Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Distribution: Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.

Recorded, in error, from northern Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia spp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Acraea) doubledayi doubledayi Guérin-Méneville, 1849
Acraea doubledayi Guérin-Méneville, 1849. In: Lefebrve, T., Voyage en Abyssinie (4) 6 (Zooologie): 378 (364-386).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “Abyssinie”.

Distribution: Sudan (south-east), Uganda (north), Ethiopia, Somalia.
gaekwari Sharpe, 1901b (as sp. of Acraea). Entomologist 34 (Supplement): 1-8. Somalia: “Near Laskarato”.
rileyi Eltringham, 1913 (as f. of Acraea doubledayi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1913: 407-413. Ethiopia: “Toma, Abyssinia”.
Acraea (Acraea) doubledayi azvaki d'Abrera, 1980
Acraea doubledayi azvaki d'Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 142 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Yemen: “Southern Yemen”.

Distribution: Saudi Arabia (south-west), Yemen.
arabica Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea doubledayi). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 173 (1-374). Yemen: “S. Arabia (Azvaki Ravine)”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Acraea arabica Rebel, 1899 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Acraea) ella Eltringham, 1911
Acraea ella Eltringham, 1911. Novitates Zoologicae 18: 151 (149-153).

Type locality: Angola: “Bihé”.

Diagnosis: Similar to A. axina from which it can be distinguished by the very white abdomen in the male and its angular wing shape (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Distribution: Angola, Nambia (north-west).

Specific localities:

Namibia – Etosha (Ficq); north of Okangwati (Swart, 2004).

Common name: Ella’s acraea.

Habitat:

Habits:

Flight period:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) equatorialis Neave, 1904
Acraea doubledayi equatorialis Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 327 (323-363).

Type locality: “Victoria Nyanza”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Passiflora sp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Malva verticillata L. (Malvaceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Acraea) equatorialis equatorialis Neave, 1904
Acraea doubledayi equatorialis Neave, 1904. Novitates Zoologicae 11: 327 (323-363).

Type locality: “Victoria Nyanza”.

Distribution: Uganda (east), Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).
Acraea (Acraea) equatorialis anaemia Eltringham, 1912
Acraea equatorialis anaemia Eltringham, 1912. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 179 (1-374).

Type locality: Tanzania: “German E. Africa (Kilimandjaro); Zanzibar; Pemba”; Kenya: “British E. Africa (Kikuyu Escarpment; Campi-ya-Simba; Rabai)”.

Distribution: Kenya (east), Tanzania (north-east).

Acraea (Acraea) intermediodes Ackery, 1995
Acraea (Acraea) intermediodes Ackery, 1995 in Ackery, et al., 1995: 238.

Acraea intermediodes. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Luongo, Zambia. 10.IV.77. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: [Zambia]: “Rhodesia”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Lomani, Kabinda, Lualaba), Zambia (north-east).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Lake Mweru; Luongo River; Nsakaluba; Kalungwishi River; Mporokoso (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
intermedia Wichgraf, 1909 (as sp. of Acraea). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 53: 241 (240-247). [Zambia]: “Rhodesia”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Planema intermedia Aurivillius, 1899 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Acraea) leucopyga Aurivillius, 1904
Acraea leucopyga Aurivillius, 1904. Entomologisk Tidskrift 25: 92 (92-96).

Acraea leucopyga. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 57mm. Maiwale, Malawi. 28.8.97. N.K.O.J. (Curle Trust Collection - 39).

Acraea leucopyga. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Maiwale, Malawi. 28.8.97. N.K.O.J. (Curle Trust Collection - 40).
Type locality: Malawi: “Nyassaland: Kigonsera”.

Distribution: Zambia, Malawi, Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Tanzania, Uganda.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Nsakaluba; Lundazi-Chinsali Road; Luangwa Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Dry woodland and savanna (Heath, et al., 2002).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
liszti Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Acraea). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 17 (12-107). Tanzania: “Ungoni”; “Nyassa See”.
propagata Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea leucopyga). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 215 (207-226). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga (Belgische-Kongo)”.
brunnea Overlaet, 1955 (as female f. of Acraea leucopyga latiapicalis). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 71 (1-106). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Nationaal Upemba Park”.
albescens Overlaet, 1955 (as f. of Acraea leucopyga latiapicalis). Exploration du Parc National de l’Upemba 27: 71 (1-106). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mabwe”.

Acraea (Acraea) lygus Druce, 1875
Acraea lygus Druce, 1875. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1875: 408 (406-417).

Acraea lygus. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 50mm. Upington, Cape. 16.2.85. H.C. Ficq. (Curle Trust Collection - 41).

Acraea lygus. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 51mm. Grootfontein, SWA. 13.1.86. H.C. Ficq. (Curle Trust Collection - 42).
Type locality: Angola.

Diagnosis: The female of A. lygus can be separated from that of A. stenobea by its white discal patch and broad black marginal band on the hindwing upperside (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Distribution: Kenya (east), Tanzania, Zambia (southern border), Angola, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia (central and north), South Africa (Limpopo Province, North West Province, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape Province, Northern Cape Province), Lesotho.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Livingstone; Victoria Falls (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Beit Bridge (Van Son, 1963); Bulawayo (Van Son, 1963); Sawmills (Van Son, 1963); Castle Block (Gwelo) (Van Son, 1963); Victoria Falls (Van Son, 1963).

Botswana – Zweizwe (Ntwentwe) River (Van Son, 1963); Nkate (Makarikari Salt Lake) (Van Son, 1963).

Namibia – Okahandja (Van Son, 1963); Grootfontein (Ficq); Rundu (Pennington).

Limpopo Province – Vivo (Swanepoel); Bloedrivier, Polokwane district (Van Son, 1963).

MpumalangaDie Berg, south-west of Lydenburg (probably a vagrant) (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Eastern Cape Province – King William’s Town (Van Son, 1963).

Northern Cape Province – Upington (Ficq).

Lesotho – Maseru (Van Son, 1963).

Common name: Lygus acraea.

Habitat: Dry savanna and deciduous woodland (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habits: The flight is slower than that of Acraea stenobea, with which it sometimes flies (Van Son, 1963).

Flight period: All year (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) marnois Rogenhofer, 1890
Acraea (Telchinia) marnois Rogenhofer, 1890. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 4: 552 (547-554).

Type locality: Sudan: “Bahr el-Seraf”.

Distribution: Sudan. Known only from two females, one from “Victoria Nyansa”.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) mirabilis Butler, 1886
Acraea mirabilis Butler, 1886. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1885: 760 (756-776).

Type locality: Somalia: “Bunder Maria”.

Distribution: Somalia, Ethiopia (south-east), Kenya (north-east).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) miranda Riley, 1920
Acraea miranda Riley, 1920. Entomologist 53: 74 (73-75).

Type locality: Somalia: “More than 80 miles south of Berbera, Somaliland”.

Distribution: Somalia, Ethiopia (south-east), Kenya (east and north).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
selousi Riley, 1920 (as female f. of Acraea miranda). Entomologist 53: 75 (73-75). Kenya: “E. Africa, Namanga; but most probably obtained between Lake Baringo and Lorian Swamp, British East Africa”.

Acraea (Acraea) natalica Boisduval, 1847
Acraea natalica Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 590 (585-602).

Acraea natalica. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 59mm. Naboomspruit. 7.III.1971. L. Vári. (Transvaal Museum - TM3519).
Type locality: South Africa: “Baie de Port Natal”.

Diagnosis: A variable species with several forms as well as dry- and wet-season forms.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, Free State Province, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape Province), Swaziland.

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Throughout bushveld areas (Swanepoel, 1953); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Throughout bushveld areas (Swanepoel, 1953); Sterkspruit Nature Reserve (Williams); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Throughout bushveld areas (Swanepoel, 1953)

Gauteng – Throughout bushveld areas (Swanepoel, 1953); Witwatersrand Botanical Gardens (J. Dobson, unpublished checklist, 2001).

Free State Province – Ladybrand (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Port Shepstone (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pietermaritzburg (Swanepoel, 1953); Estcourt (Swanepoel, 1953); Eshowe (Swanepoel, 1953); Empangeni (Swanepoel, 1953); Hluhluwe (Swanepoel, 1953); Mkuze (Swanepoel, 1953); Isipingo (Van Son, 1963); Verulam (Van Son, 1963); Dukuduku Forest (Van Son, 1963); St Lucia Bay (Van Son, 1963); Mkuze (Van Son, 1963).

Eastern Cape Province – Kei River (Swanepoel, 1953); Port St Johns (Swanepoel, 1953); Bashee River (Swanepoel, 1953); Ngqeleni (Van Son, 1963).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Natal acraea.

Status: Common and widespread (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Habitat: Savanna.

Habits: Boths sexes fly randomly, about one to three metres above the ground. The flight is leisurely (Pringle et al., 1994). Both sexes are much attracted by flowers and occasional specimens are seen mud-puddling (Van Son, 1963). An interesting account of pollination of a species of orchid (Platycoryne pervillei) by A. natalica in Zimbabwe has been published by Fibeck & Phiri (1998). Males sometimes select a particular small area, which they patrol, perching frequently on low shrubs or grass stems within the area (Williams, unpublished).

Flight period: All year but commoner in the warmer months (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages:
Trimen & Bowker, 1887, Vol. 1: 156 [as Acraea Natalica Boisduval; KwaZulu-Natal].

Larva. Light buff-yellow, with longitudinal black and white stripes. A white dorsal stripe edged with black, and a white stripe, just above legs on each side, carrying lowest row of spines. A black stripe on each side just above lateral row of spines; a broad black ventral stripe, interrupted by bases of pro-legs. On a succulent climbing plant (much affected by the Acraeinae generally), with small green flowers. The above description of the larva is from notes by Mr. W.D. Gooch. The pupa is not described; but from a pencil sketch appears to be more sharply angulated on the head and thorax than that of A. Horta. A note as to its colours and markings is given below, from two examples received from Colonel Bowker.

In March 1878 Colonel Bowker sent me from Natal two living pupae of A. Natalica, attached to stems of a grass. Unfortunately the butterflies endeavoured to emerge en route in a very small box; and thus neither pupae nor imagines arrived in a useful condition. But the specimens sufficiently show that the pupa is quite of the type of that of A. Horta, Linn., being creamy-white, with the limbs and position of wing-nervures outlined in black; a triple black streak from top of head along middle of back of thorax, and a broad lateral streak varied with white spots; the abdomen bearing two dorsal, two lateral, and one median ventral, chains of black rings enclosing orange-yellow spots.”
Van Someren & Rogers, 1926 No. 25: 66.
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 73, plate XXII.

Egg. The eggs are laid in clusters on the underside of a leaf. They are 0.8 mm in diameter by 0.7 mm high, with 16 longitudinal ribs connected by 17-19 cross-braces. The colour is pale yellow when laid, changing to salmon yellow. The eggs hatch after 6 days. Larva. The young larvae eat their way out near the top and after a rest, devour the discarded shell. Sometimes they tackle an unhatched egg and eat both the shell and the unhatched larva. After another rest, they assemble and feed on the leaf the eggs were laid on, sometimes on the surface of the stalk or stripping the stems and feeding on the pith. They are gregarious till the middle of the penultimate instar. There are two groups, one taking five instars, the other six, the development proceeding as follows: Five instar group: 1st instar 1.5mm, growing to 3.5 mm in 7 days; 2nd instar growing to 5 mm in 5 days; 3rd instar growing to 9-10 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 17 mm in 5 days; 5th instar growing to 35-36 mm in 20 days. Six instar group: 1st instar 1.5mm, growing to 3 mm in 7 days; 2nd instar growing to 4.5 mm in 5 days; 3rd instar growing to 7-8 mm in 5 days; 4th instar growing to 13 mm in 5 days; 5th instar growing to 24 mm in 5 days; 6th instar growing to 35-36 mm in 27 days. Towards the end of the first instar, dull patches indicate the position of future protuberances. In the 4th and subsequent instars the spined protuberances have a very fine fur. Pupa. The pupa is suspended by cremastral hooks only. It is 24 mm long. The pupal stage lasts about 13 days.”


Dickson, 1972.
Bernaud & Pierre, 2000.
Larval food:

Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) (exotic) [Platt, 1921].

Adenia gummifera (Harv.) Harms (Passifloraceae) [Platt, 1921; as Ophiocaulon gummifera Hook. f.].

Tricliceras longipedunculatum (Mast.) R. Fernandes (Turneraceae) [Swynnerton, in Platt, 1921].

Adenia cissampeloides Harms (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].

