Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




старонка9/21
Дата канвертавання24.04.2016
Памер1.59 Mb.
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   21

Larval food:

Xylotheca kraussiana Hochst. (Flacourtiaceae) [Platt, 1921].

Tricliceras longipedunculatum (Mast.) R. Fernandes (Turneraceae) [Van Son, 1963: 85; as Wormskioldia longepedunculata Mast.].

Adenia species (Passifloraceae) [Van Son, 1963: 85; Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Vitis spp. (Vitaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Oncoba routledgei Sprague (Flacourtiaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Adenia venenata (Passifloraceae) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978; as Modecca venenata].
doubledayi Trimen, 1887 (as sp. of Acraea). South African Butterflies I: 147. Synonym of Acraea doubledayi Guerin-Meneville, 1849.
caoncius Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 27 (12-107). Tanzania: “Mhondo und Mrogoro”.
alboradiata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 28 (12-107). Tanzania: “Lindi”.
modesta Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 28 (12-107). South Africa: “Zululand”.
obscura Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 28 (12-107). Tanzania: “Langenburg; Songeo-Ungoni”; Mozambique: “Delagoa Bai”.
defasciata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 29 (12-107). Tanzania: “Mpapua”.
liacea Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea caecilia). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 29 (12-107). Tanzania: “Usandowi, Deutsch-Ost-Afrika”.
distincta Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea oncaea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 225 (207-226). Tanzania: “Madibira, Uhehe (Deutsch-Ostafrika)”.

Acraea (Acraea) pseudegina Westwood, 1852
Acraea pseudegina Westwood, 1852 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: 531 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: “Guinea”; Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leon”.

Distribution: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin (Fermon, et al., 2001), Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Common name: Abadima acraea.

Specific localities:

Senegal – Cap Vert area (Condamin teste Larsen, 2005a).

Benin – Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Fermon, et al., 2001).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Habitat: Savanna, and agricultural lands in the forest zone (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This butterfly may be abundant at times. Both sexes fly low down and are fond of flowers, including those of Tridax (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Bernaud & Pierre, 2000.
Larval food:

Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) [Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone); Bernaud, 1994 (Benin)].

Adenia cisampelloides (Passifloraceae) [Pierre & Vuattoux, 1978 (Ivory Coast)].

Wormskioldia pilosa (Turneraceae) [Bernaud, 1994 (Cameroon)].

Cephaloma species (Lamiaceae) [Ackery et al., 1995; improbable].
abadima Ribbe, 1889 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 2: 182 (181-182). Central African Republic: “Abadima, Niam-Niam-Gebiete”.
stephanophora Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. indiv. of Acraea natalica pseudegina). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 52 (44-58). Congo: “Brazzaville, Congo Francais”.
inexpectata Le Doux, 1931 (as male f. of Acraea natalica abadima). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 54 (49-59). Uganda: “Mpologoma”.
clarei Neave, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Novitates Zoologicae 11: 327 (323-363). Kenya: “Tiriki Hills”.

Acraea (Acraea) pudorella Aurivillius, 1899
Acraea caldarena var. pudorella Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 99 (1-561).

Acraea pudorella. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 40mm. Ambangulu, E Usambara, Tanzania. 4/92 3500H ex IB/PW. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: South Africa: “Damara; Khama’s Land; Transvaal”; Zimbabwe: “Matabeleland; Mashuna”; Mozambique: “Manica”; Malawi: “Nyassaland”; Kenya: “Britisch Ost-Africa”; Zambia?: “Mero See”; Tanzania?: “Deutsch Ost-Afrika”.

Distribution: Angola, Zambia, Tanzania (south-east and possibly north-east), Kenya (coast), Malawi.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Upper and Lower Luangwa Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
detecta Neave, 1910 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 24 (2-86). Zambia: “Luangwa Valley”. [Synonymized with A. pudorella Aurivillius, 1899 by Heath, et al., 2002: vii, 38].
reducta Wichgraf, 1918 (as ssp. of Acraea pudorella). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 12: 29 (26-30). Tanzania: “Kigonsera, D. O. Afrika”.
heringi Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea pudorella). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 223 (207-226). Kenya: “Kibwezi (Britisch-Ostafrika)”.

Acraea (Acraea) rhodesiana Wichgraf, 1909
Acraea rhodesiana Wichgraf, 1909. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 53: 240 (240-247).

