of Neptis (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: It is possible that N. camarensis and N. biafra form a variable continuum within a single species (Larsen, 2005a).

Neptis carcassoni Van Son, 1959
Neptis melicerta carcassoni Van Son, 1959. Novos Taxa Entomologicos (15): 5 (8 pp.).

Neptis carcassoni. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Pungwe Br, S. Rhodesia. 13:4:59. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3617).
Type locality: Mozambique: “Dondo, P.E.A.”.

Diagnosis: Distinguished from the closely allied, smaller, N. goochii by the broader white band on the hindwing and the continuous, tapered white mark in the cell of the forewing (Pringle, et al., 1994). Also similar to N. melicerta, but larger (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east).

Common name: Carcasson’s sailer.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Rondo Plateau; Masagati Forest south of Ifakara; Kimboza Forest; Turiani in the Ngurus (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Lunzua Falls, Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Dondo; Xiluvo; Amatongas; Maronga Forest (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda; Butler North; Witchwood Valley, below the Vumba Mountains; Pungwe Valley in the Holdenby Reserve below the Inyangani Mountain (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Habitat: Lowland forest. In Tanzania it occurs at altitudes from 200 to 850 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is slow and sailing, in forest glades (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: Most months of the year (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Dalbergia lactea Vatke (Fabaceae) [Paré, in Pringle, et al., 1994: 109].
[Given as a synonym of Neptis melicerta (Drury) in Ackery, et al., 1995: 367 but treated as a good species by Kielland (1990), Pierre-Balthus (1991) and by Pringle, et al. (1994) (In: Pringle, Henning, and Ball [eds]. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 109 (800pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.]

Neptis carlsbergi Collins & Larsen, 2005
Neptis carlsbergi Collins & Larsen, 2005. In: Larsen, 2005. Butterflies of West Africa: 551.

Neptis carsbergi. Male (x1.9). Left – upperside; right – underside. Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Nigeria: “Oban Hills, Mkpot1”. Holotype (male) March, 1995 (T.B. Larsen leg., coll. African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi.

General remarks: The species is named for the Carlsberg Foundation, Denmark in appreciation for financial support to Larsen (Larsen, 2005a).

Distribution: Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills, Mkpot 1 (TL); Ahoada (St Leger teste Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Carlsberg sailer.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis carpenteri d'Abrera, 1980
Neptis carpenteri d'Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 249 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Uganda: “Kakindu (W. of V. Nyanza). Semliki Valley”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (east), Uganda, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro (common); Munene (common); Kikuru (rare) (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis clarei Neave, 1904
Neptis clarei Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 330 (323-363).

Type locality: Uganda: “Entebbe”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania? (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro, especially at Kere Hill. The identity of this population is in doubt (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 321].

Neptis claude Collins & Larsen, 2005
Neptis claude Collins & Larsen, 2005. In: Larsen, 2005. Butterflies of West Africa: 553.

Neptis claude. Female (x1.8). Left – upperside; right – underside. Photo ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Cameroon: “Djoum”. Holotype (female) October, 1993 (leg. et coll. African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi). The male is unknown.

General remarks: Named for Claude Pierre-Baltus in appreciation of her work on the genus Neptis.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Djourn (TL).

Common name: Large club sailer.

Habitat: Primary (closed) forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: An exceedingly rare butterfly (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis comorarum Oberthür, 1890
Neptis comorarum Oberthür, 1890. Études d’Entomologie 13: 14 (9-15).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Iles Comores”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Neptis comorarum comorarum Oberthür, 1890
Neptis comorarum Oberthür, 1890. Études d’Entomologie 13: 14 (9-15).

Type locality: Comoro Islands: “Iles Comores”.