Adenia lobata (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
bellua Wallengren, 1857 (as sp. of Acraea). Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar. Stockholm annis 1838-1845. Collecta (n.s.) 2 (4): 22 (55 pp.). South Africa: “Caffraria”.
umbrata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea natalica). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 30 (12-107). Tanzania: “Mikidani”.
albida Aurivillius, 1913 in Seitz, 1908-25 (as female ab. of Acraea natalica). Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde, Stuttgart (2) 13 Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter: 268 (614 pp.). Tanzania: “Island of Pemba”.
mesoleuca Wichgraf, 1914 (as female f. of Acraea natalica). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitung 1914: 349 (345-353). South Africa: “Natal (Durban)”.
dispar Schouteden, 1919 (as ab. of Acraea natalica pseudagina). Revue Zoologique Africaine 6: 154 (145-162). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Bangu”.
albiventris Le Doux, 1923 (as f. of Acraea natalica natalica). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 214 (207-226). Mozambique: “Delagoa Bay”; South Africa: “Natal”; “Nyasa”; “Rhodesia”; Kenya: “Britisch-Ostafrika”; Tanzania: “Kisonsera”.
albata Le Doux, 1923 (as male f. of Acraea natalica natalica). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1923: 215 (207-226). Tanzania: “Deutsch-Ostafrika (ohne nähere Angabe)”.
oatesi van Son, 1936 (as var. of Acraea natalica). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 17: 123 (121-140). Zimbabwe: “Victoria Falls, in the Rain Forest”.

Acraea (Acraea) oncaea Hopffer, 1855
Acraea oncaea Hopffer, 1855. Berichte über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königl. Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855: 640 (639-643).

Acraea oncaea. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 54mm. Umkomaas, Natal. June, 1939. A.L. Capener. (Transvaal Museum - TM3529).

Acraea oncaea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 54mm. Malelane, Kruger National Park, South Africa. 11 November, 1998. M.C. Williams (Williams collection).
Type locality: Mozambique: “Mossambique”.

Distribution: Ethiopia, Somalia, to Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba), Zambia (east), to Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Nambia (north), South Africa (Limpopo Provine, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Chirundu; Luangwa Valley; Lake Bangweulu; Nsakaluba; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Inhaca Island (Van Son, 1963); Bopira (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Mica (Swanepoel, 1953); Woodbush (Swanepoel, 1953); Mokeetsi (Swanepoel, 1953); Punda Maria (Swanepoel, 1953); Sibasa (Swanepoel, 1953); Louis Trichardt (Swanepoel, 1953); Vivo (Swanepoel, 1953); Dendron (Swanepoel, 1953); Polokwane (Swanepoel, 1953); Potgietersrus (Swanepoel, 1953); Warmbaths (Swanepoel, 1953); Magoebaskloof (Van Son, 1963); Tzaneen (Van Son, 1963); Ofcolaco (Van Son, 1963); Saltpan (Van Son, 1963); Legalameetse Nature Reserve (“Malta Forest”).

Mpumalanga – Barberton (Swanepoel, 1953); Waterval Onder (Swanepoel, 1953); Komatipoort (Swanepoel, 1953); Lydenburg district (Swanepoel, 1953); Mariepskop (Van Son, 1963); Malelane (Williams); Buffelskloof Nature Reserve (Williams).

North West Province – Marico River (Swanepoel, 1953).

Gauteng – Pretoria (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); Pinetown (Swanepoel, 1953); Empangeni (Swanepoel, 1953); Hluhluwe (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia Bay (Swanepoel, 1953).

Swaziland – Mlawula N. R. (www.sntc.org.sz).

Common name: Rooibok acraea.

Habitat: Savanna, including thornveld (Van Son, 1963), and grassy patches in coastal bush (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Habits: Flutters weakly, close to the ground, frequently settling on low vegetation (Pringle et al. 1994).

Flight period: All year (Van Son, 1963).

Early stages:
Clark, in Van Son, 1963: 85; plate XXIV.

Egg. The eggs are laid in clusters and are pale watery yellow at first, changing later to light chocolate. They measure 0.6 mm in diameter by 0.9 mm high and have 17 to 20 longitudinal ribs cross-braced by 15 transverse ridges. Larva. The young larvae eat their way out near the top, and after a rest eat the discarded shell. Sometimes a larva may eat a retarded egg. The larvae rest, then gather together and feed on the surface of the leaf. On hatching the larvae are 2 mm long and grow to 3.25 or 3.5 mm in 7 days. Moulting takes palce where they are feeding. The larvae are gregarious until the penultimate instar, when they begin to separate. Some larva take 6 instars, others take 7. At the end of the instars the first group are 3.5, 5.25, 8.75, 14, 22 and 32 mm long; each instar takes from 4 to 5 days, except the final instar which lasts from 7 to 10 days. In the second group, the size of each instar is 3.25, 4.5, 6.75, 11, 17.5, 25 and 32 mm; the instars last from 4 to 6 days except the final which lasts from 7 to 10 days, but in both groups cold weather increases the length of the instar and may, in prolonged cold weather, produce partial hibernation. Pupa. The pupa is suspended by cremastral hooks fastened in a silken mat, and hangs head downwards. It is 22.5 mm long. The imago emerges after some 20 days.”

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