Acraea rhodesiana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Lusaka. June 1953. C.B. Cottrell. (Transvaal Museum - TM3566).
Type locality: [Zambia]: “Rhodesia”.

Distribution: Zambia (central and north), Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Lomani).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Mufulira; Kalulushi; Mumbwa; Lusaka; Chilanga; Kafue; Chalimbana; Lusaka (Leopard’s Hill); Serenje; Mansa; Lake Bangweulu; Nsakaluba (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Deciduous woodland (Heath, et al., 2002).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Basananthe reticulata (Passifloraceae) [Congdon & Bampton, unpublished 2003; Mutinondo, Zambia].
mima Neave, 1910 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 22 (2-86). Zambia: “Serenji district, N.E. Rhodesia”; Democratic Republic of Congo: “S.E. border of Katanga, Congo State”.
flaviapicalis Overlaet, 1955 (as female f. of Acraea rhodesiana). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 69 (1-106). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Nationaal Upemba Park”.

Acraea (Acraea) rogersi Hewitson, 1873
Acraea rogersi Hewitson, 1873. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 57 (57-58).

Type locality: Angola.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya.

Common name: Rogers’ large acraea.

Habitat: Forest; only occasionally in open areas (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Populations of this butterfly are localized but it may be common where it occurs (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is relatively powerful (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Eltringham, 1912. [pupa]
Bernaud, 1993b.
Larval food:

Adenia lobata (Passifloraceae) [Lamborn in Eltringham, 1912 (Lagos, Nigeria); Owen, 1971 (Sierra Leone); Bernaud, 1993 (Cameroon)].

Theobroma cacao (Theobromaceae) [Smith, 1969 (Ghana)].
Acraea (Acraea) rogersi rogersi Hewitson, 1873
Acraea rogersi Hewitson, 1873. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 57 (57-58).

Type locality: Angola.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivoty Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Nimbas (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Atewa Range (Larsen, 2005a).

Nigeria – Obudu Plateau (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Mount Bana (Bernaud teste Larsen, 2005a).
salambo Grose-Smith, 1887 (as sp. of Acraea). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 62? (62-66). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo”.
ehmckei Dewitz, 1889 (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 15: 103 (101-110). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Quango, Mukenge”.
lamborni Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea rogersi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 63 (1-374). Nigeria: “Lagos”.
Acraea (Acraea) rogersi lankesteri Carpenter, 1941
Acraea rogersi lankesteri Carpenter, 1941. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 10: 216 (216-217).

Type locality: Uganda: “Bugishu, west of Mt. Elgon”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (south-west).

Acraea (Acraea) stenobea Wallengren, 1860
Acraea stenobea Wallengren, 1860. Wiener Entomologische Monatschrift 4: 35 (33-46).

Type locality: Namibia: “Ad Swakap Africae”.

Distribution: Tanzania, Zimbabwe (west), Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo Province, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province – west, Eastern Cape Province, Northern Cape Province).

Specific localities:

Zimbabwe – Sawmills (Van Son, 1963); Bulawayo (Van Son, 1963); Nyamandhlovu (Van Son, 1963).

Botswana – Damara Pan (N.W. Kalahari) (Van Son, 1963); Motito (Van Son, 1963); Bamangwato Reserve (Van Son, 1963); Tati (Van Son, 1963).

Namibia – Swakop River (Van Son, 1963); Okahandja (Van Son, 1963); Kalidona (Van Son, 1963); Andara (Van Son, 1963); Namutoni (Van Son, 1963); Rundu (Pennington teste Pringle et al., 1994).

Limpopo Province – Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953); Vivo (Swanepoel, 1953); Blouberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterberg (Swanepoel, 1953).

North West Province – Vryburg (Van Son, 1963); Potchefstroom District (Van Son, 1963); Zeerust (Van Son, 1963); Groot Marico (Van Son, 1963).

Gauteng – Johannesburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Pretoria North (Van Son, 1963); Krugersdorp (Van Son, 1963).

Free State Province – Ladybrand (Swanepoel, 1953); Bloemfontein (Swanepoel, 1953).

Eastern Cape Province – King William’s Town (Swanepoel, 1953).

Northern Cape Province – Kimberley (Swanepoel, 1953); Colesberg (Swanepoel, 1953); Victoria West (Pennington); Kalahari Gemsbok N.P. (Van Son, 1963).

Common name: Suffused acraea.

Habitat: Dry Savanna (bushveld), the vegetation usually constituted by shrubs and low-growing thorn bushes (Van Son, 1963).