Distribution: Comoro Islands (Grand Comore, Anjouan).
leighi Rothschild, 1918 (as subsp. of Neptis comorarum). Novitates Zoologicae 25: 341 (338-345). Comoro Islands: “Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands”. [Given as a subspecies of Neptis comorarum Oberthür in Ackery, et al.,: 365 but regarded to be a synonym of Neptis comorarum by Turlin, 1994 (Lambillionea 94 (3) (Tome II): 379 (372-389)).]
decaryi Le Cerf, 1928 (as sp. of Neptis). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 3: 125 (117-126). [Comoro Islands?]: Tsantsany, Madagascar”. [Given as a good species of Neptis in Ackery, et al.,: 365 but regarded to be a synonym of Neptis comororum by Turlin, 1994 (Lambillionea 94 (3) (Tome II): 379 (372-389)).]
Neptis comorarum legrandi Turlin, 1994
Neptis comorarum legrandi Turlin, 1993 and 1994. Lambillionea 93 (4) (Tome I): 361 (345-361) and Lambillionea 94 (3) (Tome II): 380 (372-389).

Type locality: Comoro Isalnds: “Isoni, 150-200 m, Est de Miringoni, Iles Comores, 4.VIII.1989.” Holotype in MNHN, Paris.

Distribution: Comoro Islands.

Neptis conspicua Neave, 1904
Neptis conspicua Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 329 (323-363).

Neptis conspicua. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Zambia, N.W. Province, Ikelenge. 1500 m. 15-V-1983. A. Heath. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: Uganda: “Nyangori, Entebbe”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone?, Togo?, Nigeria?, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Kalene Hill, Ikelenge (Heath, et al., 2002).

Common name: Neave’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis constantiae Carcasson, 1961
Neptis constantiae Carcasson, 1961. Occasional Papers. Coryndon Memorial Museum, Nairobi 7: 6 (1-23).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kibale forest, Toro, Uganda”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Common name: Constance’s sailer.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: The usual floating flight of the genus around trees and bushes, on which they settle periodically (Congdon and Collins, 1998). Individuals of both sexes in the Nigerian and Cameroonian populations appear to remain high in the forest canopy most of the time (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Neptis constantiae constantiae Carcasson, 1961
Neptis constantiae Carcasson, 1961. Occasional Papers. Coryndon Memorial Museum, Nairobi 7: 6 (1-23).

Type locality: Uganda: “Kibale forest, Toro, Uganda”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest; Munene Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
Neptis constantiae kaumba Condamin, 1966
Neptis constantiae kaumba Condamin, 1966. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 28: 1028 (1008-1029).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lulua: Kapanga”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba, Sankuru).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Democratic Republic of Congo – Kapanga (TL).

Note: The populations in Nigeria and Cameroon may be specifically distinct from those in southern DRC (Larsen, 2005a: 370).

Neptis loma Condamin, 1971
Neptis constantiae loma Condamin, 1971. Mémoires de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (86): 356 (349-365).

Neptis loma Condamin, 1971. Larsen, 2005a: 369, stat. rev.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “galerie forestière près du Camp III; des Monts Loma”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana (Volta region), Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (TL).

Ivory Coast – Banco (H. Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Likpe (Maessen teste Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Kagoro (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Loma sailer.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: This is a rare butterfly, with a patchy distribution. Apparently it is commonest in the Loma Mountains of Sierra Leone, according to C. Belcastro (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis angusta Condamin, 1966
Neptis constantiae angusta Condamin, 1966. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 28: 1029 (1008-1029).

Neptis angusta Condamin, 1966. Larsen, 2005a: 370.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sankuru: Katako-Kombe”.

Distribution: Ghana (Volta region), Democratic Republic of Congo (Sankuru, Tshuapa, Tshopo, Ituri), Uganda (west) (Larsen, 2005a); Tanzania (north-west) (Larsen, 2005a).

Specific localities:

Ghana – Likpe (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Condamin’s sailer.

Habitat: Nothing published.

Habits: Nothing published.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Neptis continuata Holland, 1892
Neptis biafra var. continuata Holland, 1892. Entomological News 3: 249 (248-250).

Type locality: Gabon: “Ogove Valley”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone? (Belcastro, 1990), Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda (west).
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