Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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BUTTERFLIES AND SKIPPERS

OF THE AFROTROPICAL REGION
(PAPILIONOIDEA AND HESPERIOIDEA)
AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA
© Seventh edition (2008)

(Copyright Reserved)


FILE G – LIMENITIDINAE (NYMPHALIDAE)

Cymothoe alcimeda marieps. Photo courtesy Jeremy Dobson
Compiled by Mark C. Williams
183 van der Merwe Street, Rietondale
PRETORIA 0001
E-mail: mark.williams@up.ac.za

FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE

Swainson, 1827
SUBFAMILY LIMENITIDINAE

Behr, 1864

Limenitidinae Behr, 1864

Limenitidini Behr, 1864

Harma, Cymothoe, Kumothales, Pseudoneptis, Pseudacraea, Neptis

Parthenini Reuter, 1896 [not Afrotropical]



Adoliadini Doubleday, 1845

Catuna, Hamanumida, Aterica, Pseudargynnis, Cynandra, Euryphura, Euryphaedra, Euryphurana, Crenidomimas, Harmilla, Euphaedra, Euriphene, Bebearia, Euptera, Pseudathyma

TRIBE LIMENITIDINI

Behr, 1864

Genus Harma Doubleday, 1848
In: Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 40 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London. [1:-:1]

Type-species: Harma theobene Doubleday, by monotypy.


An Afrotropical genus containing a single species.


Harma theobene Doubleday, 1848
Harma theobene Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 40 [1848], 288 [1850] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Diagnosis: Females are variable (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, to Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique.

Common name: Angular glider.

Habitat: Forest and heavy woodland, including somewhat degraded forest (Larsen, 2005a). In Tanzania ssp. superna is found at altitudes from 800 to 1 800 m (seldom at 1 600 to 1 800 m); ssp. blassi from 800 to 1 400 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: A common species, with a weaker flight than the closley-related Cymothoe (Larsen, 2005a). Males show perching behaviour, while females are often noted investigating foliage on the edges of the forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Amiet, 2000. (larva and pupa).
Larval food:

Caloncoba gilgiana (Flacourtiaceae) [Vuattoux and Blandin, 1979 (Ivory Coast)].

Buchnerodendron species (Flacourtiaceae) [Fontaine, 1982 (Democratic Republic of Congo)].

Rinorea species (Violaceae) [Kielland, 1990: 116 (requires confirmation – Ed.)].

Lindackeria species (Flacourtiaceae) [Bampton, et al., 1991 (Congo)].

Dovyalis species (Flacourtiaceae) [Ackery, et al., 1995].

Lindackeria schweinfurthii (Flacourtiaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 64].
Harma theobene theobene Doubleday, 1848
Harma theobene Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 40 [1848], 288 [1850] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria.

Specific localities:

Ghana – Ashanti (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Kagoro (Larsen, 2005a).
umbrina Joicey and Talbot, 1921 (as female f. of Cymothoe theobene). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 56 (40-166). Ghana: “Sunyani Forest, Coomassie, Ashanti”.
Harma theobene blassi (Weymer, 1892)
Cymothoe blassi Weymer, 1892. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 53: 90 (79-125).

Type locality: “Ostafrika”.

Diagnosis: Smaller than the other subspecies; distal areas in male with more orange intruding into forewing median band; female without a brown form; hind wing distal border not strongly angled at vein 4 (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – North Pare Mountains; Nguru Mountains; Ukaguru Mountains; Tukuyu (Kielland, 1990).
nebetheo Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Cymothoe theobene). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 115 (108-123). Tanzania: “Mhonda”.
Harma theobene superna (Fox, 1968)
Cymothoe theobene superna Fox, 1968. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire (A) 30: 1237 (1236-1280).

Harma theobene superna. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 62mm. Angola. (Transvaal Museum - TM3707).
Type locality: Cameroon: “Efulen, Cameroons”.

Diagnosis: Hindwing distal border strongly toothed at vein 4 (Kielland, 1990).

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, equatorial Africa, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west), Malawi, Zambia (north-east).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Ikom (Fox, 1968).