Habits: Both sexes feed from flowers (Van Son, 1963). The flight is moderately slow (Van Son, 1963) but it is a wary insect (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: September to May (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
acronycta Westwood, 1881 (as sp. of Acraea). In: Oates, F., Matabeleland and the Victoria Falls, 1st edition: 346 (331-365). London. No locality given.
albomaculata Weymer, 1892 (as sp. of Acraea). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 53: 83 (79-125). [Tanzania]: “Saadani (Ostafrika)”.

Acraea (Acraea) sykesi Sharpe, 1902
Acraea sykesi Sharpe, 1902. Entomologist 35: 279 (276-280).

Type locality: Uganda: “Wadelai”.

Distribution: Nigeria (north), Cameroon (north), Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (north-east), Sudan (south-east), Uganda (north), Kenya (north-west), ?Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Sokoto (Larsen, 2005a); Maiduguri/Yola (Pierre, 1995).

Common name: Sykes’ acraea.

Habitat: Mainly very dry riverbeds (Larsen, 2005a) in Sudan savanna.

Habits: A generally rare species throughout its range (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages:
Bernaud, 1994a [larva and pupa (Cameroon)].
Larval food:

Adenia spp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Adenia venenata (Passifloraceae) [Bernaud, 1994 (Cameroon)].
candida Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea doubledayi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 173 (1-374). Central African Republic: “Nyam-Nyam”.

Acraea (Acraea) zoumi Pierre, 1995
Acraea zoumi Pierre, 1995. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France 100 (3): 312 (307-314).

Type locality: Ethiopia

Distribution: Ethiopia.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) kia Pierre, 1990
Acraea kia Pierre, 1990. Bulletin de la Société Sciences Nat (68): 1 (4 pp.).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Kigoma, Mukuyu”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west - Kigoma Region).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) adrasta Weymer, 1892
Acraea adrasta Weymer, 1892. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 53: 85 (79-125).

Type locality: [East Africa]: “Westafrica”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat: Lowland forest (Kielland, 1990). The nominate subspecies in Tanzania occurs at altitudes between 200 and 1 250 m (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Acraea (Acraea) adrasta adrasta Weymer, 1892
Acraea adrasta Weymer, 1892. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 53: 85 (79-125).

Type locality: [East Africa]: “Westafrica”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Kenya (south coast), Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – East Usambara Mountains; Kimboza Forest; Morogoro; Mwanihana Forest at Sanje (Kielland, 1990).
machoni Oberthür, 1893 (as sp. of Acraea). Études d’Entomologie 17: 29 (17-36). Tanzania: “Zanguebar (Nguru)”.
haydni Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Planema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 34 (12-107). Tanzania: “Nguelo in Usambara”.
Acraea (Acraea) adrasta pancalis (Jordan, 1910)
Planema adrasta pancalis Jordan, 1910. Novitates Zoologicae 17: 462 (462-469).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga, Tanganika”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Apparently known only from the holotype.

Acraea (Acraea) aganice Hewitson, 1852
Acraea aganice Hewitson, 1852 in Hewitson, 1851-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 1: 58 ([124] pp.). London.

Type locality: [South Africa]: “Natal”.

Distribution: Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke, et al., 1999).

Common name: Common wanderer.

Habitat: Forest and coastal bush (Pringle et al., 1994). In Tanzania and Zambia, recorded in heavy woodland (Kielland, 1990; Heath et al., 2002). In Tanzania ssp. montana is found from sea-level to 2 140 m and ssp. nicega from 800 to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is leisurely. Males are territorial, establishing these on the fringes of the bush. They perch high up, often on a twig, with closed wings. Both sexes feed from flowers (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year but commoner during the summer months (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 181 [as Planema Aganice (Hewitson)].

Larva: Pale whitish-green; the spines not rigid, very long, yellowish, set with inconspicuous black bristles. Head yellowish-brown, shining, the base slightly tridentate; mandibles black. Legs of the same colour as the body, longer than usual. Along middle of back, on segments four to eleven, a row of indigo-blue dots arranged in pairs between each subdorsal pair of spines; only one such spot on segments three and twelve. On each side, between subdorsal and lateral rows of spines, a row of larger indigo-blue spots, one on each segment from the second to the eleventh; spiracle, ringed with the same colour; also an indigo-blue sub-spiracular festooned streak. Pupa. Whitish-green. On back of abdomen four pairs of long divergent red spines, set rather widely apart; on each side between each spine and its successor two indigo-blue dots; on back of thorax three pairs of short tubercular processes, each marked with an indigo-blue dot; head with a pair of similar, longer, curved processes. I describe this curious larva and very remarkable pupa from the sketches and notes of Mr. W.D. Gooch, who reared the butterfly in Natal. He observes that one of the caterpillars, in the absence of a proper supply of its food-plant, devoured a chrysalis of its own species.”


Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 5.

Egg: Laid in neat clusters of regular rows. Clusters contain from 50 to 200 eggs. The egg is 0.6 mm in diameter by 1 mm high, pure white when laid and only darkens slightly afterwards; they have 21-25 longitudinal ridges cross-braced by some 18-20 transverse ribs. The egg-stage is about 12 days. Larva: The young larvae eat their way out near the top and after a rest eat the discarded shell; after a further rest, they feed on the surface of the leaf. There are either 5, 6 or 7 larval instars and the larvae change from white with a black head to pale blue with a salmon head. After the first instar the larvae develop black-spined, black protuberances which gradually change to yellowish ones with pale brown spines in the final instar. Five, six or seven larval instars taking, respectively, 43, 50 and 59 days. Larva grows from 1.75 mm to 30-34 mm in length. The larvae cluster along the stalks and feed on the surface, eating right through the stem, then follow the pith down as far as they can. They are gregarious till the penultimate instar, when they start to separate. In captivity, full-grown larvae will eat pupating ones if they meet them. Van Son notes that there is a discrepancy between the description of the larva given in Trimen & Bowker and the paintings by Clark in respect of certain colours, indicating that there may be some variability.
Dickson, 1972.
Larval food:

Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Platt, 1921].

Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Platt, 1921].

Adenia cissampeloides (Planch) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322].

Basananthe zanzibaricum Mast. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 322; as Tryphostemma zanzibaricum].

Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Dickson & Kroon, 1978].

Passiflora incarnata (Passifloraceae) [ref?].
Acraea (Acraea) aganice aganice Hewitson, 1852
Acraea aganice Hewitson, 1852 in Hewitson, 1851-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 1: 58 ([124] pp.). London.

Type locality: [South Africa]: “Natal”.

Distribution: Mozambique (south), Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Ihaca Island (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Mutare district (Van Son, 1963); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”) (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Duivelskloof (Swanepoel, 1953); Munnik (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Entabeni Forest (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Wyliespoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Saltpan (Swanepoel, 1953); Tchakhuma (Van Son, 1963); Waterpoort (Van Son, 1963).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Nelspruit (Swanepoel, 1953); Graskop (Swanepoel, 1953); Marieps Kop (Swanepoel, 1953); White River (Van Son, 1963); Rosehaugh (Van Son, 1963); Sabie (Van Son, 1963); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Greytown (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Empangeni (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953); Balgowan (Van Son, 1963); Ngoye (Van Son, 1963); Maputa (Van Son, 1963); Hluhluwe Game Reserve (Van Son, 1963); Ndumu (Van Son, 1963); Gwaliweni (Van Son, 1963); Ingwavuma (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963); Lusikisiki (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).
Acraea (Acraea) aganice montana (Butler, 1888)
Planema montana Butler, 1888. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 91 (91-98).

Type locality: [Tanzania]: “Slopes of Kilima-njaro”.

Distribution: Kenya (Nairobi to the coast), Tanzania (north and east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Northern, north-eastern and south-eastern parts; Rondo; Kitesa Forest west of Songea; Pemba Island (Kielland, 1990).
bertha Vuillot, 1891 (as sp. of Acraea). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 60: 96 (96-97). Tanzania: “N’Guru (Zanguebar)”.
meruana Rogenhofer, 1891 (as sp. of Planema). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 6: 458 (455-466). Tanzania: “Meru”.
chanleri Holland, 1896 (as sp. of Planema). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 18: 748 (741-767). “East Africa”.
Acraea (Acraea) aganice nicega (Suffert, 1904)
Planema aganice nicega Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 78 (12-107).

Acraea (Acraea) aganice nicega. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 67mm. Nkhata Bay, Malawi. 20.v.1978. R.J. Mijburgh. (Curle Trust Collection - 44).

Acraea (Acraea) aganice nicega. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 80mm. Kitwe, Zambia. 66.04.03. A.I. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 45).
1   ...   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   ...   21


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка