Butterflies and skippers of the afrotropical region




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Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).



Acraea (Acraea) abdera eginopsis Aurivillius, 1899
Acraea cepheus var. eginopsis Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 93 (1-561).

Type locality: Sierra Leone?: “wahrscheinlich Sierra Leona”; Togo.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Kenema (C. Belcastro tetse Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Tai (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Likpe (Maessen teste Larsen, 2005a); Aburi (Larsen, 2005a); Boabeng-Fiema (Larsen, 2005a).
nigrescens Eltringham, 1912 (as female f. of Acraea cepheus). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 114 (1-374). Sierra Leone.

Acraea (Acraea) acrita Hewitson, 1865
Acraea acrita Hewitson, 1865 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 16 (124 pp.). London.

Acraea acrita acrita. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 59mm. Amatongas, P.E.A. 9.7.62. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3517).
Type locality: “Zambesi”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa.

Common name: Fiery acraea.

Habitat: Savanna and heavy woodland. In Tanzania the nominate subspecies is found from near sea-level to altitudes of up to 2 000 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Specimens fly over open ground on the edges of bush, with a fairly rapid fluttering flight (Van Son, 1963). They settle frequently, on grass or other low vegetation, particularly the upper branches of shrubs (Van Son, 1963). Both sexes are attracted to flowers (Van Son, 1963). It is very alert and wary (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year, with distinct seasonal forms (Pringle et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Adenia spp. (Passifloraceae) [Van Someren, 1974: 323].
Acraea (Acraea) acrita acrita Hewitson, 1865

Acraea acrita Hewitson, 1865 in Hewitson, 1862-6. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 3: 16 (124 pp.). London.

Acraea acrita acrita. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 59mm. Amatongas, P.E.A. 9.7.62. D.M. Cookson. (Transvaal Museum - TM3517).
Type locality: “Zambesi”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (south), Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal - north).

Specific localities:

Uganda – Entebbe (Van Son, 1963).

Kenya – Taveta (Van Son, 1963).

Tanzania – South-eastern, eastern and north-eastern parts, inland to the Rubeho Mountains and central parts (Kielland, 1990).

Mozambique – Bopira (Busi River) (Van Son, 1963); Macequece (Van Son, 1963); Rikatla (Van Son, 1963); Maputo (Van Son, 1963); Inhaca Island (Van Son, 1963).

Zimbabwe – Shamva (Van Son, 1963); Lomagundi District (Van Son, 1963); Mutare (Van Son, 1963); Vumba (Van Son, 1963); Mount Selinda (Van Son, 1963); Darwin (Van Son, 1963); Harare (Van Son, 1963).

Limpopo Province – Waterpoort, north of the Zoutpansberg (Swanepoel).

Mpumalanga – Komatipoort (Swanepoel, 1953).

KwaZulu-Natal – Kosi Bay (Pennington); Hluhluwe; Emanguzi Forest; Lake Sibayi (Swanepoel, 1953); Ndumo; Maputa (Van Son, 1963); Makane’s Drift (Pringle et al., 1994).
pauperata Thurau, 1903 (as ab. of Acraea acrita). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 129 (117-143). No locality given.
aquilia Thurau, 1903 (as ab. of Acraea acrita). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 48: 129 (117-143). Tanzania: “Unyika-Mbose”.
chaeribulula Strand, 1911 (as f. of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 281 (275-304). “Ost-Afrika”.
aquilina Strand, 1911 (as ab. of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 281 (275-304). Tanzania: “Mandera, Ost-Afrika”.
msamwiae Strand, 1911 (as f. of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 282 (275-304). Tanzania: “S. Tanganyika, Msamwia”.
lindica Strand, 1911 (as [form] of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 282 (275-304). Tanzania: “Lindi in Deutsch-Ostafrika”.
usaramensis Strand, 1911 (as ab. of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 282 (275-304). Tanzania: “Usaramo (Deutsch-Ostafrika); Dar-es-Salam”.
nyassicola Strand, 1911 (as [form] of Acraea acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 5: 282 (275-304). “N. Nyassa-See”.
littoralis Eltringham, 1912 (as ssp. of Acraea acrita). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1912: 149 (1-374). “East Coast as far as Delagoa Bay”. Treated as a synonym of Acraea acrita acrita by Van Son, 1963: 68.
megaspila Le Cerf, 1927 (as f. of Acraea acrita). Encyclopédie Entomologique (B. 3. Lepidoptera) 2: 52 (44-58). Mozambique: “Lourenco-Marques”.
albomaculosa Le Doux, 1931 (as female f. of Acraea acrita acrita). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1931: 53 (49-59). Tanzania: “D.-O.-Afrika (ohne nähere Angabe)”.
fusca Le Doux, 1932 (as female f. of Acraea acrita acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 18: 199 (172-225). Malawi: “Deutsch-O-Afrika, Nyassaland, Lower Shire Valley”; Zambia: “NO-Rhodesia, Mid Luangwa Vally”; Zimbabwe: “Süd O-Rhodesia, Umtali”.
nigromarginata Le Doux, 1932 (as f. of Acraea acrita acrita). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 18: 199 (172-225). Tanzania: “Deutsch O.-Afrika, Mahenge”; Mozambique: “Portug. O.-Afrika, Rikatla”; South Africa: “Transvaal”.
Acraea (Acraea) acrita ambigua Trimen, 1891
Acraea ambigua Trimen, 1891. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 70 (59-107).

Synonym of Acraea acrita Hewitson, 1865. Ackery et al., 1995: 229.



Acraea acrita ambigua Trimen, 1891. Pringle et al., 1994: 79 (not seen by Ackery et al., 1995).

Type locality: Namibia: “Ehanda, Okavango River”.

Diagnosis: In the nominate subspecies the apical area on the forewing upperside is moderately broad, and never reaches halfway between the apex and the end of the cell; the inner edge is slightly incurved. In suspecies ambigua, in contrast, the apical area is very broad, reaching halfway between the apex and the end of the cell; its inner edge is straight (Van Son, 1963).

Distribution: Zambia, Angola (south), Botswana, Namibia (north).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Mufulira; Mpongwe; Katambora Rapids; Lusaka; Chalimbana; Choma; Chipata; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Namibia – Okavango River, Ovamboland (Van Son, 1963).
bella Weymer, 1901 (as var. of Acraea acrita). Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a.M 15: 61 (61-64, 65-67, 69-70). Angola: “Kunene bei Hartebeestpfanne und am Onshingue unweit des Kuito”. Given as a synonym of Acraea acrita ambigua Trimen, 1891 by Van Son, 1963: 70.

Acraea (Acraea) annonae Pierre, 1987
Acraea annonae Pierre, 1987. Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie (N.S.) 4: 15 (5-27).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga (Biano)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
kapiriensis Schouteden, 1927 (as f. of Acraea lualabae). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 14: 307 (283-309). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapiri”.

Acraea (Acraea) asema Hewitson, 1877
Acraea asema Hewitson, 1877. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 14: 52 (51-52).

Acraea asema. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 44mm. Amatongas, P.E. Africa. 22.VIII.1957. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3562).
Type locality: “Lake Nyassa”.

Diagnosis: Differs from A. violarum in the greatly reduced hindwing basal suffusion and clearer spots of the hindwing marginal band (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Angola, Zimbabwe, Zambia (central and south-east), Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania (south).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Masagati Forest; Mikumi National Park (Kielland, 1990).

Zambia – Ndola; Chisamba; Lusaka; Chalimbana; Chirundu; the Luangwa Valley corridor; Mafinga Mountains (Heath, et al., 2002).

Mozambique – Amatongas (Pennington).

Common name: Speckled orange acraea.

Habitat: Dry deciduous woodland (Heath, et al., 2002). In Tanzania it occurs at altitudes from 300 to 600 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Flies rather feebly, close to the ground (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: All year (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Tricliceras species (Turneraceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 37].
empusa Butler, 1894 (as sp. of Acraea). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 656 (643-684). Malawi: “Zomba”.
despecta Le Doux, 1922 (as f. of Acraea asema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 306 (297-316). Tanzania: “Deutsch-Ostafrika (Ubena-Langenburg und Rukwa-See)”.
angustifasciata Le Doux, 1922 (as f. of Acraea asema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 307 (297-316). Zimbabwe: “Salisbury”.
aspectasemoides Le Doux, 1922 (as f. of Acraea asema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 308 (297-316). Zimbabwe: “Bamboo Creek”.
dissimiloides Le Doux, 1922 (as f. of Acraea asema). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1922: 308 (297-316). Zambia: “N.W. Rhodesia (Broken Hill)”.

Acraea (Acraea) atolmis Westwood, 1881
Acraea atolmis Westwood, 1881. In: Oates, F., Matabeleland and the Victoria Falls, 1st edition: 343 (331-365). London.

Acraea atolmis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. V.-L. Kal. Exp. Kasane. 25-28/7/1930. (Transvaal Museum - TM3537).

Acraea atolmis. Male WSF Aberration. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 48mm. Zambia, N.W. Province, Kamapanda, 12°00'S; 24°03'E, 1500 m. 19.XII.1999. F.M. Kayombo. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: “Victoria Falls”.

Distribution: Zimbabwe (west), Botswana, Namibia (north), Zambia (mainly west), Democratic Republic of Congo (south and west), Angola.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Chingola; Mufulira; Kitwe; Kapiri Mposhi; Livingstone; Victoria Falls (TL); lower Chambeshi Valley (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls; Harare (probably strays); Bulawayo (probably strays) (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Namibia – Rundu (Pennington).

Common name: Scarlet acraea.

Habitat: Deciduous woodland (savanna).

Habits: Flies low and relatively fast (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Flight period: All year, with slightly different seasonal forms (Pringle, et al. 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Triumfetta species (Tiliaceae) [Heath, et al., 2002: 37].
acontias Westwood, 1881 (as sp. of Acraea). In: Oates, F., Matabeleland and the Victoria Falls, 1st edition: 345 (331-365). London. “Victoria Falls”.
luxi Rogenhofer, 1890 (as sp. of Acraea (Telchinia)). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien. 4: 550 (547-554). Angola: “Loanda”.
decora Weymer, 1901 (as ab. of Acraea acontias). Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a.M 15: 62 (61-64, 65-67, 69-70). Angola: “Kuebe und Kulei”.
nigra Neustetter, 1916 (as ab. of Acraea atolmis). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 30: 98 (95-108). “Natal”. [False locality.]
westwoodi van Son, 1963 [Given in Ackery, et al., 1995: 232 as “1936b”] (as f. of Acraea atolmis). Transvaal Museum Memoires No. 14: 124 (130 pp.). Botswana: “Kabulabula, Chobe River; Kasana”; “Victoria Falls”.

Acraea (Acraea) bailundensis Wichgraf, 1918
Acraea bailundensis Wichgraf, 1918. Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 12: 28 (26-30).

Type locality: Angola: “Bailundu”.

Distribution: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
schoutedeni Overlaet, 1954 (as sp. of Acraea). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge (N.S.) 1: 492 (490-493). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kapanga, Katanga”. [Invalid; junior secondary homonym of Planema poggei schoutedeni Le Doux, 1937 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Acraea) bellona Weymer, 1908
Acraea acrita bellona Weymer, 1908. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1908: 728 (728-735).

Type locality: Angola: “Benguella”.

Distribution: Angola.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) bergeriana Pierre, 1979
Acraea cepheus bergeriana Pierre, 1979. Compte Rendu des Séances de la Société de Biogéographie 481: 79 (73-79).

Acraea bergeriana Pierre, 1979. Henning, G., 1993: 14.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mts Uluguru, Kinola”.

Distribution: Tanzania.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kinola in the Uluguru Mountains (TL); Bondwa Mountain in the Ulugurus, at 2 140 m (Kielland, 1990); Uzungwa Mountains (Kielland, 1990); Mufindi (Kielland, 1990); Masagati Forest south of Ifakara (Kielland, 1990).

Habitat: Forest, from 350 to 2 140 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Attracted to flowers (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Larsen (2005a: 454) treats bergeriana as a subspecies of A. cepheus (Linnaeus, 1758).
bergeri Pierre, 1976 (as female f. of Acraea cepheus). Revue de Zoologie Africaine 90: 355 (354-356). Tanzania: “Mts Uluguru, Kinola”. [Invalid; junior primary homonym of Acraea bergeri Gaede, 1915 [Acraeinae].]

Acraea (Acraea) cepheus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Papilio cepheus Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae 1, Regnum Animale, 10th edition: 478 (824 pp.). Holmiae.

Acraea cepheus. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Isiro, Zaire. 84.11.16. J. Pirinus. (Curle Trust Collection - 37).

Acraea cepheus. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 53mm. Ebogo, Cameroon, 800 m, 03.15 N 11.15 E. 4.iv.1995. A.I. & M.A. Curle. (Curle Trust Collection - 38).
Type locality: [West Africa]: “Indiis”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Nigeria (east), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan (south), Uganda, Zambia.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna by Mabille [1887] (Lees et al., 2003).



Specific localities:

Nigeria – Awka (Larsen, 2005a); Abak (Larsen, 2005a); Calabar (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Zambia – Mwinilunga; Kaoma; Ndola (Heath et al., 2002).

Common name: Cepheus acraea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Very scarce in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Caloncoba welwitschii (Flacourtiaceae) [Pierre, 1979; Bampton et al., 1991 (Congo); Bernaud, 1995 (Cameroon)].

Lindaeckeria dentata (Flacourtiaceae) [Larsen, 2005a].
zosteria Godart, 1819 in Latreille and Godart, [1819], [1824] (as sp. of Acraea). Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle [Zoologie] 9 Entomologie: 232 (1-328 [1819], 329-828 [1824]). Paris. Angola: “la Côte d’Angole”.
baumanni Rogenhofer, 1890 (as sp. of Acraea [Gnesia]). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien. 4: 551 (547-554). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Leopoldville und den Stanley-Fällen”.
pheusaca Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea cepheus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 25 (12-107). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge und dessen Umgegend”.
sucepha Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Acraea cepheus). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 25 (12-107). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge und Quango”.
cepheana Strand, 1914 (as f. of Acraea cepheus). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 79 (A.12.): 98 (97-144). Cameroon: “Bipundi”.
disjuncta Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea cepheus cepheus). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 110 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Longatchimo, à 85 km. de Tshikapa, Kasai”.
addenda Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea cepheus cepheus). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 110 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Katanga, Congo belge”.
deficiens Dufrane, 1945 (as ab. of Acraea cepheus cepheus). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 110 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “region de Gombé, Congo belge”.

Acraea (Acraea) chaeribula Oberthür, 1893
Acraea chaeribula Oberthür, 1893. Études d’Entomologie 17: 19 (17-36).

Acraea chaeribula. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 46mm. Kolwezi, Congo. 28.9.69. Dr V. Allard. (Henning collection - H119).
Type locality: “Lac Tanganika”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south), Malawi, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Lomani, Lualaba, Haut-Shaba).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; Solwezi; Chingola; Mufulira; Kitwe; Ndola; Kabwe (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Brachystegia woodland (Heath, et al., 2002).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) chambezi Neave, 1910
Acraea nohara chambezi Neave, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 21 (2-86).

Acraea chambezi. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 52mm. Chinsali, N Rhod. Feb 1961. R. Badham. (Transvaal Museum - TM3566).
Type locality: Zambia: “Chambezi Valley”.

Distribution: Zambia (east), Malawi.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Chambeshi Valley (TL); Shiwa Ngandu; Mpika district (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat: Brachystegia woodland (Heath, et al., 2002).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Acraea (Acraea) diogenes Suffert, 1904
Acraea diogenes Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 14 (12-107).

Acraea diogenes. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 45mm. Munbezhi (Mwambeshi). 18/12/91. (Newport Collection).
Type locality: “Guinea infer.”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south - Haut-Lomani, Lualaba), Angola, Zambia (north-west and north-east).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Ikelenge; 40 km east of Mwinilunga; Solwezi; Mbala (Heath, et al., 2002).

Habitat:
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