Tanzania – Ufipa to the Ugandan border (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Luongo River; Kawambwa-Nchelenge Road; Lumangwe Falls; Sumbu; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).
sordida Schultze, 1916 (as female ab. of Cymothoe theobene). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 81 (A.12.): 136 (136-142). Cameroon: “N’Kore im Gebiet des oberun Crossflusses (Nord-West-Kamerun)”.
dualana Strand, 1914 (as ab. of Cymothoe theobene). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 80 (A.1.): 41 (41-49). Cameroon: “Duala”.
lutescens Poulton, 1922 (as f. of Cymothoe theobene). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 469 (469-472). Nigeria: “Oni”.
nigrolutescens Poulton, 1922 (as f. of Cymothoe theobene). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 469 (469-472). Nigeria: “Moor Plantation”.
nigrescens Poulton, 1922 (as f. of Cymothoe theobene). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921: 470 (469-472). Nigeria: “Oni”.
jacksoni van Someren, 1939 (as female f. of Cymothoe (Harma) theobene). Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 90 (15-100). Uganda: “Kalinzu forest, western Ankole”.

Genus Cymothoe Hübner, 1819
In: Hübner, [1816-[1826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge 39 (432 + 72 pp.). Augsburg.

Type-species: Papilio althea Cramer, by subsequent designation (Hemming, 1943. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 12: 27 (23-30).).


= Amphidema Felder, 1861. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 28 (3): 27 (50 pp.). Type-species: Diadema beckeri Herrich-Schaeffer, by monotypy.
= Pallene Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 41 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.) London. Type-species: Pallene eupithes Doubleday, by monotypy. [Invalid; junior homonym of Pallene Megerle, 1823.]
= Paradiadema Distant, 1880. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1879: 704 (703-709). Type-species: Paradiadema hora Distant, by monotypy.
An Afrotropical genus containing 73 species. The flight is comparatively rapid but often with a floating pattern. Some species are forest canopy dwellers while others frequent the forest floor, often settling in sunny patches. Many species are attracted to fermenting fruit and males are occasionally found mud puddling. The males of some species aggressively defend territories. Females are usually found flying in the semi-shade, low down, often sunning themselves in forest clearings (Kielland, 1990).

Cymothoe adela Staudinger, 1890
Cymothoe adela Staudinger, 1890. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 50: 413 (412-422).

Type locality: Sierra Leone.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Guma Valley in Freetown (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Sierra Leone yellow glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A localized and uncommon species (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
marginata Crowley, 1890 (as sp. of Cymothoe). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1890: 552 (551-556). Sierra Leone.

Cymothoe alcimeda (Godart, 1824)
Nymphalis alcimeda Godart, 1824 in Latreille & Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 384 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris.

Type locality: South Africa: “Cafrerie”.

Distribution: Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland.

Common name: Battling glider.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: The flight of the males is jerky, and specimens settle frequently on the leaves of trees, high up, with opened wings. Females fly low down, in glades or clearings in the forest. Both sexes are often found mud-puddling (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: Summer, but more plentiful from February to April (Pringle, et al., 1994). Subspecies marieps has been recorded in February and April. Subspecies transvaalica has been recorded in January, February, April, November and December.

Early stages:
Dickson, 1972: 40 [(C. a. alcimeda)].
Clark, in Van Son, 1979: 110 (Plate 59) [as Cymothoe alcimeda trimeni].

“Eggs are laid in clusters which vary considerably in size, the number of eggs in a cluster varying from 50 to 165. They are watery white when laid and remain so until the developing larva gives them a grey tint. They are 0,7 mm in diameter by 0,9 mm high, the surface being covered with well developed indentations, the surface rims of which are hexagonal in shape and at each junction there is a pointed spine. The egg-stage is 10-11 days; but in very hot, humid weather it may be less. The young larva emerges from the egg by eating a ring round the top forming a rough lid which it forces open, and after a rest eats the shell. They generally eat their own shell, but some larvae wander around and then return and eat the first discarded shell that suits them. Sometimes, if disturbed, a number of shells are left uneaten. Gradually they gather to the edge of a young leaf and cluster together side by side jerking their heads from side to side to force each other to make room. The heads point in the same direction, giving the appearance of a black line and in this position they feed on the surface of the leaf. They strip almost the entire surface, then crawl in procession to the next where they take up a similar position. On emerging the young larvae are from 2-2,7 mm long, watery white with a black head. The body setae are fairly long, finely barbed, and of a watery white colour. They are set on small white moles. The setae of the head are of medium length and white. On the central wrinkle of segments 2 to 11, subdorsally placed on each side, is a well-developed bulge which marks the position of the protuberance in the next instar. As soon as the larvae have fed on the surface of the leaf, they assume a greenish colour and later a white subdorsal line begins to form, and at the same time the lateral ridge whitens and the ventral portion assumes a yellowish colour. The instar is of seven to eight days duration and the larvae grow to 4,2 mm. Moulting takes place on a silken mat spun where they are feeding; the larvae lying close together and moulting more or less at the same time. The discarded skins and heads are left in a tangle of silk and the larvae, when fully consolidated in their new skins, crawl away to a new leaf. In the second instar the larvae are pale green, pale blue-green or pale yellow-green on segments two to eleven, with a white subdorsal line on each side. The lateral ridge is white above but dull yellow below and this colour extends over the ventral portions. The first segment is yellowish but the two posterior segments are of a brighter yellow. The head is relatively small and of a whitish colour touched with yellow. Segment 1 has a small spine on a white mole centrally placed on the thin beginning of the subdorsal line. On segments 2 to 11 there is a branched yellow protuberance breaking the centre of the subdorsal, the branches are tipped with a sharp spine. The lateral ridge has a small dull yellow protuberance on each of segments 2 to 11. At the base of the protuberances and scattered sparingly over the upper portion of the body are small whitish spines on white moles. In this instar the larvae feed on the edge of the leaf, it lasts six to seven days, and the larvae grow to 5,5 mm. The third instar is similar in general colour to the previous except that there is now a yellow subspiracular line. The branches of the protuberances are now black-tipped and have very fine hairs emanating from them. The very small setae on the upper portions are more numerous and a wavy spine has developed on the extended mole just below the lateral line and on the posterior wrinkle; and those below the lateral ridge emanate from very elongated moles. The spiracles are black and placed well up the sides. This instar lasts about nine days, and the larvae grow to 9,5 mm. In the fourth instar the general colour scheme is much the same, but the general tendency is to be a shade darker. The subdorsal protuberances are narrower at the base and the prongs relatively longer. The extended mole on the final wrinkle has developed into a hair-tipped protuberance. The protuberances on the lateral ridge are more like those above, and the spines on extended moles are more numerous and interspaced with a few moleless spines. This instar lasts nine days, the larvae grow to 18 mm, sometimes a little larger. During this instar the larvae begin to separate into smaller groups or going off singly. Some may attach themselves to younger instars, or two or three may be found with a first-instar larva. They are fond of lying at the side of the midrib of a leaf or on a green twig. In the final instar the larvae vary considerably. The most common form is green with yellow protuberances. In other larvae all green is replaced by dull yellow. The branched forks of the subdorsal protuberances are black-tipped and have very fine hairs on the tip. These protuberances are on a yellow or light yellow band limited by diagonal intrusions from a deep green dorsal stripe (this is not the case in the light variety). The lateral line is yellow and its upper edge partially envelopes the black spiracle. The lateral ridge, besides bearing the branched protuberance, has a long, plain, hair-tipped protuberance near the leading edge of the segment, and the protuberance on the posterior wrinkle is more elongated. The moles below the lateral ridge have developed into elongated protuberances bearing fine hairs on the tips, and interspersed with these are spines on reduced moles, or proceeding straight from the body. The ventral portions are green, but the protuberances are a shade lighter than the surrounding colour. The spiracle is deep black with a black rim, the head is white, sometimes touched with yellow. The main setae are browner and on slightly elongated jet-black moles. The ocelli are narrowly edged with black. The mandibles are cupped and not serrated. In this instar the larvae have somewhat the same habits as in the former instar, though more solitary larvae are to be found. When full grown, normally after 12 days, the larvae reach a length of 33-35 mm and begin to fade in colour, turning a pale watery green and only retaining a trace of yellow. They choose a suitable spot such as a secluded leaf or twig and spin a silken mat into which they fasten their anal claspers, and then hang down for pupation. The final instar is very variable for duration; partial hibernation may take place during unexpected cold periods and the author (Clark) has known the instar to last 42 days. The pupa is secured in a hanging position by cremastral hooks. It is pale blue with a yellow edging to the outwardly extended wing-cases. The thorax is slightly raised and the abdomen has a highly raised sharp edge along the dorsum. The final segment is bright blue with a high yellow ridge in each side which reaches down to the cluster of brown hooks. The head has two small pointed projections. A day before the imago emerges, the pupa turns black. Normally, the pupal stage is 14 days, but it may be much longer. This species is multivoltine, and during the colder months the instars are very much drawn out and partial hibernations may take place.”
Larval food:

Kiggelaria africana L. (Flacourtiaceae) [Platt, 1921: 102 (ssp. trimeni)].

Kiggelaria africana L. (Flacourtiaceae) [Edge, 1995: 84] (Met. 6 (2): 84) (ssp. alcimeda).
Cymothoe alcimeda alcimeda (Godart, 1824)
Nymphalis alcimeda Godart, 1824 in Latreille & Godart, [1819], [1824]. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 384 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris.

Type locality: South Africa: “Cafrerie”.

Distribution: South Africa (Western Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Western Cape Province – Knysna (Swanepoel, 1953); Tsitsikamma Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Coldstream (Swanepoel, 1953).
eupithes Doubleday, 1848 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52] (as sp. of Harma). The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 41 [1848], 289 [1850] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.) London. South Africa: “Cape of Good Hope”.
Cymothoe alcimeda clarki Stevenson, 1940
Cymothoe alcimeda race clarki Stevenson, 1940. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 96 (88-108).

Type locality: South Africa: “bred from larvae taken on the Hogs Back in the eastern Province”.

Distribution: South Africa (Eastern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Eastern Cape Province – Grahamstown (Swanepoel, 1953); Katberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Hogsback (Swanepoel, 1953); King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953); Stutterheim (Swanepoel, 1953).
Cymothoe alcimeda marieps Rydon, 1994
Cymothoe alcimeda marieps Rydon, 1994. In: Pringle, Henning, & Ball [eds] Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 102 (800 pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.

Type locality: South Africa: “Transvaal, Mariepskop, April 1932, (G. van Son), in the Transvaal Museum.” Described from a single male and three females.

Distribution: South Africa (Mpumalanga), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Mariepskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Malelane (Rydon, in Pringle, et al., 1994); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).
penningtoni Rydon, 1994 (as female form of Cymothoe alcimeda marieps). In: Pringle, Henning, and Ball [eds] Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 103 (800 pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.
Cymothoe alcimeda rhodesiae Stevenson, 1934
Cymothoe alcimeda race rhodesiae Stevenson, 1934. Occasional Papers of the Rhodesia Museum 1 (3): 10 (10-17).

Type locality: Zimbabwe: “Vumba Mts., Umtali”.

Distribution: Zimbabwe (eastern border).
Cymothoe alcimeda transvaalica Rydon, 1994
Cymothoe alcimeda transvaalica Rydon, 1994. In: Pringle, Henning, & Ball [eds] Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 103 (800 pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.

Cymothoe alcimeda transvaalica. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 47mm. Legalameetse N.R., Limpopo Province. Ex larva; emerged 15 Aug. 1997. Bred on Kiggelaria africana. M.C. Williams.
Type locality: South Africa: “Transvaal, Haenerstburg, 29 Dec. 1920 (H.C. Kenway), in the Transvaal Museum.” Described from specimens from several localities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Holotype (female) in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province).

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Haenertsburg (Pringle et al., 1994).
aurantifascia Rydon, 1994 (as female form of Cymothoe alcimeda transvaalica). In: Pringle, Henning, and Ball [eds] Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 103 (800 pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.
Cymothoe alcimeda trimeni Aurivillius, 1912
Cymothoe alcimeda trimeni Aurivillius, 1912 in Seitz, 1908-25. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 152 (614 pp.).

Type locality: South Africa: “Eastern parts of the Cape Colony, Kaffirland, Natal, Zululand and the Transvaal”.

Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Kwa Zulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Balgowan (Swanepoel, 1953); Karkloof (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); East London (Pringle, et al., 1994).
ochrotaenia Rydon, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980 (as f. of Cymothoe alcimeda trimeni). Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 270 (593 pp.). Melbourne.
griseoligata Rydon, 1991 (as f. of Cymothoe alcimeda trimeni). Metamorphosis 2 (4): 18 (11-20).

Cymothoe althea (Cramer, 1776)
Papilio althea Cramer, 1776 in Cramer, [1775-6]. Die Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie waerrelddeelen Asia Africa en America 1: 141 (16 + 155 pp.). Amsteldam & Utrecht.
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